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Select a research study (complete with Method, Results, and Discussion sections).
In 750-1,000 words, analyze the article.
1. List the research question(s)/hypothesis being considered in the article.
2. Summarize the study being conducted, including the purpose of the study.
3. Describe the method and design used to test the research question(s)/hypothesis, including:
*Discuss if you believe the method and design was the correct method and design for the study. If not, what would your suggestion for method and design be?
*Describe the variables, how were they defined and operationalized?
4. Discuss if the study is ethically sound. Why or why not. What elements are present, or lacking, to show it is ethically sound.
Include at least two to four scholarly sources.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide
Select a research study (complete with Method, Results, and Discussion sections). Article attached In 750-1,000 words, analyze the article. 1. List the research question(s)/hypothesis being considered
ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance Isabella Hatak &Manling Chang &Rainer Harms & Johan Wiklund Accepted: 6 August 2020 #The Author(s) 2020 Abstract Recent studies have substantially enhanced our understanding of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in entrepreneurship— articulating the theoretical rel- evance of ADHD-type traits in entrepreneurship and confirming the positive linkages between ADHD symptoms/diagnosis and entrepreneurial intentions and be- havior. However, how and why some people with ADHD symptoms run successful ventures, while other entrepreneurs fail to perform well, is still not well established. Our study builds on a Gestalt perspective that integrates person – environment fit and broaden -and-build theorizing, and proposes that strong positive emotions enable entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (at the subclinical level) to mitigate/ reinforce the effect of ADHD’ s trait-specific weaknesses/ strengths to achieve entrepreneurial performance. Relying on fuzzy-set methodology, our findings indicate that for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial perfor- mance occurs when they simultaneously experience passion for founding and developing. This passion configuration is unique to successful ADHD-type entrepreneurs. As such, this study offers novel theoretical and empirical insights as well as implications for practitioners. ht tps://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-020-00397-x I. Hatak ( *) Swiss Research Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40a, 9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland e-mail: [email protected] M. Chang Department of Business Administration, National Chung Hsing University, 402, No. 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China e-mail: [email protected] R. Harms NIKOS –Netherlands Institute of Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship, University of Twente, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands e-mail: [email protected] R. Harms Higher School of Economics, Research Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, 20 Myasnitskaya ulitsa, Moscow 101000, Russia J. Wiklund Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, 721 University Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13244-2450, USA e-mail: [email protected] / Published online: 29 August 2020 Small Bus Econ (2021 b 3 Plain English SummaryDo people with ADHD perform well in entrepreneurship? Our research shows how ADHD symptoms relate to entrepreneurial perfor- mance finding that passion is important. Entrepreneurs who are highly and thereby ambidextrously passionate for growing their businesses and for founding activities while lacking intense positive feelings for coming up with new ideas can benefit from ADHD. These results are important for people with ADHD and their loved ones. Keywords Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder . ADHD . Entrepreneurial performance . Entrepreneurial passion . Entrepreneurship . fsQCA JEL classification L26 1Introduction Scholarly interest in the potential functionality of mental health conditions in entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al. 2018 ) and particularly the neurodevelopmental condi- tion attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is rapidly increasing (for an overview, see Lerner et al. 2019 ). This is because traits associated with ADHD are dysfunctional across a wide variety of contexts, but may potentially be functional in entrepreneurship. Research indeed suggests that entrepreneurship is attractive to people with ADHD symptoms including higher entre- preneurial intentions (Verheul et al. 2015)andahigher probability of entry into entrepreneurship (Verheul et al. 2016 ). However, how ADHD symptoms associate with firm-level outcomes is still not well established (Wiklund et al. 2018;Yuetal. 2019). It seems that the traits through which ADHD symptoms relate to entre- preneurial performance are complex and are likely both positive and negative. People with ADHD tend to approach new situations very positively and do not premeditate when they face an uncertain opportunity, but they have problems sus- taining focus and persevering (Wiklund et al. 2017). At the same time, we know that passion for specific entre- preneurial domains increases sustained focus and perse- verance (Cardon et al. 2013) so that entrepreneurial passion may mitigate the weaknesses associated with ADHD symptoms. Thus, considering ADHD symptoms in conjunction with entrepreneurial passion may explain how and why some people with ADHD symptoms overcome their weaknesses to run successful ventures, while other ADHD entrepreneurs fail to achieve entre- preneurial performance. For example, Sir Richard Branson ’s (diagnosed with ADHD) passion for creating and growing new ventures is legendary, as is his entrepreneurial performance. In the entrepreneurship context, Wiklund et al. ( 2016) speculated that ADHD entrepreneurs with a passion for tasks that are central to entrepreneurship perform well. In this paper, we explore the complex association be- tween ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance. We propose that ADHD symptoms in conjunction with passion for certain specific entrepreneurial activities are conducive to success in entre- preneurship, mitigating/reinforcing the effect of ADHD ’s weaknesses/strengths, respectively, on entrepreneurial per- formance. Conceptually, our propositions build on a Ge- stalt perspective (Lewin 1935), embracing causal complex- ity rather than adopting a perspective of independent, additive, and symmetrical causality (Fiss 2011; Misangyi et al. 2017; Woodside 2013,2014). Causal complexity comprises conjunction (i.e., the outcome may result from the interdependence of multiple conditions), equifinality (i.e., there may be more than one way to achieve the outcome), and asymmetry (i.e., effective conditions in one configuration may be unrelated or even negatively related to an outcome in another configuration). To empir- ically examine how ADHD symptoms influence entrepre- neurial performance in configurations with entrepreneurial passion, we draw on fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) because it analyzes asymmetrical rela- tionships and identifies alternative causal paths (equifinality) of combinations of conditions (conjunction) that can produce the outcome (Ragin 2008a). Th e present work offers several contributions. It en- riches the emergent scholarly interest in the link be- tween mental health conditions and entrepreneurship (e.g., Wiklund et al. 2018) by focusing on a common condition that affects millions of adults worldwide (de Graaf et al. 2008) and that may be over-represented among entrepreneurs (Freeman et al. 2019). With the overarching aim of expanding knowledge about the link between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurship, we add to this research (albeit at the subclinical level, i.e., not manifesting in the level of a diagnosable clinical disorder) by examining the performance outcomes of ADHD symptoms. Prior studies have mainly focused on preferences for and engagement in entrepreneurial ac- tivity, implicitly assumi ng that preferences would 1694 I. Hatak et al. correlate with entrepreneurial performance, which is not necessarily the case. Based on our fsQCA study, we identify alternative causal paths (equifinality) of combi- nations of neurodevelopmental features in terms of ADHD symptoms and positive emotions (conjunction) that produce the outcome of entrepreneurial perfor- mance. This way, we point to both pros and cons of ADHD symptoms in entrepreneurship, providing a bal- anced view of the implications of the condition. This approach also contributes to a Gestalt perspective of entrepreneurial performance.Second, our research contributes to the growing litera- ture on entrepreneurial passion, which has conventionally assumed that intense positive feelings for isolated entre- preneurial activities have positive implications in entrepre- neurship. However, these approaches are a residual of linear thinking and do not address the complex, configu- rational nature that may exist between different domains of entrepreneurial passion. Our fin dings considering entrepre- neurs ’neurodevelopmental features, however, show that ambidexterity regarding entr epreneurial passion needs to exist for entrepreneurial performance. Third, this research contributes more generally to building entrepreneurship psychology theory. To a large extent, prior