*Please view Assignment Brief Drawings, DCP and Table in the attached files* You work for 2023 Property Developers Ltd, and your task is to provide advice to Dr Mary Hardie, Dr. Laura Almeida, and Dr.

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*Please view Assignment Brief Drawings, DCP and Table in the attached files*

You work for 2023 Property Developers Ltd, and your task is to provide advice to Dr Mary Hardie, Dr. Laura Almeida, and Dr. Robert Osei-Kyei from Western Sydney University. Your advice will be given through a formal written report, which will identify the necessary repairs and renovations needed for the property in order to prepare it for future sale. The property has been damaged by both termite attacks and water infiltration. Additionally, the clients have plans to construct a granny flat on the western part of the land to accommodate all three clients. You have access to the Development Control Plan (DCP) provided by the Sydney City Council and the proposed extension plans.

*Please view Assignment Brief Drawings, DCP and Table in the attached files* You work for 2023 Property Developers Ltd, and your task is to provide advice to Dr Mary Hardie, Dr. Laura Almeida, and Dr.
1 BLDG1011 Property Building ASSIGNMENT 3 – Report on a property condition (Weight: 5 0 %) ASSIGNMENT OVERVIEW Property valuers assess houses, land, commercial properties, and other structures to estimate market values and insurance rebuild costs. Key skills of property valuers include report writing skills, a high level of numeracy, observational skills, and good communication skills. You will play the role of a property v aluation business in the inner city of Sydney, NSW. The inner -city area of Sydney is characterised by the prevalence of terrace and row housing up to about 8 kilometres from the city centre. Many of these homes are of ten significant in terms of heritage value and have been placed on a statutory heritage listing as part of the councils Local Environment Plan (LEP) or the State Heritage Register. However, Sydney’s housing types are changing in form and balance (Darc y, 2008) . Although various heritage -listed residential dwellings are on the market, some are run down, derelict, outdated and need extensive repair or renovation. Clients and investors are often unsure about the challenges of renovation and the extent o f the works necessary to bring the property back to its original condition. TASK You are working for the firm 2023 Property Developers Ltd that has been tasked to advise the clients Dr Mary Hardie, Dr Laura Almeida and Dr Rober t Ose i-Kyei (Western Sydney University) in a formal written report of the possible defects that will need to be addressed to repair and renovate the propert y for future sale. The property is damaged due to termite attack and water infiltration. In the Wester n part of the lan d, the clients plan to build a granny flat to accommodate all your clients on the property . You have the DCP from Sydney City Council and the proposed extension plans available . 2 More specifically, you are to assume that you have been sent out to heritage the propert y in inner Sydney and write a report recording known and/or commonly found defects in th is propert y. Please be aware that the propert y is in a good location in inner Sydney (excellent potential for future sale) . Generally, the structure of the existing building is in good conditions, and the front of the main building was recently repaired. However, the property is in very poor conditi on in the West area and needs extensive internal repair or renovation . For your clients , you must: 1- Identify the type of housing style from the main building in the property , classify the property according to the NCC and describe what sort of licen ces and conditi ons your company must comply with to p erfor m an y fut ure works (4 marks) . Please b e concise , highlighting all the relevant information. 2- Th e property has se veral services installed . You r clients asked you which water, energy and waste management strategies will be implemented . Identify 5 of the predicted strategies to be implemented in the Granny Fla t and compare them with the requirements f rom the council . You must cover specific strategies that are clearly implemented in the Granny Fla t. Missing documents or items will not be accounted for as a valuable non – compliance . (please use as reference the table from Assignment 1 and Sydney’s DCP ) (10 marks) . 3- Please choose one of the followi ng to address with your clients (10 marks) : a. Your clients want to ensure that the new Granny Flat has the Passive Solar Design (PSD) principles installed correctly . After carefully analysing your drawings and all the information related to the property , you have realised that additional changes must be implemented to ensu re your company complies with the request. Taking this into consideration , please highlight in t he context of this propert y at least 5 principles that must be addressed . E xp lain which changes you would implement and why they are important . (You must: address the main stra tegies of PSD and explain if the propert y is complying or not , provid ing suggestions /recommendations to what can be done to improve the propert y passively in winter ) Note: If the suggestions are not rele vant to the property , they will not be accounted , or b. Your clients noticed that th e Granny Flat has an outer layer o f Cladding. They d o not know what Cladding is and are asking why you are not suggesting brickwork . Explain to your clients what Cladding is, identify the different types of cladding systems in the pro perty and explain the advantages and disadvantages of Cladd ing. (You must describe each one o f them and the applied considerations) . Note: If the suggestions are not rele vant to the property , they will not be accounted , or c. Your clients are particularly concerned with the impact on t he environment . They are interested in understanding how you will ma nage storm water d uring construction and the property’s lifecycle . Explain to your clients the different strategies you plan to adopt and why stormwater needs to be manage d. (You must explain the main concept s you are using and state differences amon g them) . Note: If the suggestions are not rele vant to the property , they will not be accounted 4- After analysing the con struction drawing s and perform ing an inspection of the property, where you took some measurement s and included a visual inspection , y ou have identified the following (14 marks) : a. Granny Flat i. Timber frame ii. Tiled roof with a 20o pitch iii. Structural un seasoned timber iv. Stress grade F8 v. Studs centres at 60 0 mm vi. Please