Reply to 2 classmates discussions for Psych Course
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REPLY WITH AT LEAST 300 WORDS EACH RESPONSE….ONLY USE PEER-REVIEWED REFERENCES…NO PALGIARISM
Violence has become apart of societies everyday life. Kassin et al. (2017) inform us that violent imagery is displayed in music lyrics, videos, films, video games, and media. Many real-world terroristic attacks were influenced by violent video games and movies. Kassin et al. (2017) confer that research has shown that that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both immediate and long-term context and its exposure to children and adolescent is a significant risk to their health. Boxer, Rowell Huesmann, Dubow, Landau, Gvirsman, Shikaki, and Ginges (2013) study concluded that ecological violence increase community, family, and school violence and children’s aggression. The greater the exposure a child is to observing and interacting in social environmental violence the higher the risk of them engaging in aggressive behaviors later in life. Boxer et al. (2013) study endorse Bronfenbrenner social ecosystem theory that individuals have layers to their development with the first being predisposed by genetic factors and self-influence and the next layers of the individual’s social development encompassing their environment and cultural factors.
Social learning theory combines observational and enactive learning processes as being the primary mechanisms that organize children’s response to hostility ( Davies, Cicchetti, & Martin, 2012). Kassin et al. (2017) explain that aggression is learned and uses the example of a child who hits and is rewarded with a toy. It is embedded in that child’s brain that if they act aggressively then they are able to get the desired outcome they want. This is identified as a positive reinforcement. Hull, Brunelle, Prescott, and Sargent (2014) study showed a correlation between children who play virtual violent games express more aggressive behaviors and have a higher risk of deviance behavior such as alcohol use, smoking, delinquency, and risky sex due to the effects on their personality. Hull et al. (2018) study showed a highly significant effect of video games on defiant behavior and virtual gameplay decreases prosocial and cooperative behavior as aggressive behavior increase. This is really evident in recent events such as the Aurora movie shooting and school shootings.
Boxer, P., Rowell Huesmann, L., Dubow, E. F., Landau, S. F., Gvirsman, S. D., Shikaki, K., & Ginges, J. (2013). Exposure to violence across the social ecosystem and the development of aggression: A test of ecological theory in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Child Development, 84(1), 163-177. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01848.x
Davies, P. T., Cicchetti, D., & Martin, M. J. (2012). Toward Greater Specificity in Identifying Associations Among Interparental Aggression, Child Emotional Reactivity to Conflict, and Child Problems. Child Development, 83(5), 1789-1804. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01804.x
Hull, J. G., Brunelle, T. J., Prescott, A. T., & Sargent, J. D. (2014). A longitudinal study of risk-glorifying video games and behavioral deviance. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 107(2), 300-325. doi:10.1037/a0036058
Kassin, S., Fein, S. & Markus, H. R. (2017). Social Psychology (10th ed.). Retrieved from: https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781337509541/cfi/6/10!/4/54/6/10/2@0:27.1
PSY 7520- Social Psychology U6D1- Violence and Aggressive Behavior
Does viewing violent behavior increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior? Describe the social learning theory of aggression and analyze recent research on the link between exposure to violent models on television and other forms of media (such as video games or music) and aggressive behavior.
Kassin (2017) define aggression as behavior intended to harm another human being. Culture and gender also differ in their attitudes about aggression. One form of aggression that is universal throughout all cultures is bullying that include: power imbalance, intention to harm and targeted over and over.
In my 20 years working with children and families, I often would see exposure to violent behavior increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior. According to social theory, people can learn aggression by observing and imitating violence on the mass media (Sengonul, 2017).
Sengonul (2017) reported observational learning contributed to both short and long-term effects of media violence on aggressive behaviors in children. Children make inferences from repeatedly observing the violent behaviors and they can develop schemas about a hostile world and normative beliefs that is more approving of aggression. The experimental studies indicated that children who watched the violent film exhibited physical, verbal and indirect aggression. In the longitudinal studies indicated significant correlations between view violence on media in childhood and physical, verbal and indirect aggression during young adulthood for both men and women.
Gentile et al (2004) state a growing body of research is connected to violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes and behaviors. Six hundred and seven 8th and 9th graders participated and what was discovered was that adolescents who exposed themselves to violent video games were more hostile, increased arguments with teachers at school, more likely to be in a physical fight and performed poorly in school. Mediational pathways were found to address the hostility relationship between violent video games exposure and outcomes.
Greitemeyer (2009) states that previous research has shown that exposure to violent media increased aggression-related affect to include: thoughts, physiological arousal and aggressive behavior while decreasing prosocial behaviors. Greitemeyer did three experiments and proved: listening to songs with prosocial lyrics increased accessibility to prosocial thoughts, listening to prosocial songs increased empathy towards others in need and the third experiment proved listening to prosocial songs would increase prosocial behavior.
Gentile, D.A., Lynch, P.J., Linder, J.R. & Walsh, D.A. (2004). The effects of violent videogame
habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 5-22 doi:
Greitemeyer, T. (2009). Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial thoughts, affect, and
behavior, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (1), 186-190.
Kassin, S. (2017). Social Psychology, 10th Edition. [Vitalsource]. Retrieved
Sengonul, T. (2017). Negative effects of media on children and youth socialization process: a
study on violent and aggressive behaviors. Faculty of Education Journal, 46 (2), 368-398 doi:10.14812/cuefd.346149
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