work on entrepreneurial psychology has established that specific psychological characteristics that benefit people in many walks of life are also bene- ficial in entrepreneurship. Thus, based on such findings, there seems to be little need for domain-specific psy- chological theory in entrepreneurship. Our findings that ADHD symptoms (deemed universally dysfunctional in psychological theory) in conjunction with specific and, importantly, multiple domains of entrepreneurial pas- sion can be functionalin entrepreneurship suggest that entrepreneurship is a unique context in need of its unique theories because relationships established else- where do not hold up. 2 Theoretical background The person –environment fit theory (Kristof-Brown et al. 2005 ) and broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson 2001) are key foundations of this research. The person – environment (P-E) fit theory centers around the compat- ibility between a person and his or her environment. According to the theory, individuals are attracted to, flourish, and perform well in work environments that match their personal characteristics (e.g., Edwards et al. 2006 ).Theworkenvironmentcanbeanalyzedatdiffer- ent levels of specificity including the occupation such as entrepreneurship, the organization, or the job (Kristof- Brown et al. 2005). As regards entrepreneurship as the work environment, Markman and Baron ( 2003,p.286) argue that some people are “better suited to exploit commercial opportunities or create new companies than others. ”Indeed, there is strong empirical evidence indi- cating that entrepreneurs running successful ventures differ from nonsuccessful entrepreneurs on a range of personality traits including openness or emotional sta- bility (for a meta-analytical overview, see Rauch and Frese 2007;Zhaoetal. 2010). This is because these distinctive personality traits affect the likelihood to which entrepreneurs engage in effective behaviors asso- ciated with the entrepreneurial role (Zhao et al. 2010). Thus, the higher the entrepreneurs score on these dis- tinctive personality traits, the better is their fit with entrepreneurship (Markman and Baron 2003;Zhao et al. 2010). The P-E fit has been conceptualized and analyzed in terms of attitudes, behavior, and outcomes. In research on ADHD in entrepreneurship, P-E fit has received growing attention, focusing on attitudes such as intentions and preferences (e.g., Verheul et al. 2015), and behaviors such as the likelihood of engaging in start-up activities (e.g., Lerner et al. 2019; Wiklund et al. 2017). However, the last aspect, i.e., firm-level outcomes, has received less attention. This research, therefore, explores how ADHD symptoms relate to entrepreneurial performance as an essential outcome of entrepreneurship, thus scrutinizing the fit between ADHD symptoms, as a stable personal characteristic, an d entrepreneurship, as the work environment. The broaden-and-build theory suggests that positive emotions broaden individuals ’momentary thought – action repertoires, which in turn allows building their capabilities and personal resources, ranging from phys- ical and intellectual resources to social and psycholog- ical resources (Fredrickson 2001). These enhanced re- sources of entrepreneurs that occur from positive emo- tions such as passion are related to entrepreneurial per- formance (Drnovsek et al. 2016; Wiklund and Shepherd 2003 ). In this study, we focus on passion for inventing, passion for founding, and passion for developing (Cardon et al. 2009). Based on a Gestalt perspective, we bring together the above theoretical assumptions to explore the interplay between ADHD symptoms and the different domains of passion for achieving entrepreneurial performance. A 1695 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance Gestalt perspective builds on a holistic synthesis as the dominant inquiry mode (Magnusson and Torestad 1993). It understands a Gestalt as a system of intercon- nected elements (Lewin 1935; also called conditions) that tend to form a configuration because their interde- pendence makes them fall into patterns. Consequently, a Gestalt can embrace multiple domains and is a constel- lation of conditions that commonly occur together and that are connected within a unifying theme (Wertheimer 1924/ 1938). The main argument here is that one can only understand the outcomes, including contributions of a person to the outcome against the background of the field , which includes the environment of a person as well as their cognitive and emotional reality (Lewin 1935 ). Thus, a Gestalt perspective embracing causal complexity suits our aim to explain how entrepreneurial performance emerges from the interplay of multiple conditions (conjunction), that is ADHD (at symptomatic and nonsymptomatic levels) and passion for different entrepreneurial activities, accounting for reciprocal and nonlinear relationships between conditions (asymmetry) as well as alternative routes to the outcome (equifinality). To empirically analyze complex causali- ty, we use fsQCA, which is particularly well-suited for the examination of asymmetrical relationships and iden- tification of alternative causal paths of combinations of conditions that can produce the outcome (Ragin 2008a). 2.1 ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial performance We link ADHD symptoms to entrepreneurial perfor- mance by way of personality traits. Considerable em- pirical evidence based on a P-E fit perspective in entre- preneurship has shown that entrepreneurs ’personality traits influence entrepreneurial performance (for an overview, see Zhao et al. 2010). Certain personality traits are more conducive to the entrepreneurial tasks and thereby influence venture performance (e.g., Miner et al. 1994;Miner 1997). ADHD symptoms persist through life and represent stable individual differences (Larsson et al. 2004)that manifest in several personality traits (Wiklund et al. 2017 ). Specifically, ADHD symptoms have been posi- tively correlated with trait urgency, lack of persever- ance, sensation seeking, and lack of premeditation among entrepreneurs (Wiklund et al. 2017). To succeed with their venture, entrepreneurs need to focus attention despite being in an environment that is often chaotic (Schindehutte et al. 2006). Entrepreneurs who can focus their attention are less likely to be perturbed by environmental ambiguity and are more prone to engage in innovation with clarity (Cardon et al. 2009;Zhaoetal. 2010). This seems to run counter to urgency as a characteristic of individuals with ADHD symptoms. People with ADHD symptoms often exhibit emotional “hyper-responsiveness ”(Barkley 1997)or emotional instability (Settles et al. 2012) that makes them highly sensitive to ambiguous cues, leading to an inability to sustain focused attention necessary for mar- ket growth activities. Second, entrepreneurial performance requires the sustaining of goal-directed action and energy even when faced with difficulties (Baum and Locke 2004). Espe- cially in the case of young ventures, entrepreneurs face considerable difficulties including a lack of legitimacy, which may turn away customers and employees ham- pering entrepreneurial performance. Difficulty persever- ing when tasks become difficult is another defining characteristic of ADHD (A merican Psychiatric Association 2013). Therefore, those with ADHD symp- toms are less likely to overcome resource shortages and setbacks —simply because they are less able to mobilize action and the energy needed to assemble social, human, and financial capital critical to entrepreneurial perfor- mance (Cardon et al. 20 09;Zhaoetal. 2010). Third, entrepreneurial performance depends on the entrepreneur ’s openness to new situations and their curiosity (Zhao et al. 2010), which seems to align with sensation seeking that is characteristic of people with ADHD symptoms. People high on sensation seeking are inherently curious (Jackson 2011). They tend to ap- proach new situations more positively (Nicolaou et al. 2008 ), even more so when the environment is highly exploratory containing novel stimuli as it is the case for entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al. 2017). Fourth, entrepreneurial performance requires proac- tive engagement in both uncertain opportunity exploita- tion as well as new opportunity development. Entrepre- neurs who do not premeditate are less likely to feel fear and worry (Whiteside and Lynam 2001)whenfacingan uncertain opportunity because they tend to overlook the negative consequences (Wiklund et al. 2017). Because of their focus on the upside potential rather than the downside risk, entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms are also more likely to proactively engage in risky projects that have uncertain outcomes or high profits and losses and are thereby critical to entrepreneurial performance (Wismans et al. 2020). 1696 I. Hatak et al. In sum, it seems that the personality aspects through which ADHD symptoms relate to entrepreneurial per- formance are likely both positive and negative. Thus, it appears that ADHD symptoms alone are insufficient for running successful ventures. P1: Isolated ADHD symptoms are insufficient for entrepreneurial performance. 