check if the timber used for the following members is in accordance with the Australian regulations (redo any calculations if necessary) : 3 1. Common studs ( not notched) – 90 x35 mm (3 mark) 2. Top p lates (not trenched) – 50 x 7 5 mm (1 mark) 3. Bottom p lates (not trenched) – 50 x 10 0 mm (1 mark) 4. Lintel in Bed room 1 – 175 x 75 mm (1 mark) 5. Rafters from the living room – 75 x 38 mm and an Overhang of 400mm (4 mark) 6. Elevation 1 -3 Bracing – 8 type A units (2 mark) 7. Elevation 2 -4 Bracing – 3 type A + 3 Type B units (2 mark) 5- During the property inspection, you identifie d that the main building wa s damaged due to termite attack and water infiltration . Your clients are a ware of this fact and are asking you to solve the problem. Please discuss the main possible causes , damaged elements that need replacement and su ggest solutions to be implemented in the property without damaging its heritage characteristics (7 marks). NOTES: Please ensure you provide all your calculations and reasoning where applicable , and you do not need to perform a valuation at this stage . You are collecting the information to help you in your fut ure valuation. SUBMISSION and FORMAT • Submission is by way of a report from you , on behalf of the 2023 Property Developers Ltd firm , to the clients . You must communicate the previous points and identify any problems you have encountered with your clients . You will have to communicate these outcomes in a formal report (Please use the available report template ). • Your report must have an executive summary, table of contents , introduction to the propert y, all the previous 5 points (including any calculations and reference to legal documents that you may have to refer to) and the conclusion for the current state of the propert y. MARKING CRITERIA AND SUBMISSION STANDARDS The assessment criteria are in two sections, and these are explained below: 1. All items required were properly identified and commented on . You must elaborate your answers according to what was addressed in the Lectures and modules [45 marks ] 2. Professionalism of communication [ 5 marks ] • Submission through Turnitin, with a 30% maximum of similarity (10% penalty per each day in delay) . For any submission problems , please contact WSU IT ( itservicedesk@westernsydn ey.edu.au ), or for any other issues , please contact Laura ( [email protected] ). • Word count: 2500 – 3000 words (excluding Q2 table and Q4 a) calculations) – MS Word or similar format (PDF or Word ). • Online submission through Turn -it-in via vUWS by Week 15 (Monday 12th Jun e 202 2 by midnight 11:59pm). • This assignment is worth 5 0% of the overall marks in BLDG 1011 Property Building. Good luck!
*Please view Assignment Brief Drawings, DCP and Table in the attached files* You work for 2023 Property Developers Ltd, and your task is to provide advice to Dr Mary Hardie, Dr. Laura Almeida, and Dr.
REVIEW NOTES BLDG1011 PROPERTY BUILDING 1. Examination /Assignment 3 • Take home assignment • Submission in 2 weeks, on the 12th of June 202 3 at 11.59pm • Long answer questions • Calculation • IMPORTANT: o There are 5 questions. In question 3 there are 3 options. Answer one ONLY. Question 4 has sub -questions (i.e. a)) o Use the time in your tutorials to answer the questions. Spend approximately 30 minutes on a question o The questions will be drawn from the M odule notes , Self -Assessment Questions and Lecture notes o Be sure to add sketches whenever a q uestion require s (free hand drawing is allowed ). 2. Lectures and Modules Questions are drawn from the following modules. READ these modules and lecture notes with reference to these KEY points . Module 1 and Lecture Notes (Week 1): ➢ Passive Solar Design Passive Solar Design principles can be broken down under the following headings: 1 Design for climate 2 Orientation and shading 3 Building Envelope and Fenestration 4 Thermal Mass 5 Ventilation , Passive cooling and heating, and Zoning 6 Insulation and condensation (thermal bridges) 7 Landscaping 8 Daylighting ➢ Site Analysis and Evaluation – Local climate – Planning controls – Available utilities – Community services – Size, orientation and slope – Microclimate, aspect and prospect – Existing vegetation – Rare or endangered species – Site geology – Site drainage patterns – Potential hazards Potential development of surrounding area Module 2 and Lecture Notes (Week 2): ➢ Types of standard contract ➢ Key information in Construction Contract ➢ Insurance s and licencing ➢ Dispute Resolution ➢ Historic housing styles Module 3 and Lecture Notes (Week 3): ➢ Regulations ➢ Surveying ➢ Land titles ➢ LEPs and DCPs ➢ Australian Standards for residential buildings Module 5 and Lecture Notes (Week 5): ➢ Foundations vs Footings ➢ Functions of Foundation in Construction ➢ Soil Classification and Grading ➢ Civil works for residential building Module 6 and Lecture Notes (Week 6): ➢ Types of Footings (with sketches) ➢ Footing selection ➢ The advantages and disadvantages of Concrete footings ➢ Concrete and Concrete testing ➢ Damp proofing Modu le 7 and Lecture Notes (Week 7): ➢ Timber framing standards/Code ➢ AS1684 Span, Spacing and Continuous Span ➢ Wall framing ➢ Floor framing ➢ Bracing and Fixings ➢ Termites control in timber frames Module 9 and Lecture Notes (Week 9): ➢ Roof Shapes: Hip / Traditional / Gable / Skillion / Flat / Dutch Gable ➢ Coupled roof framing members ( Figure in Assignment 2) ➢ Trussed roofs ➢ Roof claddings: Sheet Roofing/ Tiled Roofing Module 10 and Lecture Notes (Week 10): ➢ Cladding ➢ Brick Veneer Construction : Benefits/Advantages ➢ Types of brick bonds and joints ➢ Cavity brick construction (Advantages/Benefits) ➢ Thermal bridging Module 1 1 and Lecture Notes (Week 1 1): ➢ Services ➢ Potable water and water efficiency ➢ Sanitary drainage and plumbing ➢ Electricity ➢ Gas Module 1 2 and Lecture Notes (Week 1 2): ➢ Fit -out: walls, ceilings, and floors ➢ Dry area construction ➢ Windows and doors ➢ Waterproofing Module 1 3 and Lecture Notes (Week 1 3): ➢ Internal finishes, wall and floor tiling ➢ Natural, synthetic and engineered materials and finishes ➢ External finishes : Trims and Balustrades ➢ Hard and soft l andscaping Module 14 and Lecture Notes (Week 14): ➢ Hazardous conditions or situations in Australia ➢ Alternative construction methods/techniques ➢ Defects or faults that occur in residential buildings IMPORTANT : FOR SAMPLE QUESTIONS ON THE ABOVE MODULES AND LECTURE NOTES REFER TO THE SELF -ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
*Please view Assignment Brief Drawings, DCP and Table in the attached files* You work for 2023 Property Developers Ltd, and your task is to provide advice to Dr Mary Hardie, Dr. Laura Almeida, and Dr.
