Response: Disorders of Memory and Language, psychology homework help

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Your reply should not only address the content of your peer’s post, but must include a discussion of current treatment options for the disorder you are reviewing that are supported by at least 1 peer-reviewed article. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful interactive discourse in this discussion.

1st Andrews

Anomic Aphasia

According to the Carl (2013), Aphasia is a condition from the shortfall of motor ability caused by brain injury or can stem from the inability of comprehending speech that is not derived from deafness. People with anomic aphasia is describe as having the ability to comprehend very well with fluent speech and grammar, but they tend to not hold high ability in incorporating appropriate words; and they speak in a way to not bring attention to missing words. For example: A person may say, she went to the kitchen to get out [take] some … donuts out of the [donut box] … that was purchased by her, and consequently as a result she is slipping [falling]. Additionally, it was suggested that a person with anomic aphasia is having amnesia when it comes to words and tend to use the circumlocution strategy to replace something they are trying to say when they cannot remember appropriate wording. They understand what other people say and they make sense when talking though they talk in a roundabout manner. Moreover, the word averbia was termed to associate anomia for verbs that stems from a damaged frontal cortex that is part of the Broca’s area, where planning, organizing, and executing activities that is part of remembering name of actions and associated with the frontal lobes.

It was proposed that anomia is derived from brain damage that is caused by a deficit of the working system of complex cognitive processes that ranges from visual and articulation recognition, and include conceptual preparation, lexical retrieval, phonological encoding, and and phonetic encoding of which all are a part of numerous stages (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999). Furthermore, two kinds of pure anomia have been revealed, one being reflecting impaired lexical – sematic and the other lexical phonological processes. Semantic paraphasias was projected to be associated with damaged to conceptual information and well-kept phonological code, as reported by (Hillis, Rapp, Romani, & Caramazza, 1990; Warrington, 1975). Selective complications at retrieving phonological information of words is the second form of anomia and the making of phonological paraphasias in the company of semantics that is unharmed (Caramazza, Papagno, & Ruml, 2000; Hillis, Boatman, Hart, & Gordon, 1999). Such forms of anomia was proposed by (Schwartz, Dell, Martin, Gahl, & Sobel, 2006; Laine, Tikkala, & Juhola, 1998; Kay & Ellis, 1987) as being identified through an individual’s inability to make correct picture naming and their failure at semantic competence (as cited in Laganaro, Morand, & Schnider, 2009).

According to Cotelli et al. (2011), studies showed treatment for anomia aphasia benefiting the brain through stimulation along with behavior training that were targeted towards people with post-stroke aphasia suffering from anomia. They suggested that such findings were consistent with up to data reports of cognitive performance enhancement and the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); a noninvasive process of which targeted price areas of the cortical that have various diseases of the neurological system (Baker et al., 2010; Berthier, & Pulvermuller, 2011; Cotelli et al., 2006, 2008; Fiori et al., 2011; Martin et al., 2004; Monti et al., 2008; Naeser, Martin, Nicholas, Baker, Seekins, Helm-Estabrooks, et al., 2005; Naeser, Martin, Nicholas, Baker, Seekins, Kobayashi, et al., 2005). Moreover, such findings were consistent with current aphasia therapy being successful by way of behavioural and brain stimulation practices.

Dernise Andrews

Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

Cotelli, M., Fertonani, A., Miozzo, A., Rosini, S., Manenti, R., Padovani, A., Ansaldo, AI., Cappa, SF., & Miniussi, C. (2011). Anomia training and brain stimulation in chronic aphasia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 21(5), 717-741. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602011.2011.621275

Laganaro, M., Morand, S., & Schnider, A. (2009). Time course of evoked-potential changes in different forms of anomia in aphasia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(8), 1499-1510. Retrieved from EBSCOhost database.

2nd Ballard

Broca’s aphasia

This week discussion is on the symptoms of aphasia and describes the symptoms, underlying brain structures involved, and at least one common etiology. Broca’s aphasia according to Carlson (2013) “this disorder is characterized by slow, laborious, and nonfluent speech” (p. 483). An example of a patient(s) who have been effected by Broca’s aphasia when neuropsychologist or neurology collaborating with them and they begin to engage in the conversation their speech is not understandable and you decide to finish the word or sentence.

The Broca’s aphasia occurs in human beings when the region of the frontal lobe. According to Carlson (3013) “damage to this region of the inferior left frontal Broca’s area disrupts the ability to speak”( p. 483). When the left front al lobe area of the brain is damage then the individual speech is agitate. The “Broca’s area of the human brain is “a region of the frontal cortex, located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary for normal speech production” (Carlson, 2013, p. 483).

According to Carlson (2013) “agrammatism is one of the usual symptoms of Broca’s aphasia; a difficulty in comprehending or properly employing grammatical devices, such as verb ending and word order” p. 484). Another symptom of Broca’s Aspasia is when a person experience “right-sided paralysis or weakness” (Mayo Clinic, 2017, p. 1).

The article More (or less) on Broca, by Donnan, Carey and Saling, (1999) states in their study on the part of the brain that was effected when there is lesion on the left side which control articulation. This study deals with patients or individuals who damage to the left frontal lobe in their brain and this causes them to have problems with nouns and ss language is “the main disorder of expressive language is Broca’s aphasias” (p. 1031).

References

Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behaviora (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Donnan, G. A. Carey, L. M. & Saling, M. M. (1999). More (or less) Broca. The Lancet, 353. 131-1032.

Mayo Clinic (2017) Aphasia symptoms . Retrieved from

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/aphasia/basics/symptoms/con-20027061

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