2.2 Entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial performance Entrepreneurial passion describes consciously accessi- ble, intense positive feelings for activities that are central and meaningful to an entrepreneur (Cardon et al. 2009). In principle, entrepreneurs can be passionate for the following three activities (Cardon et al. 2009): Passion for developing relates to growing and expanding the venture, involving intense positive feelings for increas- ing sales, hiring new employees, or finding external investors. Passion for founding concerns activities relat- ed to the assembly of necessary financial, human, and social resources for creating and sustaining a new ven- ture. Passion for inventing is associated with the devel- opment of new products and services, scanning of the environment for new market opportunities, and working with new prototypes. When entrepreneurs are passionate about an entre- preneurial activity, they cannot help but to think about and engage in that activity (Chen et al. 2009), which should affect relevant outcomes such as entrepreneurial performance. Applying the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson 2001) to the entrepreneurial context, this is because passion expands thought –action repertoires by activating (via attentional processes) and broadening (via information processing) the scope of cognition, increasing the entrepreneurs ’capabilities and resources that guide behavior and thereby effectiveness. For ex- ample, passion for developing stimulates absorption (Cardon et al. 2013), i.e., the ability to focus, which has a positive relationship with entrepreneurial perfor- mance (Schindehutte et al. 2006;Drnovseketal. 2016). Similarly, when passion for founding is high, persever- ance is salient (Cardon et al. 2013) because the entre- preneur wants to maintain the positive feelings that result from continued engagement in founding activities and resists premature disengagement (Cardon et al. 2009 ). Furthermore, creativity is pronounced among entrepreneurs, who are passionate for inventing activi- ties (Cardon et al. 2013). This is because their positive feelings allow them to recognize novel patterns of in- formation, perceptually process environmental stimuli, and combine them with their existing knowledge to come up with creative solutions (Cardon et al. 2009). Success in entrepreneurship and particularly in the young venture stage likely depends on activities that relate to developing, founding, and inventing. If an entrepreneur is passionate about only one of the entre- preneurial activities, there is the risk of the entrepreneur becoming completely immersed in the activity such that they ignore the other activities that are critical to entre- preneurial performance (Cardon et al. 2009). In turn, if intense positive feelings for all three activities are con- currently activated, a performance effect of entrepre- neurial passion may also be nonexistent as attentional conflicts will dilute the entrepreneur ’s effectiveness and, ultimately, entrepreneurial performance. P2a: Isolated entrepreneurial passion (i.e., high levels of passion for inventing or passion for founding or passion for developing) is insufficient for entrepreneurial performance. P2b: The combination of high levels of passion for inventing, passion for founding, and passion for developing is insufficient for entrepreneurial performance. 2.3 Adopting a Gestalt perspective: conf igurations of ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion for entrepreneurial performance Thus far, we have proposed that isolated ADHD symp- toms and entrepreneurial passion are insufficient for entrepreneurial performance. Despite past arguments that neurodevelopmental features such as ADHD symp- toms or positive emotions such as entrepreneurial pas- sion are inherent failure or success factors, scholars increasingly recognize that biologically underpinned personality traits and more malleable elements such as passion serve as coherent and interconnected systems that work together to regulate behavior toward outcomes that are important in entrepreneurship (Nicolaou and Shane 2014; Nofal et al. 2018).Basedonthis 1697 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance recognition, we draw on a Gestalt perspective (Lewin 1935;Wertheimer1924/ 1938) to illustrate the interplay between ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion for entrepreneurial performance. For example, Lewin ( 1952 , p. 238) postulated that “the effect of a given stimulus depends on the stimulus constellation and upon the state of the particular person at that time. ”Or, as Wertheimer 1924/ 1938, p. 5) put it when outlining his view on melody, “what is given me by the melody does not arise. . . as a secondary process from the sum of the pieces as such. Instead, what takes place in every single part already depends upon what the whole is. ”Conse- quently, we need to focus on the “whole ”which is more than its isolated elements or parts to understand how performance is achieved in entrepreneurship. Building on this idea, we argue that the performance effect of ADHD symptoms depends on their interdepen- dence with particular entrepreneurial passions, that is passion for developing and passion for founding. Build- ing on the notion that intense positive feelings for ven- ture growth are associated with focused attention (Cardon et al. 2013), we propose that passion for devel- oping counteracts the urgency that characterizes indi- viduals with ADHD symptoms. If the ADHD entrepre- neur is passionate for developing activities, he or she is more likely to find the wherewithal to stay focused on developing new sales strategies and finding investors to fund the expansion of the venture. Similarly, as passion for founding is associated with increased perseverance (Cardon et al. 2013), intense positive feelings for founding activities may counteract the difficulty perse- vering as another defining characteristic of individuals with ADHD symptoms. If the entrepreneur with ADHD symptoms is passionate for founding activities, he or she will be more likely to mobilize action and the energy needed to assemble critical financial, social, and human capital. This is because the intense positive feelings for founding increase continued engagement in the activi- ties that invoke those feelings —simply to maintain the positive emotional state (Pham 2004). In turn, we argue that passion for inventing is not able to crowd out ADHD-associated weaknesses in terms of entrepreneurial performance, and may additionally limit the neurodevelopmental features ’strengths. Both ADHD and passion for inventing are associated with increased creativity so that this Gestalt bears the risk of overstimulation in combination with the ADHD- associated trait of sensation seeking. Also, it could in- crease the risk of disengagement from tasks relevant to other activities that are critical to entrepreneurial perfor- mance, which is intensified by the lack of premeditation associated with ADHD symptoms. In this constellation, the ADHD entrepreneur may be so passionate about inventing that they never actually take their products or services to market or hire employees, build networks, and secure funding to exploit the opportunity. More generally, given the ADHD entrepreneur ’sten- dency to hyperfocus, i.e., to become extremely im- mersed in tasks they are passionate about (Schecklmann et al. 2008; Wiklund et al. 2016), we propose that entrepreneurial performance can only be achieved if ADHD symptoms combine with passion for more than one domain, i.e., passion for founding and passion for developing. This Gestalt may limit ADHD- associated weaknesses, i.e., difficulty persevering and sustaining focused attention, while activating ADHD- associated strengths, i.e., openness to new situations and proactivity, thus ensuring a person –environment fit that manifests in entrepreneurial performance. Moreover, the two domains of founding and developing are signif- icantly related (Cardon et al. 2013) and thereby can be harmoniously integrated, ensuring attentional and moti- vational balance that may positively affect entrepreneur- ial performance. P3: The combination of ADHD symptoms andhigh levels of passion for developing together with hi gh levels of passion for founding is sufficient for entrepreneurial performance. 3Methodology We understand that reality is complex and reflects caus- al conditions that are asymmetrically related to an out- come (Woodside 2013). Asymmetry implies that the conditions resulting in the presence of the outcome may differ from those resulting in the absence of the outcome (Greckhamer et al. 2008). While the net-effect approach (e.g., regression analysis) assumes that a high value on a predictor relates to a high value of an out- come, the asymmetry principle serves as the foundation of complexity theory in that whether the presence or absence of a condition positively or negatively contrib- utes to the outcome depe nds on other conditions (Woodside 2014). 