AS AS 1684.4—2010 Residential timber-framed construction (Incorporating Amendment No. 1) Part 4: Simplified—Non-Cyclonic Areas Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee TM-002, Timber Framing. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 21 December 2009. This Standard was published on 21 June 2010. The following are represented on Committee TM-002: • A3P • Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia • Australian Building Codes Board • Australian Institute of Building • Building Research Association of New Zealand • CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructures Technology • Engineered Wood Products Association of Australasia • Engineers Australia • Forest Industries Federation (WA) • Frame and Truss Manufacturers Association Australia • Housing Industry Association • Master Builders, Australia • New Zealand Timber Industry Federation • Scion • South Australian Housing Trust • Timber and Building Materials Association, NSW • Timber Development Association, NSW • Timber Queensland Additional Interests: • Mr Peter Juniper This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR AS 1684.4. Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the Committee and through the public comment period. Keeping Standards up-to-date Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been published since the Standard was published. Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can be found by visiting www.standards.org.au Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at [email protected], or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 (Incorporating Amendment No. 1) Australian Standard ® Residential timber-framed construction Part 4: Simplified—Non-cyclonic areas First published as AS O56―1946. Second edition 1948. Revised and redesignated as AS CA38―1971. Revised and redesignated as AS 1684―1975. Third edition 1992. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1684.4―1999. Third edition 2010. Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (June 2012). COPYRIGHT © Standards Australia Limited All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher, unless otherwise permitted under the Copyright Act 1968. Published by SAI Global Limited under licence from Standards Australia Limited, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia ISBN 978 0 7337 9436 0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 2 PREFACE This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australian/Standards New Zealand Committee TM-002, Timber Framing, to supersede AS 1684.4—2006. After consultation with stakeholders in both countries, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand decided to develop this Standard as an Australian Standard rather than an Australian/New Zealand Standard. This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (June 2012). The changes required by the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the clause, note, table, figure, or part thereof affected. The objective of this Standard is to provide the building industry with procedures that can be used to determine building practice, to design or check construction details, and to determine member sizes, and bracing and fixing requirements for timber-framed construction in non-cyclonic wind classifications N1 and N2. The objectives of this revision are to ― (a) include editorial amendments and some technical changes to correct mistakes, clarify interpretation and enhance the application of the document; (b) incorporate the outcomes of recent research projects that considered the role and function of wall noggings (Clause 6.2.1.5); and (c) provide some adjustments to the Span Table values in Appendix A for stress grades MGP 10, MGP 12 and MGP 15 in response to changes to the design characteristic values for these stress grades in AS 1720.1. NOTE:These adjustments have been made recognising that MGP stress grades represent the major product usage in the marketplace. Further work is required to assess and more fully respond to existing and expected changes to the related loading, design, and design criteria Standards, and this may result in a future revision of Span Tables in the Supplements for all stress grades. Prior to using this Standard, it is necessary to establish the design gust wind speed and wind classification (see Clause 1.4.2). This Standard is a companion publication to the following: AS 1684 Residential timber-framed construction 1684.1 Part 1: Design criteria 1684.2 Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas 1684.3 Part 3 Cyclonic areas This Standard has been derived from AS 1684.2 to provide a simpler design procedure for lower wind classification areas where details of bracing and tie-downs are simplified. It should be noted that this Standard differs from AS 1684.2 in a number of areas in order to achieve the simplification. Some of the differences are as follows: (A) Input to the Span Tables requiring references to span and spacing. (B) The geometric limits of the house are more restricted, e.g., 12.0 m maximum width and 30° maximum roof pitch. (C) Span Tables are provided for a more limited range of stress grades. (D) Design of bracing is simplified. (E) Where required, design of tie-down is simplified. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 3 AS 1684.4—2010 Alternatively, for wind classifications N1 and N2, more economical design may be obtained by following the design procedures given in AS 1684.2. For wind classifications N3 and N4 for non-cyclonic areas, see AS 1684.2. This Standard does not preclude the use of framing, fastening or bracing methods or materials other than those specified. Alternatives may be used, provided they satisfy the requirements of the Building Code of Australia. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to the tables and figures are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. Notes to the text contain information and guidance. They are not an integral part of the Standard. