Respond to two questions

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I need to respond to two indviduals APA format no less than 200 words each response with soruces not older then 5 years.

Outline determinants of mental health and how they affect health outcomes especially in rural communities.

Social determinants of health also play a part in mental health. Almost all possible social determinants of health in general also play a role in mental health, these include: race, ethnicity, gender, age, income level, education level, sexual orientation, and geographic location. There are other social conditions that particularly influence mental health risk and outcomes and they include: interpersonal, family and community dynamics, housing quality, social support, employment opportunities, and work and school conditions. These can cause a negative or positive effect to mental health (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2014). For example, a person with rich social support from a church community, family and friends, is bound to fare better in a precarious situation than one without, and this situation applies to rural or urban communities.

Some research says that the role of these determinants specifically to rural communities versus urban communities are not well understood and one of the reasons is because they have been given a back seat as compared to mental health in urban communities and the inequalities thereof. A 2011 study by Riva, Bambra, Curtis, and Gauvin, on examining the social determinants of mental health in rural areas, concluded that living in rural areas are associated with better overall mental health. This happened to be the conclusion because as reported in their results section, that there is lower risk of reporting common mental disorders, CMDs, in rural areas (Riva, Bambra, Curtis, & Gauvin, 2011). This conclusion raises a query of reporting of the CMDs versus incidence of CMDs in rural areas.


Kelly, B., Lewin, T., Stain, H., Coleman, C., Fitzgerald, M., Perkins, D., … Beard, J. (2011). Determinants of mental health and well-being within rural and remote communities. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1331–1342.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2014). Mental Health. Retrieved from Health People 2020:…

Riva, M., Bambra, C., Curtis, S., & Gauvin, L. (2011, April). Collective resources or local social inequalities? Examining the social determinants of mental health in rural areas. European Journal of Public Health, 21(2), 197-203.

Although the United States has seen an increase in health insurance coverage among Americans, it has not translated into an increase in adults seeking mental health care. Why? Explain.

“North America has a markedly higher GBD [Global Burden of Disease] associated with mental health and substance use disorders than does Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)” (Kohn, et al., 2018). Factors that influence the treatment gap include weak political reforms, little to no budget for mental health education and/or treatment, and the costly health care system. I believe that one of the main factors that adults do not seek mental health care, not only in the United States but in the rest of the world, is due mostly because of public stigma. People with mental health problems are more susceptible to suffer rejection and discrimination from society. They become fearful of being categorized as “not competent”, and therefore do not seek care. I believe that the lack of education on the topic feeds to the public mental health stigma. “In addition, there are individual barriers to care, such as the belief that the problem will resolve on its own or that the individual can solve the problem, stigma, lack of mental health literacy, financial burdens, lack of trust in the health care system, and the belief that treatment is not helpful” (Kohn, et al., 2018). People with mental health problems are also at increased risk of suicide and/or suicidal behavior, therefor the importance of mental health literacy in the world.


Kohn, R., Ali, A. A., Puac-Polanco, V., Figueroa, C., López-Soto, V., Morgan, K., … Vicente, B. (2018, October 10). Mental health in the Americas: an overview of the treatment gap. Retrieved from

Ongera, C., Ongera, C., Ongera, C., Ongera, C., Focus for Health, Rutgers University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, … Cancer Research Center. (2019, December 9). Mental Health in the United States. Retrieved from

These are the two questions…

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