1698 I. Hatak et al. To match theory and empirics, we embrace causal complexity (Misangyi et al. 2017) theoretically in terms of a Gestalt perspective and methodologically by using fsQCA —simply because fsQCA allows to analyze asymmetrical relationships, to consider the causal effect of combinations of conditions (conjunction), and to identify alternative causal paths that can produce the outcome (equifinality) (Berg-Schlosser et al. 2009; Greckhamer et al. 2008;Woodside 2013). Specifically, based on Boolean algebra, fsQCA enables the analysis of set relationships, describing asymmetrical relations and thereby situations of complex causality (Ragin 2006 ). While conventional statistical methods mostly indicate whether and how isolated independent vari- ables influence the level of the outcome, fsQCA pro- duces causal configurations, that is constellations of conditions that occur together to explain the outcome (Meyer et al. 1993; Ragin 2008a). Also, fsQCA ad- dresses the possibility that the outcome can result from different conjunctural causations (Berg-Schlosser et al. 2009 ). These alternate causal configurations are seen as logically equivalent rather than as competing when explaining the outcome (Ordanini and Maglio 2009). In particular, we use fsQCA to substantiate our prop- ositions about the (in)-sufficiency of conditions for the outcome. A condition is sufficient “if by itself it can produce a certain outcome ”(Ragin 2008b,p.36).For example, ADHD symptoms would be a sufficient con- dition for a high degree of entrepreneurial performance, if ADHD symptoms would be present in all high- performing entrepreneurial ventures. Whether or not a condition is sufficient is measured by the fsQCA indi- cator of consistency. It indicates the extent to which the cases that are characterized by a specific configuration also exhibit the outcome (Fiss 2011). fsQCA is increasingly applied in management research (e.g., Chang and Cheng 2014; Dwivedi et al.2018;Fiss 2011; Frazier et al. 2016; Zaefarian et al. 2017) and, particularly, by entrepreneurship scholars (e.g., Del Sarto et al. 2019; Harms et al. 2019;Krausetal.2017; Muñoz 2018 ; Muñoz and Kibler 2016), indicating both the method’ s robustness and usefulness for this study ’s pur- pose of also analytically embracing causal complexity. 3.1 Data and sample To examine how ADHD symptoms in conjunction with entrepreneurial passion form c onfigurations that are related to entrepreneurial performance, we rely on a survey among Dutch entrepreneurs. We selected 2401 entrepreneurial ventures from what is now a Bureau van Dijk database including data from the KvK Dutch Chamber of Com- merce database (registration is mandatory for all ventures in The Netherlands). The selection criteria included ven- tures that were in business for 10 years or less, thus using the cutoff suggested by Jin et al. ( 2017),andemployedat least one employee. The entrepreneurs were initially contacted by phone and were invited to fill out the survey by phone or online (response rate 6.8%). No incentives were given. Our final sample consists of 164 entrepreneurs being, on average, 40 years old (SD 13.02) (81% males). These characteristics are comparable to the population of Dutch entrepreneurs (Bernoster et al. 2018 ; CBS 2019; Verh eul and Thurik 2001). The ventures in our sample are, on average, 6 years old (SD 2.37) and have 11.80 em- ployees (SD 22.72). 3.2 Measures 3.2.1 Entrepreneurial performance Entrepreneurial performance was assessed using the 10- item scale developed by Wiklund and Shepherd ( 2003), including subjective ratings of growth of sales, revenue, and number of employees, as well as net profit margin, product/service innovation, process innovation, adop- tion of new technology, quality, variety of product and service, and customer satisfaction compared to main competitors on a 5-point scale. The Cronbach ’salpha for entrepreneurial performance was 0.71. 3.2.2 ADHD symptoms ADHD symptoms were measured using the established Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-6). The ASRS-6 consists of six of the original 18 DSM-IV “Criterion A ” symptoms of ADHD measured on 5-point scales and has proven effective in screening for ADHD (Kessler et al. 2007). These six items included four inattentive symptoms and two hyperactive symptoms. Reliability, as indicated by Cronbach ’s alpha, was 0.69, which is higher than the lower bound of 0.63, as reported in Kessler et al. ’s( 2007 ) validation of the six-item screener. Based on the criteria developed by Kessler et al. ( 2007 ), which are widely adopted in practice, we recoded the three inattentive items as 1 if respondents had a self-reported value equal or greater than three (i.e., answering “sometimes ”, “often ”,or “very often ”), and 1699 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance recoded them as 0 otherwise. The fourth inattentive item and the two hyperactivity items were recoded as 1 when respondents’values were equal or greater than 4 (i.e., answering “often ”or “very often ”) and as 0 otherwise. These recoded items were summed up, with a score adding up to 4 or more suggesting a high probability that the person would be diagnosed with ADHD. In our sample, 20.7% ( n= 34) out of 164 respondents may be diagnosed with ADHD. This is comparable to a general ADHD entrepreneur prevalence rate of 29% (Freeman et al. 2019). 3.2.3 Entrepreneurial passion To assess entrepreneurial passion, we used the three vali- dated entrepreneurial passion scales by Cardon et al. ( 2013) measured on 5-point scales, assessing passion in one of three domains: (1) inventing (opportunity recogni- tion; 5 items), (2) founding (venture creation; 4 items), and (3) developing (venture growth; 4 items). Each scale in- corporates two dimensions: (1 ) positive, intense feelings for activities associated with the role, and (2) the identity centrality of the role, with the feelings items being aver- aged and multiplied by the identity item. The alphas for the feelings ’components were 0.75 for inventing, 0.72 for founding, and 0.77 for developing. 3.2.4 Construct validity and common method bias We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate different aspects of validity and reliability (see Appendix 1). Results indicate that the fitness, construct validity, and reliability of our five-factor model with ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial performance as higher-order constructs and the three passion domains of inventing, founding, and developing being treated as separate conditions are satisfactory. In addition to procedural remedies addressing com- mon method bias (CMB) (Podsakoff et al. 2003), we tested for possible CMB using the comprehensive CFA marker technique of Williams et al. ( 2010). The results support the notion that CMB is unlikely to affect the validity of our measures (see Appendix 1). Descriptive statistics indicate that the three domains of entrepreneurial passion co-vary to a moderate extent (see Table 1), which suggests that the scales capture different foci of entrepreneurial passion as implied by Cardon et al. ( 2013). None of the three passion domains are— per correlation analysis —associated with entrepreneurial performance. ADHD symptoms are, based on the correlation logic, negatively related to performance. 3.3 Calibration fsQCA is a set-theoretic approach that evaluates cases according to their set-membership, thus re- quiring calibration. To transform the raw data measured on interval scales into fuzzy-set scores ranging from 0 to 1, we used direct calibration (Ragin 2008b). Direct calibration is based on the log odds of full membership (Ragin 2008b). We specified the three thresholds or qualitative anchors as follows: full inclusion (fuzzy score = 0.95), full exclusion (fuzzy score = 0.05), and a crossover point (fuzzy score = 0.50) (Ragin 2008a). Full in- clusion or full exclusion denotes a case that fully meets or does not meet at all, respectively, the characteristics of the set and thereby conditions. In turn, the crossover point represents the maxi- mum ambiguity to which a case is neither in nor out of the set (Ragin 2009). To set the thresholds for full inclusion, exclusion, and crossover, we used the empirical distributions (i.e., max- imum, the minimum, and the mean) of the raw scores for entrepreneurial performance and entrepreneurial pas- sion (Muñoz and Kimmitt 2019). The extreme values can be considered full-in/full-out of the set, and the mean value can be understood as the value of maximum ambiguity. The calibration procedure for ADHD symptoms was based on the clinical suggestion of Kessler et al. ( 2007) that individuals would be diag- nosed with ADHD if their diagnosis score added up to 4 or higher. Thus, we set a value closest to 4 (i.e., 3.9) as crossover point (membership = 50%). If we had set a value of 4 as the crossover point for ADHD symptoms, a case scoring exactly 4 on the diag- nosis score would be at the most ambiguous posi- tion, making it analytically impossible to evaluate whether the case exhibits ADHD symptoms or not. Accordingly, 3.9 rather than 4 represents the cross- over point, whereas the maximum value (i.e., 6) and minimum value (i.e., 0) indicate full inclusion and full exclusion, respectively. The calibration thresholds are shown in Table 2.Table 1also displays the descriptive statistics and correlation matrix for the fuzzy scores. 1700 I. Hatak et al. 3.4 fsQCA fsQCA consists of several steps (Ragin2008b); the first step involves constructing a t ruth table, which lists the logically possible combinations of causal conditions (configurations) and the case s associated with those con- figurations, based on calibrated fuzzy scores (Ragin 2008a). Our four conditions result in 16 (= 2 4)possible configurations (see the rows in Table 3).Whilewecould assign 156 cases to specific configurations in the truth table, eight cases (including two cases with ADHD symp- toms) had to be dropped from the subsequent analysis because they were at the maximum ambiguity. The next step involves establishing two thresholds to retain the most relevant configurations, that is, the fre- quency threshold (i.e., the minimum amount of cases to define the relevant configurations) and the consistency threshold (i.e., the acceptable level of raw consistency to define the configurations supporting the outcome) (Ragin 2009). A frequency threshold of 1 is recom- mended when using a small- and medium-sized sample (Ragin 2008a). However, as our 16 configurations con- sist of 2 to 37 cases (see Table 3), we applied a frequen- cy threshold of 2. This value is above the recommended threshold and allows us to retain all 16 configurations. Consistency assesses the extent to which the cases that belong to a specific configuration support the presence of the outcome (Fiss 2011). Thus, high consistency ensures the empirical relevance of the configurations. Ragin ( 2008a,b) indicates that the choice of the thresh- old can correspond to gaps observed in the distribution of consistency scores, and experimenting with different thresholds while assessing the consequences is most beneficial. Table 3suggests several gaps in the Table 1 Descriptive statistics and correlations Factors Min Max Mean SD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. ADHD ASRS-6 1.00 4.67 2.64 0.63 2. ADHD symptoms 0.00 6.00 2.16 1.62 0.90 ** 3. Passion for inventing 4.00 25.00 16.96 5.63 0.12 0.13 4. Passion for founding 2.33 25.00 16.93 6.12 0.00 0.06 0.40 ** 5. Passion for developing 1.33 25.00 14.37 6.52 0.12 0.10 0.53 ** 0.56 ** 6. Entrepreneurial performance 2.40 5.00 3.65 0.46 0.31 ** 0.29 ** 0.02 0.10 0.00 Fuzzy scores 7. 