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to the Span Tables in Appendix A are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 4 CONTENTS Page SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 1.2 COMPANION DOCUMENTS ………………………………………………………………………… 6 1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………… 7 1.4 LIMITATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 1.5 DESIGN CRITERIA …………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 1.6 LOAD PATHS, OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS ……………………………………………. 12 1.7 DURABILITY …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 1.8 DIMENSIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 1.9 BEARING ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 1.10 STRESS GRADES ………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 1.11 ENGINEERED TIMBER PRODUCTS …………………………………………………………… 14 1.12 SIZE TOLERANCES …………………………………………………………………………………… 15 1.13 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS ……………………………………………………… 15 1.14 STEEL GRADE AND CORROSION PROTECTION ……………………………………….. 16 SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 2.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17 2.2 TERMINOLOGY OF FRAMING MEMBERS …………………………………………………. 17 2.3 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION …………………………………………………………………. 20 2.4 STUD LAMINATION ………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 2.5 HORIZONTAL NAIL LAMINATION—WALL PLATES ONLY ………………………. 22 2.6 DEFINITIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22 SECTION 3 SUBSTRUCTURE 3.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25 3.2 SITE PREPARATION AND DRAINAGE ………………………………………………………. 25 3.3 GROUND CLEARANCE AND SUBFLOOR VENTILATION ………………………….. 25 3.4 TERMITE MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………. 25 3.5 SUBSTRUCTURE BRACING ………………………………………………………………………. 25 3.6 SUBFLOOR SUPPORTS ……………………………………………………………………………… 25 SECTION 4 FLOOR FRAMING 4.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 4.2 BUILDING PRACTICE ……………………………………………………………………………….. 32 4.3 MEMBER SIZES …………………………………………………………………………………………. 35 SECTION 5 FLOORING AND DECKING 5.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 5.2 FITTED FLOORS (CUT-IN FLOORS) …………………………………………………………… 38 5.3 EXPANSION JOINTS ………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 5.4 LAYING AND FIXING ……………………………………………………………………………….. 38 5.5 JOIST SPACING—FLOORING…………………………………………………………………….. 41 5.6 DECKING ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43 SECTION 6 WALL FRAMING 6.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44 6.2 BUILDING PRACTICE ……………………………………………………………………………….. 44 6.3 MEMBER SIZES …………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 5 AS 1684.4—2010 Page SECTION 7 ROOF FRAMING 7.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 7.2 BUILDING PRACTICE ……………………………………………………………………………….. 58 7.3 MEMBER SIZES …………………………………………………………………………………………. 73 SECTION 8 BRACING 8.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80 8.2 TEMPORARY BRACING ……………………………………………………………………………. 81 8.3 PERMANENT BRACING …………………………………………………………………………….. 81 SECTION 9 FIXINGS AND TIE-DOWN DESIGN 9.1 GENERAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 96 9.2 GENERAL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS ……………………………………………….. 96 9.3 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FIXING AND TIE-DOWN REQUIREMENTS …………………………………………………………….. 98 9.4 NOMINAL AND SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS …………………………………. 98 9.5 NOMINAL FIXINGS (MINIMUM FIXINGS) …………………………………………………. 99 9.6 SPECIFIC FIXINGS (TIE-DOWN) ………………………………………………………………. 101 APPENDICES A MEMBER SPAN TABLES …………………………………………………………………………. 107 B MOISTURE CONTENT ……………………………………………………………………………… 196 C EXAMPLE OF EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING ………………………………….. 197 D COLLAR TIES WITH MULTIPLE ROWS OF UNDERPURLINS …………………… 198 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 6 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Residential timber-framed construction Part 4: Simplified—Non-cyclonic areas SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE This Standard specifies requirements for building practice and for the selection, placement and fixing of the various structural elements used in the construction of timber-framed Class 1 and Class 10 Buildings as defined by the Building Code of Australia and within the limitations given in Clause 1.4. The provisions of the Standard also apply to alterations and additions to these buildings. This Standard also provides building practice and procedures that assist in the correct specification and determination of timber members, bracing and connections, thereby minimizing the risk of creating an environment that may adversely affect the ultimate performance of the structure. This Standard may also be applicable to the design and construction of other classes of buildings where the design criteria, loadings and other parameters applicable to those classes of building are within the limitations of this Standard. NOTES: 1 See AS 1684.1 for details of design criteria, loadings and other parameters. 2 Whilst this Standard may be used to design Class 10 buildings, less conservative levels of design for this building class may be permitted by building regulations and other Australian Standards. 