8. 9. 10. 7. ADHD symptoms 0.05 0.95 0.31 0.26 8. Passion for inventing 0.05 0.95 0.54 0.30 0.06 9. Passion for founding 0.05 0.95 0.56 0.30 0.05 0.41 ** 10. Passion for developing 0.05 0.95 0.51 0.30 0.07 0.51 ** 0.58 ** 11. Entrepreneurial performance 0.05 0.95 0.49 0.22 0.25 ** 0.01 0.12 0.02 **p<0.01 Table 2 Calibration thresholds Fuzzy membership Exclusion (5%)Crossover (50%) Inclusion (95%) Conditions ADHD symptoms 0.003.90 6.00 Passion for inventing 4.0016.96 25.00 Passion for founding 2.3316.94 25.00 Passion for developing 1.3314.37 25.00 Outcome Entrepreneurial performance 2.403.65 5.00 1701 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance distribution of consistency scores. We raised the consis- tency threshold gradually until we reached the accept- able solution consistency and unique coverage values by assessing the consequences. The final consistency threshold was set to 0.91.The third step consists in producing solutions based on the edited truth table (Ragin 2008b). To consider the configurations with no or few cases (remainders), fsQCA differentiates between easy and difficult coun- terfactuals (Fiss 2011). While easy counterfactuals as- sume that a known configuration would still display the outcome when adding a redundant causal condition to that configuration, difficult counterfactuals assume that removing a redundant causal condition from a configu- ration known to produce the outcome would still pro- duce the outcome (Fiss 2011; Ragin 2008a). By consid- ering the different types of counterfactuals, fsQCA pro- duces the complex (no counterfactuals are included), intermediate (only easy counterfactuals are considered), and parsimonious solutions (counterfactuals that can help simplify assumptions are considered regardless of their types). The intermediate solution is superior to other solutions because it restricts remainders to those that are the most plausible (Fiss 2011;Ragin 2009). However, these different types of solutions displayed the same result in our analysis in that none of the remainders were excluded from the minimization pro- cess, and thus, none of the counterfactuals needed to be considered. 4Results 4.1 Main results Table 4indicates that two sufficient configurations are associated with high entrepreneurial performance. We Table 3 Truth table ADHD symptoms Passion for inventing Passion for foundingPassion for developing Number of casesExhibition of the outcome Raw consistencyProportional reduction in inconsistency (PRI) High Low High High 2 Yes0.916 0.385 Low High High Low 7 Yes0.914 0.539 High Low High Low 5 No0.908 0.369 High High Low Low 3 No0.907 0.306 Low Low Low High 6 No0.907 0.441 High High High Low 2 No0.906 0.313 Low Low High Low 8 No0.905 0.482 Low Low High High 13 No 0.905 0.587 High Low Low High 5 No0.904 0.271 Low High Low Low 11 No 0.891 0.491 High Low Low Low 4 No0.885 0.285 Low High Low High 7 No0.885 0.385 High High Low High 3 No0.883 0.283 High High High High 8 No0.856 0.316 Low High High High 35 No 0.806 0.464 Low Low Low Low 37 No 0.780 0.338 Table 4Causal configurations for entrepreneurial performance Conditions S1S2 ADHD symptoms ●○ Passion for inventing ○● Passion for founding ●● Passion for developing ●○ Raw coverage 0.280.40 Unique coverage 0.050.18 Consistency 0.920.91 Solution coverage 0.46 Solution consistency 0.89 The ●symbol represents the presence of the condition, whereas the ○symbol represents the absence of the condition 1702 I. Hatak et al. rely on two parameters to assess the fit of our configu- rations: consistency and coverage. Consistency, similar to significance, measures how much of the empirical evidence supports the existence of a relationship be- tween the configurations and the outcome of entrepre- neurial performance (Fiss2011;Ragin 2008a). As the values of consistency for the separate configurations (0.92 and 0.91) and the overall solution (0.89) exceed the cutoff value suggested by Ragin ( 2006) (0.80), the two configurations can be considered as sufficient for the outcome. Coverage, similar to R 2, measures the empirical rel- evance of the configurations and overall solution, thus indicating the extent to which configurations or a solu- tion explains the outcome (Fiss 2011). While raw cov- erage refers to the size of the overlap between the size of the causal combination set and the outcome set relative to the size of the outcome set, unique coverage controls for overlapping explanations by partitioning the raw coverage (Ragin 2006,2008a ). Our configurations (raw coverage = 0.28 and 0.40) and overall solution (solution coverage = 0.46) are in the recommended range between 0.25 and 0.65 (Ragin 2008a;Woodside 2013 ), which indicates their empirical relevance. More- over, the configurations ’unique coverage (0.05 and 0.18) is greater than zero (Ragin 2008b), implying that they both uniquely contribute to the explanation of entrepreneurial performance. Our two configurations (see Table 4) represent the causal conditions that are sufficient for entrepreneurial performance for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (S1) and without ADHD symptoms (S2). According to configuration S1, entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms who are highly passionate about devel- oping and founding, while not having intense positive feelings for inventing, achieve entrepreneurial perfor- mance. This configuration strengthens proposition 1 (P1) in that ADHD symptoms by themselves are not sufficient for entrepreneurial performance. Also, the findings reveal that not only combinations of passion for developing and passion for founding are sufficient for the entrepreneurial performance of ADHD entrepreneurs (P3), but that for this outcome also low levels of passion for inventing need to exist. As such, our empirical findings strengthen the theo- retical arguments developed in this study; this Gestalt counteracts ADHD-associated weaknesses through pas- sions ’focused attention and perseverance, while preventing potential overstimulation associated with high levels of passion for inventing, and thereby fully activates ADHD-associated strengths for P-E fit manifesting in entrepreneurial performance. According to configuration S2, entrepreneurs with- out ADHD symptoms can achieve entrepreneurial per- formance when they are highly passionate for inventing and founding activities, while not having intense posi- tive feelings for developing activities. In other words, their passion-related creativity and persistence stimulate effectiveness in opportunity recognition and exploita- tion only if the non-ADHD entrepreneurs are not pas- sionate for growing their venture. This finding suggests that for entrepreneurs without ADHD symptoms —as opposed to entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms —the enhanced focused attention associated with passion for developing is likely to turn into hyperfocus, preventing them from effectively identifying, inventing, and ex- ploring new opportunities or market niches, as well as from continuously motivating key people, organizing and obtaining resources. Finally, our empirical findings also resonate with the idea that isolated entrepreneurial passion (P2a) and the simultaneous activation of all three domains of entre- preneurial passion (P2b) are insufficient for entrepre- neurial performance: Both entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurs without ADHD symptoms need to be highly and thereby ambidextrously passion- ate about two entrepreneurial activities, whereas the third domain has to be low (i.e., passion for inventing in case of ADHD symptoms and passion for developing in case of no ADHD symptoms). 4.2 Predictive validity and robustness test This study tests for predictive validity, examining how well the configuration predicts the outcome across differ- ent samples (Woodside 2014). Following the procedure of Khedhaouria and Cucchi ( 2019) and Pappas et al. ( 2016), we randomly split the sample into two subsamples with an equal number of cases. In the next step, we ran the fsQCA for the first subsample and identified two complex config- urations, C1 and C2, with acceptable coverage and consis- tency indices (see Table 5).C1andC2arecongruentwith S1andS2inTable 4. Finally, we tested the obtained findings against the second subsample. The findings point to the configurations ’high consistency (C1 0.96; C2 0.94) and coverage (C1 0.23; C2 0.40), suggesting highly con- sistent models across subsampl es and thereby predictive validity of our configurations explainin g entrepreneurial performance. 