3 Advisory information for the construction and specifications of timber stairs, handrails and balustrades, is provided in the FWPA’s publication (see the Bibliography). Member Span Tables are given in Appendix A. 1.2 COMPANION DOCUMENTS This Standard is a companion publication to the following: AS 1684 Residential timber-framed construction 1684.1 Part 1: Design criteria 1684.2 Part 2: Non-cyclonic wind areas 1684.3 Part 3: Cyclonic wind areas Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 7 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES The following are the normative documents referenced in this Standard: AS 1170 Structural design actions 1170.4 Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia 1214 Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series) 1397 Steel sheet and strip—Hot-dip zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated 1684 Residential timber-framed construction 1684.1 Part 1: Design criteria 1684.2 Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas 1691 Domestic oil-fired appliances—Installation 1720 Timber structures 1720.1 Part 1: Design methods 1810 Timber—Seasoned cypress pine—Milled products 1860 Particleboard flooring 1860.2 Part 2: Installation 2796 Timber—Hardwood—Sawn and milled products 2796.1 Part 1: Product specification 2870 Residential slabs and footings—Construction 4055 Wind loads for housing 4440 Installation of nailplated timber trusses 4785 Timber—Seasoned softwood— Sawn and milled products 4785.1 Part 1: Product specification 5604 Timber—Natural durability ratings AS/NZS 1170 Structural design actions 1170.1 Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions 1170.2 Part 2: Wind actions 1604 Specification for preservative treatment (all Parts) 1859 Reconstituted wood-based panels—Specifications 1859.4 Part 4: Wet-processed fibreboard 1860 Particleboard flooring 1860.1 Part 1: Specifications 2269 Plywood—Structural 2269.0 Part 0 Specifications 2918 Domestic solid fuel burning appliances—Installation 4534 Zinc and zinc/aluminium-alloy coatings on steel wire 4791 Hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on ferrous open sections, applied by an in-line process ABCB BCA Building Code of Australia Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 8 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 1.4 LIMITATIONS 1.4.1 General The criteria specified in this Standard are specifically for conventional timber-framed buildings and applicable to single- and two-storey constructions built within the limits or parameters given in Clauses 1.4.2 to 1.4.11 and Figure 1.1. 1.4.2 Wind classification For wind loads, the simplified wind classifications for non-cyclonic areas N1 and N2, as described by AS 4055, shall be used with the corresponding maximum design gust wind speeds given in Table 1.1. Either AS 4055 or AS/NZS 1170.2 shall be used to determine the wind classification necessary for the use of this Standard. The maximum wind classification shall be N2, which is determined as follows: (a) Where the wind classification is determined from AS 4055, the maximum building height limitation of 8.5 m, as given in AS 4055, shall apply to this Standard. The maximum building width is specified in Clause 1.4.5. (b) Where AS/NZS 1170.2 is used to determine the maximum design gust wind speed, a wind classification shall be adopted in accordance with Table 1.1. The ultimate limit state design gust wind speed determined from AS/NZS 1170.2 shall be not more than 5% greater than the ultimate limit state wind speed given in Table 1.1 for the corresponding wind classification adopted. NOTES: 1 The determination of the design gust wind speed and wind classification should take into account building height, terrain category, topographic classification, and shielding classification given in AS/NZS 1170.2 or AS 4055. 2 Some regulatory authorities provide wind classification maps or wind classifications for designated sites within their jurisdiction. TABLE 1.1 MAXIMUM DESIGN GUST WIND SPEED Wind classification Maximum design gust wind speed, m/s Regions A and B Permissible stress method (V p) Serviceability limit state (V s) Ultimate limit state (V u) N1 28 (W28N) 26 34 N2 33 (W33N) 26 40 1.4.3 Plan Building shapes shall be essentially rectangular, square, L-shaped or a combination of rectangular elements including splayed-end and boomerang-shaped buildings. 1.4.4 Number of storeys of timber framing The maximum number of storeys of timber framing shall not exceed two (see Section 2). 1.4.5 Width The maximum width of a building shall be 12000 mm, excluding eaves (see Figure 1.1). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 9 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. One or two storeyOne or two storey Roof pitch 30° max.Roof pitch 30°max. Roof pitch 30 max.°Roof pitch 30 max.° Eaves 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. (a) Sections 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. W 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. W 12.0 m max. W (b) Plan 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. 12.0 m max.12.0 m max. (c) Verandahs NOTE: Building height limitations apply where wind classification is determined using AS 4055 (see Clause 1.4.2). See also Clause 1.4.4. FIGURE 1.1 GEOMETRIC BUILDING PARAMETERS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 10 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 1.4.6 Wall height The maximum wall height shall be 2700 mm, floor to ceiling, as measured at external walls (see Figure 1.1). 1.4.7 Rafter overhang The maximum rafter overhang shall be 750 mm. 1.4.8 Roof pitch The maximum roof pitch shall be 30° (58:100). 1.4.9 Spacing 1.4.9.1 Rafters or trusses The maximum spacing of rafters or trusses shall be 900 mm for tile roof and 1200 mm for sheet roof. 1.4.9.2 Bracing The spacing of bracing elements, measured at right angles to elements, shall not exceed 9000 mm (see Section 8). 1.4.10 Roof types Roof construction shall be hip, gable, skillion, cathedral, trussed or pitched or in any combination of these (see Figures 2.2 to 2.7). 1.4.11 Building masses The maximum building masses (dead loads) specified in Tables 1.2 to 1.4 shall apply to the use of the Span Tables given in Appendix A. Reference shall also be made to the Notes given under each Span Table in Appendix A. TABLE 1.2 MAXIMUM BUILDING MASSES—FLOOR FRAMING Description Max. building mass kg/m 2 Joists and bearers supporting floor loads only 40 Bearers supporting loadbearing walls— (a) Floor loads (b) Roof and ceiling loads: (i) Sheet roof (ii) Tile roof 40 40 90 NOTES: 1 An allowance has also been included for the mass of sheeted walls. 2 The above loads are applicable to upper-, single-, and lower- storey bearers. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 11 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE 1.3 MAXIMUM BUILDING MASSES—WALL FRAMING Description Max. building mass kg/m 2 Studs, plates, lintels, and similar members, supporting single- or upper-storey loadbearing walls: (a) Sheet roof (b) Tile roof 40 90 Studs, plates, lintel, and similar members, supporting lower-storey loadbearing walls: (a) Sheet roof (b) Tile roof 40 (see Note 2) 90 NOTES: 1 Where appropriate, an allowance has also been included for the mass of the walls. 2 An allowance of 40 kg/m 2 for the mass of the floor supported has been included. TABLE 1.4 MAXIMUM BUILDING MASSES—ROOF FRAMING Description Max. building mass kg/m 2 Ceiling joists, hanging beams and counter beams— Ceiling lining (including battens) 12 Combined strutting/hanging and combined counter/strutting beams: (a) Sheet roofing plus ceiling lining (including battens) 32 (b) Tile roofing plus ceiling lining (including battens) 72 Strutting beams and underpurlins: (a) Sheet roof 20 (b) Tile roof 60 Rafters supporting roof loads only: (a) Sheet roof 20 (b) Tile roof 60 Rafters supporting roof and ceiling loads: (a) Sheet roof 40 (b) Tile roof 90 Ridge and intermediate beams: (a) Sheet roof 40 (b) Tile roof 90 Roof battens: (a) Sheet roof 10 (b) Tile roof 60 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 12 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 1.5 DESIGN CRITERIA The design criteria that have been used in the preparation of this Standard are the following: (a) The bases of the design used in the preparation of this Standard are AS 1684.1 and AS 1720.1. (b) The design dead, live, and wind loadings recommended in AS/NZS 1170.1, AS/NZS 1170.2 and AS 4055, were taken into account in the member computations, with appropriate allowances for the distribution of concentrated or localized loads over a number of members where relevant (see also Clause 1.4.2). NOTE: Construction supporting vehicle loads is outside the scope of this Standard. (c) All pressures, loads, forces and capacities given in this Standard are based on limit state design. (d) The member sizes, bracing and connection details are suitable for construction (including timber-framed brick veneer) of design category H1 and H2 domestic structures in accordance with AS 1170.4. This Standard does not provide specifications for unreinforced masonry construction subject to earthquake loads. NOTE: Typical unreinforced masonry may include masonry bases for timber-framed houses . (e) The effects of snow loads up to 0.2 kPa on member sizes, bracing and connection details have been accommodated in the design. (f) The minimum racking capacity of Type A and Type B bracing units shall be 3 kN and 6 kN, respectively (limit state design). 1.6 LOAD PATHS—OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS Roof loads shall be transferred through the timber frame to the footings by the most direct route possible. For floor framing, the limitations imposed regarding the support of point loads and the use of offsets and cantilevers are specified in Section 4. NOTES: 1 This load path in many cases cannot be maintained in a completely vertical path, relying on structural members that transfer loads horizontally. Offset or cantilevered floor framing supporting loadbearing walls may also be used (see Figures 1.2 and 1.3). 2 Floor members designed as ‘supporting floor load only’ may support a loadbearing wall (walls supporting roof loads) where the loadbearing wall occurs directly over a support or is at or within 1.5 times the depth of the floor member from the support (see also Clause 4.3.2.2 and Clause 4.3.3.3). 3 Other members supporting roof or floor loads where the load occurs directly over the support or is at or within 1.5 times the depth of the member from the support do not require to be designed for that load. For the measurement of offset, see Figure 1.3. Backspan Cantilever Adequate fixing required to backspan supportAdequate fixing required to backspan support FIGURE 1.2 CANTILEVER Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 13 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Offset 1.5 max.DOffset 1.5 max.D Roof or floor loadRoof or floor load Support This member designed as not supporting loadThis member designed as not supporting load D FIGURE 1.3 OFFSET 1.7 DURABILITY Structural timber used in accordance with this Standard shall have the level of durability appropriate for the relevant climate and expected service life and conditions, including exposure to insect attack or to moisture, which could cause decay. Structural timber members that are in ground contact or that are not protected from weather exposure and associated moisture ingress shall be of in-ground durability class 1 or 2 as appropriate (see AS 5604), or shall be adequately treated with preservative in accordance with the AS/NZS 1604 series, unless the ground contact or exposure is of a temporary nature. 1.8 DIMENSIONS Timber dimensions throughout this Standard are stated by nominating the depth of the member first, followed by its breadth (see Figure 1.4); e.g., 90 × 35 mm (studs, joists, etc.), 45 × 70 (wall plates, battens, etc.). Length Breadth Breadth (thickness)Breadth (thickness) Breadth DepthDepth Depth (width)Depth (width) FIGURE 1.4 DIMENSIONS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 14 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 1.9 BEARING The minimum bearing for specific framing members (bearers, lintels, hanging beams, strutting beams, combined strutting/hanging beams, counter beams, combined counter and strutting beams, and verandah beams) shall be as given in the Notes to the Span Tables of Appendix A, as appropriate. In all other cases, framing members shall bear on their supporting element, a minimum of 30 mm at their ends or 60 mm at the continuous part of the member, by their full breadth (thickness). Reduced bearing area shall only be used where additional fixings are provided to give equivalent support to the members. Where the bearing area is achieved using a non-rectangular area such as a splayed joint, the equivalent bearing area shall not be less than that required above. 