1703 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance We employ a confirmatory necessity test and two sensitivity tests (see Appendix 2) to check the stability and robustness of our main findings (Dwivedi et al. 2018 ; Muñoz and Kimmitt 2019). The confirmatory necessity test indicates that no single condition taken by itself is capable of producing the outcome, thus supporting causal complexity for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms when achieving entrepreneurial per- formance. To further check the solutions ’robustness, we used alternative specifications for editing the truth tables and calibrations. These sensitivity analyses cor- roborate the robustness of the main solutions and strengthen our propositions (see Appendix 2). 5 Discussion This study was motivated by recent theorizing and em- pirical evidence that ADHD-type entrepreneurs have particular strengths that are positively related to entre- preneurial intention and start-up activity. While im- mensely valuable, this past research has not strongly focused on entrepreneurial outcomes and deflected scholarly attention away from considering the trait- associated weaknesses of ADHD symptoms, which may ultimately reduce entrepreneurial performance. In- deed, it is not yet well understood whether and why some entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms fail to per- form well, while other ADHD entrepreneurs overcome their weaknesses to run successful ventures (Wiklund et al. 2016). This has led some scholars to suggest that to develop actionable entrepreneurship psychology theory, researchers must focus on outcomes that are important to practicing entrepreneurs and refrain from taking an isolated approach to ADHD symptoms; instead, we need to focus on factors that shape variability within ADHD-type entrepreneurs and thereby mitigate/ reinforce the effect of ADHD ’s weaknesses/strengths, respectively, on entrepreneurial performance (e.g., Antshel 2018). To this end, we built on a Gestalt perspective of entre- preneurial performance and integrated research on P-E fit and broaden-and-build theory to investigate how entrepre- neurs ’ADHD symptoms (at the subclinical level) com- bined with passion for key entrepreneurial activities jointly determine entrepreneurial performance. Our exploratory qualitative comparative study uncovered different combi- nations of conditions sufficient for the entrepreneurial performance of entrepreneurs with and without ADHD symptoms in running successful ventures. In essence, our findings show that neither ADHD symptoms alone (prop- osition 1) nor passion for a single or all three entrepreneur- ial domains (propositions 2a and b) is a condition for entrepreneurial performance. Instead, ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion ambidexterity act as comple- ments for entrepreneurial performance (proposition 3). Our findings further indicate tha t the performance configura- tion ADHD entrepreneurs differs from the Gestalt of non- ADHD entrepreneurs ’entrepreneurial performance. Per our configurational focus, we first discuss and interpret our findings by performance recipes, rather than by indi- vidual factor. First, our results contribute to the debate on whether or not ADHD symptoms can be beneficial to entrepreneurial performance and thereby outcomes in entrepreneurship (e.g., Antshel 2018;Lerneretal. 2019)— they evidently can be beneficial —but also suggest that a lack of entrepre- neurial passion and domain-related overactivation are detri- mental to the achievement of entrepreneurial performance among ADHD-type entrepreneurs. This points to the fun- damental role played by the alignment of task-related emo- tions in the entrepreneurial effectiveness of ADHD symp- toms. Successful ADHD-type entrepreneurs are those that combine passion for developing and founding but lack passion for inventing. This echoes the idea that the ADHD-specific difficulty sustaining focused attention (urgency) is mitigated by the sustained focus that is induced Table 5 Complex configurations for entrepreneurial performance —subsample 1 Configurations Raw coverageUnique coverage Consistency C1: ADHD*~inventing*founding*developing 0.290.06 0.91 C2: ~ADHD*inventing*founding*~developing 0.420.19 0.90 Solution coverage 0.48 Solution consistency 0.89 ~ indicates the absence of the condition, whereas * denotes logical “AND ”operation in the fuzzy-set algorithms 1704 I. Hatak et al. by passion for developing, and that the ADHD-specific difficulty persevering is balanced out by perseverance that is induced by passion for founding (Cardon et al.2009, 2013). As ADHD-type entrepreneurs already seek sensa- tions, thus enhancing creativity (Wiklund et al. 2017), this wouldbeamplifiedbythecr eativity that is induced by passion for inventing (Cardon et al. 2009,2013)andmay lead to dysfunctional obsessive passion (Ho and Pollack 2014). By moving beyond isolated neurodevelopmental and emotional features, our study, therefore, helps to clarify prior research findings regarding the uniformly good or bad role of individual success factors in entrepreneurship, thus con- tributing to a more holistic understanding of entrepreneurial performance. ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion are substantial gray or “fuzzy” areas that are contingent on each other. In that sense, our findings also indicate that the affective mechanisms that have allowed people with ADHD symp- toms to own and run successful ventures are not the same for non-ADHD entrepreneur s. Successful non-ADHD en- trepreneurs are those that combine a passion for inventing with a passion for founding but lack a passion for devel- oping. As for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms, entre- preneurs without ADHD symptoms need to be passionate about founding, as it enables them to mobilize the action and energy needed to assemble critical financial, social, and human capital. However, as entrepreneurs without ADHD symptoms lack not only ADHD-specific weak- nesses but also strengths, they need to nourish their passion for inventing to make up for their potentially inherent difficulties in recognizing novel patterns of information and combine them with existing knowledge to develop creative solutions. I nterestingly, and opposed to prior re- search that advanced our understanding of how isolated passion for developing influences venture growth (Drnovsek et al. 2016), our findings suggest a dysfunctionality of passion for developing for non- ADHD entrepreneurs. We theorize that this occurs because business development is highly challenging, especially in young venture contexts where uncontested success is un- likely and where performance goals are continuously set to higher levels (Cardon et al. 2009). While this may be exciting for an entrepreneur fired by passion for develop- ing, the associated enhanced focus may lead to hyperfocus among non-ADHD entrepreneurs, consuming consider- able cognitive resources and limiting resources available for engaging in founding and inventing activities. In line with this theorizing, a growing body of research suggests that when a strength is overused, there is a risk of reduced capacity on the opposite pole, with such overplay turning strengths into weakness es (Kaplan and Kaiser2009). Be- yond contributing specifica lly to the literature on ADHD symptoms in entrepreneurship, we believe our study con- tributes, more broadly, to the growing stream of work pursuing deeper insight into the potentially detrimental influences of psychological variables that have generally been viewed as positive in entrepreneurship (Wiklund et al. 2018). A second important contribution of our work is that it shows when entrepreneurial passion has dysfunctional outcomes and why, as has been called for by Cardon et al. ( 2009). Our findings imply that entrepreneurs fired by passion for a single entrepreneurial domain become resistant to engaging in other activities critical to entre- preneurial performance, potentially fearing that doing so may dilute and distract the intense positive experience. Consistent with this, Vallerand et al. ( 2003)suggested that extremely intense passion, as it likely occurs when experiencing intense positive feelings for only one en- trepreneurial activity, may invoke an obsessive response indicated by a rigid rather than flexible manner of en- gagement in activities that are central and meaningful to the entrepreneur. Thus, drawing on the distinction be- tween harmonious and obsessive passion (Ho and Pollack 2014), we suggest that passion for only one entrepreneurship domain may bear the risk of producing response patterns that are obsessive or misdirected, es- pecially for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms. In turn, experiencing high levels of passion in all three entrepreneurial domains equally interferes with entrepreneurial performance. On the one hand, this is surprising as prior research has argued that with increas- ing positive emotions, entrepreneurs are more likely to be effective because of the broaden-and-build effect. On the other hand, drawing on the affect-as-information theory (Clore and Parrott 1991), which postulates that emotions function as information, there is the risk that entrepreneurs having intense positive feelings for all three domains experience information overload and th ereby attentional conflicts. In this situation, individ- uals typically adopt simplified heuristic processing strat- egies by relying on stereotypical information rather than on analytic strategies (Forgas 1995). While this strategy enables entrepreneurs to make fast decisions that are needed in entrepreneurship, it may explain declined entrepreneurial performance as it increases susceptibili- ty to biases (Baron 2008; Baron et al. 2012). Overall, our findings enrich theorizing on emotions in 1705 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance entrepreneurship in that passion ambidexterity is essen- tial for entrepreneurial performance.Our study has moved beyond the linear perspective on how ADHD symptoms and entre preneurial passion affect entrepreneurship. We show that ADHD –passion config- urations exist as conditions for entrepreneurial perfor- mance. Consequently, by indicating that “negative” and “ excessive ”characteristics are associated with entrepre- neurial performance, this study, in concert with a growing stream of research (Wiklund et al. 2018), supports the notion of equifinality in entr epreneurial endeavors and plurality in entrepreneurial logics for successful action. In a broader context, we expect the Gestalt perspective to be relevant for resea rch on other mental health conditions and entrepreneurship, such as sensory processing sensi- tivity (Harms et al. 2019), dyslexia (Logan 2009), bipolar traits (Johnson et al. 2018), and mood disorders (Bogan et al. 2013). Because entrepreneurship happens at the interface between the individ ual, opportunity, and envi- ronment, entrepreneurs with di fferent characteristics will perform well under different conditions. Research that identifies those conditions provides value by unlocking the potential of those entrepreneurs and pushing the boundaries of existing theories. 5.1 Limitations and future research While our research has advanced the literature on the performance implications of ADHD symptoms and en- trepreneurial passion, future research may address the shortcomings of this research and address new questions that have emerged. First, our cross-sectional inquiry, and configurational approach more generally, do not allow for claims of causality, nor do they help rule out any potential reverse causality among the relationships. As the current set-theoretic methodology is not yet equipped to resolve these issues of causality and endogeneity, future configurational research that ad- dresses this issue, using longitudinal designs (Misangyi and Acharya 2014), is needed. Here, future research could analyze the relative importance of partic- ular ADHD –passion configurations at different stages of the entrepreneurial process, i.e., pre-start-up, start-up, early growth, rapid growth, and stabilization. For exam- ple, passion for founding may be even more critical during the start-up stage. In turn, passion for developing may become part of the performance recipe of non- ADHD entrepreneurs at later stages of venture develop- ment, where first adaptions of the business model may become necessary. Thus, future research that probes more deeply into particular performance recipes along the entrepreneurial process is warranted. Second, we need to consider a more extensive variety of performance indicators. The Wiklund and Shepherd ( 2003) scale is useful because it covers several domains of entrepreneurial performance, and has been validated in previous research (see, e.g., Irwin et al. 2018; Naldi et al. 2007;Wiklundetal. 2017;Yuetal.2019). Nevertheless, an essential step in establishing additional evidence for performance recipes among entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms is exploring configurations for other entrepre- neurial outcomes. For example, objective performance indicators, although difficult to obtain and to interpret for new ventures, may nuance our findings. Also, to provide a more holistic picture of entrepreneurial performance (e.g., Hatak and Zhou 2019; Wach et al. 2016), we encourage future research to differentiate specifically between finan- cial performance and nonfinancial performance in the form of entrepreneurs’ subjective well-being. Third, we posited mechanisms by which ADHD symptoms and passion affect entrepreneurial perfor- ma nce, but did not explicitly examine these mediating mechanisms. Future work may directly test the path- ways we suggested. In this regard, an exciting direction for future research may be to explore the dimensionality of ADHD symptoms, i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, in conjunction with the three domains of entrepreneurial passion. Another avenue for future research triggered by our study concerns how ADHD-type entrepreneurs can work together with other entrepreneurs in teams. For example, entrepreneurs with limited ability to sustain mental effort may substitute passion for developing with other team members to perform such tasks for them (Lerner et al. 2018; Wiklund et al. 2018). A deeper, likely qualitative investigation into performance- relevant team dynamics between entrepreneurs with and without ADHD symptoms is likely to make an important contribution to the entrepreneurship literature and hopefully also to the literatures on team diversity and management. Also, we look forward to research that applies the Gestalt perspective to other types of mental health conditions. 5.2 Implications and conclusions The findings of this research provide input for entrepre- neurial decision-making and choice regarding 1706 I. Hatak et al. appropriate approaches for the specific venture. In par- ticular, the findings of this study suggest a two-step approach. First, the configurational analyses by neurodevelopmental features and task-related emotions help entrepreneurs better understand the differential trait mobilization requirements for achieving entrepreneurial performance. Entrepreneurs need to assess for which entrepreneurial activities they have intense positive feel- ings so that they can decide whether and how they have to nourish their passion for inventing and founding in case of no ADHD symptoms and their passion for developing and founding in case of ADHD symptoms.Second, the findings of the configurational analysis of trait mobilization through ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion suggest that different action rep- ertoires for entrepreneurial performance exist, thus pro- viding managerial choice. Specifically, an analysis of the current ADHD –passion portfolio of the owner – manager can provide an impetus for a gap analysis, which helps uncover discrepancies between the status quo and the venture ’s target performance. Such infor- mation would provide managerial guidance for the del- egation of critical tasks to members of the venture team and recruitment. Finally, the understanding that mental health condi- tions and ADHD in particular have dark and bright sides in entrepreneurship suggests the opportunity for research to help educators, coaches, and consultants focus on strengths (such as openness to new situations, proactivity) and compensate for weaknesses through nourishing pos- itive feelings for founding and developing activities. Overall, the present work contributes to theory by linking recent research on ADHD symptoms, entrepre- neurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance with fuzzy-set methodology. Consistent with this approach, our findings point to a configurational nature of entre- preneurial performance. As such, our study provides a significantly richer understanding of how and why ADHD symptoms interact with entrepreneurial passion. In conclusion, future researchers and policymakers would do well to take a more configurational approach, in terms of how they think about, design, and study dark constructs in entrepreneurship. To truly understand per- formance outcomes in entrepreneurship, we must stop thinking about the constructs in isolation, give up the search for the “superhero ”or “evil ”constructs, and instead direct attention to how the various individual characteristics combine effectively with each other for the particular outcomes desired. Funding Information Open access funding provided by Uni- versity of St. Gallen. Rainer Harms ’part of the article is based on his study funded by the Basic Research Program of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100 ′. Appendix 1: Construct validity and common method bias Several confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were compared to evaluate of validity and reliability (see Table 6). For discriminant validity, results indicated that the one-factor CFA model had the worst fit ( χ 2= 1227.69, df= 299), whereas the second-order five-factor model (M8) fitted the data significantly better than the other models ( △χ 2= 115.99, △df =3, p<0.000), which supports discriminant validity. Our five-factor model indicates that ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial performance are higher-order constructs, and we can treat the three passion domains of inventing, founding, and developing as separate conditions. Table 7displays the model ’s standardized factor loadings, average variance extracted (AVE), and com- posite reliability (CR). The CRs of all factors ranged from 0.59 to 0.78, which are close to or meet the acceptable level of 0.60 (Fornell and Larcker 1981), except for the measure of entrepreneurial performance. The lower CR score for entrepreneurial performance follows from its conceptualization and operationalization as a formative construct (Wiklund and Shepherd 2003). Although the AVE scores for passion for inventing and passion for founding were below the recommended level of 0.50, the factors ’ac- ceptable CR scores allow concluding adequate conver- gent validity, with AVE being a more conservative estimate of the measurement model ’svalidity(Fornell and Larcker 1981). CMB was addressed by the fact that the cover story and survey content did not su ggest social desirability, positive or negative affectiv ity, or a particular relation