1.10 STRESS GRADES All structural timber used in conjunction with this Standard shall be stress-graded in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard. All structural timber to be used in conjunction with this Standard shall be identified in respect of stress grade. NOTE: The timber stress grade is usually designated alphanumerically (e.g., F17, MGP12). Stress grades covered by the Span Tables provided in this Standard are given in Table 1.5. TABLE 1.5 STRESS GRADES Species or species group Stress grade Cypress (unseasoned) F5, F7 Hardwood (unseasoned) F8, F11, F14 Hardwood (seasoned) F17, (F27 joists and beams only) Seasoned Softwood (Radiata, slash, hoop, Caribbean, pinaster pines etc.) F5, F8 (studs and plates only), MGP10, MGP12 Douglas Fir (Oregon) (unseasoned) F5, F7 Spruce Pine Fir (SPF) (seasoned) F5 Hemfir (seasoned) F5 NOTES: 1 Timber that has been visually, mechanically or proof stress-graded may be used in accordance with this Standard at the stress grade branded thereon. 2 Check timber suppliers or contact local timber advisory services to confirm availability of timber stress grades. 1.11 ENGINEERED TIMBER PRODUCTS Fabricated components, such as roof trusses, glued-laminated timber members, I-beams, laminated veneer lumber and nailplate-joined timber, may be used where their design is in accordance with AS 1720.1, and their manufacture and use complies with the relevant Australian Standards. NOTE: In some situations, there are no relevant Australian Standards applicable to the design, manufacture or use of engineered timber products. In such cases, the use of these products in accordance with this Standard is subject to the approval of the regulatory authority and the recommendations of the specific manufacturer, who may require provisions additional to those contained in this Standard. These may include, but are not restricted to, additional support, lateral restraint, blocking, and similar provisions. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 15 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 1.12 SIZE TOLERANCES When using the Span Tables given in Appendix A, the following maximum undersize tolerances on timber sizes shall be permitted: (a) Unseasoned timber: (i) Up to and including F7 ………………………………………………………………….. 4 mm. (ii) F8 and above ………………………………………………………………………………. 3 mm. (b) Seasoned timber—All stress grades ………………………………………………………….. 0 mm. NOTE: When checking unseasoned timber dimensions onsite, allowance should be made for shrinkage, which may have occurred since milling. 1.13 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS The alternative timber dimensions given by this Clause shall not apply to the Span Tables given in Appendix A. Where a timber dimension is stated in the Clauses of this Standard, it refers to the usual minimum dimensions of seasoned timber. Alternative nominal dimensions for unseasoned timber shall be in accordance with Table 1.6. The size tolerances given in Clause 1.12 are also applicable to these dimensions. TABLE 1.6 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS Minimum seasoned timber dimension mm Allowable dimension nominal unseasoned timber dimensions mm 19 25 32 38 35 38 42 50 45 50 70 75 90 100 120 125 140 150 170 175 190 200 240 250 290 300 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 16 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 1.14 STEEL GRADE AND CORROSION PROTECTION All metal used in structural timber connections shall be provided with corrosion protection appropriate for the particular conditions of use. Where corrosion protection of steel is required it shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 4791, AS/NZS 4534, AS 1397 and AS 1214. The level of corrosion protection provided shall take into consideration weather exposure, timber treatment, moisture and presence of salt. The minimum corrosion protection that shall be applied to metal straps, framing anchors and similar structural connections shall be Z 275. The minimum thickness of metal strap shall be 0.8 mm and the minimum net cross-section area shall be 21 mm 2, unless noted otherwise. Where other types of corrosion protection are provided, they shall satisfy the requirements of the relevant authority. The min. steel grade for metal strap, framing anchors and similar structural connection shall be G 300. The grade of all other metal components shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian Standards. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 17 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 2.1 GENERAL The terminology and definitions given in this Section shall be used in conjunction with the requirements of this Standard. 2.2 TERMINOLOGY OF FRAMING MEMBERS Figure 2.1 details floor, wall and ceiling framing members in general. Figures 2.2 to 2.7 apply to roof framing. Rafter Fascia Lintel Ledger Jack stud Sill trimmer Jamb stud Jack stud Soffit bearer Termite shield (ant cap)Termite shield (ant cap)Cleat (hanger) Hanging beam Ceiling joist Jack ceiling joist (trimmer)Jack ceiling joist (trimmer) Top wall plate Brace Nogging Common stud Bottom wall plate Floor joist Bearer Stump (post, pier) NOTE: The ceiling and floor joists are shown parallel to the external loadbearing wall for clarity. In practice, the more usual case is for the joists to be located perpendicular to the external wall. Lintel location may also vary (see Figure 6.8). FIGURE 2.1 FRAMING MEMBERS—FLOOR, WALL AND CEILING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 18 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Fascia Raking plateRaking plate Solid blockingSolid blocking Bargeboard (verge, verge rafter)Bargeboard (verge, verge rafter)Outrigger Top plateTo p plate Ceiling joistCeiling joist Underpurlin Collar tieCollar tie Common rafterCommon rafter Ridgeboard NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity. FIGURE 2.2 FRAMING MEMBERS—GABLE ROOF CONSTRUCTION Top plateTo p plate Creeper rafterCreeper rafter Valley rafterValley rafter Jack rafter (crown end)Jack rafter (crown end) Cripple creeper rafterCripple creeper rafter Broken hipBroken hip Ridgeboard Hip rafterHip rafter Creeper rafterCreeper rafter Hip rafterHip rafter Jack ceiling joistJack ceiling joist Common rafterCommon rafter Ceiling joistCeiling joist Roof strutRoof strut UnderpurlinHanging beam Valley creeper rafterValley creeper rafter Collar