between the variables (Podsakoff et al. 2003). The respon- dents were ascertained about their anonymity, and the survey emphasized that there are no right or wrong an- swers and encouraged honest response behavior (Podsakoff et al. 2003, p. 888). To test for possible CMB, we used the comprehensive CFA marker technique of Williams et al. ( 2010) and compared a series of CFA models. According to Williams et al. ( 2010), a marker should be theoretically unrelated to the core measures — 1707 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance in this study, an established five-item measure of entrepre- neurs’social identity, that is the communitarian entrepre- neurial identity (Sieger et al. 2016). The presence of a non- zero correlation of the marker with core variables indicates CMB. Our results indicate that the fit of the baseline model (without linking the marker to the core mea- sures) is significantly better than method-C (assum- ing the marker has equal influence on all measures; △ χ 2= 445.72, △df =93, p<0.000)ormethod-U models (assuming the marker has an unequal influ- ence on all measures; △χ 2= 399.35, △df = 65, p < 0.000). These results support the notion that CMB is unlikely to affect the validity of our measures. Appendix 2: Predictive validity and robustness test As regards the confirmatory necessity test, a condition is necessary when the condition is always present/absent along with the presence/absence of the outcome (Ragin 2008a ). In other words, the outcome can be explained Table 6 Comparison of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models CFA model χ 2 dfCFI SRMR Δχ 2(df ) pvalue M1 One-factor model 1227.69 299 0.27 0.15 M2 Two-factor model 907.91 298 0.52 0.11 M2 vs. M1: 319.79 (1) 0.000 M3 Three-factor model 766.60 296 0.63 0.10 M3 vs. M2: 141.31 (2) 0.000 M4 Four-factor model 731.56 293 0.66 0.09 M4 vs. M3: 35.04 (3) 0.000 M5 Second-order three-factor model (1) 748.05 294 0.64 0.10 M4 vs. M5: 16.49 (1) 0.000 M6 Second-order three-factor model (2) 638.03 291 0.73 0.09 M6 vs. M4: 93.53 (2) 0.000 M7 Second-order five-factor model (1) 632.95 288 0.73 0.09 M7 vs. M6: 5.08 (3) 0.166 M8 Second-order five-factor model (2) 516.96 285 0.82 0.08 M8 vs. M7: 115.99 (3) 0.000 M9 Second-order six-factor model 514.30 282 0.82 0.08 M9 vs. M8: 2.66 (3) 0.447 M2: The first factor included the items of ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion, whereas the second factor covered entrepreneurial performance. M3: The three latent factors were ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance. M4: ADHD symptoms were split into attention deficit and hyperactivity. M5: ADHD symptoms were the higher-order factor, and the two latent factors were entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial performance. M6: ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial passion were the higher-order factors, with entrepreneurial performance being the latent factor. M7: ADHD symptoms were the higher-order factor, and the four latent factors were the three domains of entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial performance. M8: ADHD symptoms and entrepreneurial performance were the higher-order factors, and the three latent factors were three domains of entrepreneurial passion. M9: ADHD symptoms were the higher-order factors, and the five latent factors were three domains of entrepreneurial passion and two dimensions of entrepreneurial performance CFI comparative fit index, SRMRstandardized root mean square residual Table 7 Standardized factor loadings, average variance extracted (AVE), and composite reliability (CR) Factors Standardized factor loadingsAVECR ADHD 0.39 *to 0.98 * 0.560.68 Inattention 0.41 *** to 0.74 *** 0.410.73 Hyperactivity 0.45 *** to 0.82 *** 0.440.59 Passion for inventing 0.51 *** to 0.76 *** 0.440.75 Passion for founding 0.55 *** to 0.79 *** 0.480.73 Passion for developing 0.61 *** to 0.89 *** 0.540.78 Entrepreneurial performance 0.39 *** to 0.56 *** 0.230.37 Financial performance 0.04 to 0.99 *** 0.49 0.72 Operational performance 0.21 *to 0.77 *** 0.300.69 1708 I. Hatak et al. solely by the necessary condition, i.e., the condition is the superset of the outcome. The consistency scores of all our conditions (see Table8) are below the threshold value of 0.95 (Ragin 2006) so that none of the condi- tions is necessary for the outcome. This finding con- firms the causal complexity for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms when achieving entrepreneurial performance in that no single condition taken by itself is capable of producing the outcome. Table 9presents the sensitivity analyses. In these anal- yses, we used different thresholds for frequency and con- sistency and alternative calibrations. The results show that configurations S6, S7, and S8 are the superset of S1, and configurations S3, S4, and S5 are the superset of S2. Also, Table 8 Confirmatory necessity analysis The presence of entrepreneurial performance The absence of entrepreneurial performance Consistency CoverageConsistency Coverage ADHD symptoms 0.420.720.47 0.83 ~ADHD symptoms 0.90 0.620.84 0.60 Passion for inventing 0.75 0.680.74 0.69 ~Passion for inventing 0.66 0.710.66 0.73 Passion for founding 0.77 0.680.71 0.66 ~Passion for founding 0.61 0.670.65 0.74 Passion for developing 0.72 0.690.70 0.69 ~Passion for developing 0.67 0.680.68 0.72 ~ indicates the absence of a condition Table 9 Sensitivity tests Sensitivity test 1 a Sensitivity test 2 b Sensitivity test 3 c Conditions S3S4S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 ADHD ○○● ○ Passion for inventing ●●○ ○● Passion for founding ●● ●●●● Passion for developing ○○○●●●○ Raw coverage 0.430.450.44 0.26 0.3 0.36 0.33 Unique coverage 0.020.070.17 0.03 0.06 0.16 0.09 Consistency 0.880.870.98 0.99 0.99 0.84 0.86 Solution coverage 0.62 0.55 0.45 Solution consistency 0.82 0.980.82 The ●symbol represents the presence of the condition, whereas the ○symbol represents the absence of the condition. The blank cell denotes the “do not care ”condition aThe first sensitivity test was conducted using the frequency threshold of 5 and consistency threshold of 0.90bThe second sensitivity test was conducted with the alternative calibration procedure, in which the specification of the three anchors was based on the definition of the scale (Fiss 2011). Specifically, 5, 3, and 1 were used as the thresholds for full inclusion, crossover, and full exclusion in terms of entrepreneurial performance. The three domains of passion used 25, 13, and 1 as thresholds. ADHD symptoms were calibrated following the suggestion of Kessler et al. ( 2007). The truth table in this sensitivity analysis was edited using the frequency threshold of 3 and the consistency threshold of 0.99 cThe third sensitivity test was conducted with the alternative calibration procedure, in which the specification of the three anchors was based on the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of conditio ns, except for ADHD symptoms, which were calibrated f ollowing the clinical suggestion of Kessler et al. ( 2007 ). The truth table in this sensitivity analysis was edited using the frequency threshold of 2 and the consistency threshold of 0.85 1709 ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial passion, and entrepreneurial performance S9 is congruent with S2. Thus, the sensitivity analyses corroborate the robustness of the main results.In addition, our sensitivity analyses can substantially complement S1 and S2. According to S1 (see Section 4.1), entrepreneurs w ith ADHD symptoms need to be highly passionate for developing and founding activities to ensure effective P-E fit and thereby entrepre- neurial performance. Never theless, they can additionally rely on passion for inventin g as a success factor if they balance out potential overstimulation through nourishing their intense positive feeling s for founding and develop- ing (S6). Consequently, our sensitivity analyses strength- en proposition P1 and enrich proposition P3. Moreover, the performance recipe for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (S1) is relevant for entrepreneurs without ADHD symptoms (S7, S8). Our sensitivity anal- yses imply that entrepreneurs running successful ventures exhibit ambidexterity in terms of entrepreneurial passion (S3, S7, S8). Thus, in line with proposition P2b, the simultaneous experience of intense positive feelings for all three entrepreneurial domains would lead to attentional conflicts that dilute the effectiveness of both ADHD entre- preneurs and non-ADHD entrepreneurs. Comparing S2 with S4 and S5 indicates that entre- preneurs without ADHD symptoms can resort to either one domain of entrepreneurial passion or maximally two passion domains in running successful ventures. Entrepreneurs without ADHD symptoms can flexibly transcend between passion for inventing (S5) and pas- sion for founding (S4) —or be passionate for both activ- ities (S2, S9) —to achieve entrepreneurial performance, as long as they are not passionate for market growth activities. Consequently, our sensitivity analyses nuance proposition P2a for non-ADHD entrepreneurs. Entre- preneurs who are passionate for only a single entrepre- neurial activity may suffer from hyperfocus— even more so under the condition of passion for developing as it increases focused attention. However, the absence of ADHD symptoms, together with the absence of pas- sion for developing (S4, S5), limits the risk of isolated entrepreneurial passion extremely and thereby unproductively activating entrepreneurs ’focus. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. 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