tieCollar tie Jack rafterJack rafter (crown end)(crown end) Fascia 190 x 19 min.Fascia 190 x19 min. NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity. DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES FIGURE 2.3 FRAMING MEMBERS—HIP AND VALLEY ROOF CONSTRUCTION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 19 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Top plateTo p plate Valley creeper rafterValley creeper rafter Scotch valley (pitching plate)Scotch valley (pitching plate) Fascia Common rafterCommon rafter Common rafterCommon rafter Ceiling joistCeiling joist Ridgeboard NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity. FIGURE 2.4 FRAMING MEMBERS—SCOTCH VALLEY CONSTRUCTION Ridge beamRidge beam Studs supporting concentrations of loadsStuds supporting concentrations of loads Intermediate beamIntermediate beam Common rafter supporting roof and ceiling loads ()roof beamCommon rafter supporting roof and ceiling loads ()roof beam Eaves beamEaves beam Raking top plateRaking top plate Verge rafterVerge rafter NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity. FIGURE 2.5 FRAMING MEMBERS—CATHEDRAL ROOF CONSTRUCTION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 20 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Fascia Raking plateRaking plate Solid blockingSolid blocking Bargeboard (verge, verge rafter)Bargeboard (verge, verge rafter) OutriggerBargeboard Top plateTo p plate FIGURE 2.6 SKILLION ROOF Standard trussStandard truss Structural fasciaStructural fascia Raking truss (gable truss)Raking truss (gable truss) Verge overhangVerge overhang End wallEnd wall Outriggers Gable end studGable end stud Barge (verge rafter)Barge (verge rafter) NOTE: This diagram applies to verge overhangs greater than 300 mm from the raking or gable truss (see AS 4440). FIGURE 2.7 GABLE END—TRUSSED ROOF 2.3 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION Vertical nail lamination shall be permitted to achieve the required breadth for the larger section sizes given in the Span Tables in Appendix A using thinner and more readily obtainable sections. This is only permissible using seasoned timber laminations of the same timber type and stress grade. Laminations shall be unjoined in their length. Nails shall be a minimum of 2.8 mm in diameter and shall be staggered as shown in Figure 2.8. They shall be through-nailed and clinched, or nailed from both sides . Where screws are used in lieu of nails, they shall be minimum No. 10 screws. They may be at the same spacing and pattern, provided they penetrate a minimum of 75% into the thickness of the final receiving member. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 21 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia D 2 max.D2 max.D Additional nail(s) atpointofloador supportAdditional nail(s) at point of load or support FIGURE 2.8 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION (STRUTTING BEAMS SHOWN) 2.4 STUD LAMINATION The required size may be built up by using two or more laminations of the same timber type, stress grade and moisture content condition, provided the achieved width is at least that of the nominated size. Studs up to 38 mm thick shall be nailed together with one 75 mm nail at maximum 600 mm centres. Studs over 38 mm but not exceeding 50 mm thick shall be nailed with one 90 mm nail at maximum 600 centres (see Figure 2.9). Where screws are used in lieu of nails, they shall be minimum No. 10 screws. They may be at the same spacing and pattern, provided they penetrate a minimum of 75% into the thickness of the final receiving member. Posts shall not be nail-laminated. Multiple studs nailed together at 600 mm max. centresMultiple studs nailed together at 600 mm max. centres 600 mm max.600 mm max. Plates nailed together over each studPlates nailed together over each stud Joints min. 1200 mm apart and staggeredJoints min. 1200 mm apart and staggered Where joints occur in either top plate between studs, and where rafter or truss bears onto top plates, additional blocking shall be providedWhere joints occur in either top plate between studs, and where rafter or truss bears onto top plates, additional blocking shall be provided NOTE: Refer to Section 9 for other nominal fixing requirements including plates to studs. FIGURE 2.9 STUD OR PLATE LAMINATION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 22 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 2.5 HORIZONTAL NAIL LAMINATION—WALL PLATES ONLY Wall plates that are made up of more than one section (e.g., 2/35 × 70) shall be horizontally nail-laminated in accordance with Figure 2.9, using— (a) two 75 mm long nails for plates up to 38 mm deep; or (b) two 90 mm long nails for plates up to 50 mm deep (see also Clause 9.2.8). A minimum of two nails shall be installed at not greater than 600 mm centres along the plate. Where more than two plates are used, the nailing requirement applies to each lamination All joints in multiple bottom plates shall occur over solid supports such as floor joists, solid blocking between bottom plate and bearer or concrete slab. 2.6 DEFINITIONS 2.6.1 Loadbearing wall A wall that supports roof or floor loads, or both roof and floor loads. 2.6.2 Non-loadbearing wall A wall that supports neither roof nor floor loads but which may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. A non-loadbearing external wall may support ceiling and lateral wind loads. 2.6.3 Regulatory authority The authority that is authorized by legal statute as having justification to approve the design and construction of a building, or any part of the building design and construction process. NOTE: In the context of this Standard, the regulatory authority may include local council building surveyors, private building surveyors or other persons nominated by the appropriate State or Territory building legislation as having the legal responsibility for approving the use of structural timber products. 2.6.4 Roof 2.6.4.1 Coupled roof Pitched roof construction with a roof slope not less than 10°, with ceiling joists and collar ties fixed to opposing common rafter pairs and a ridgeboard at the apex of the roof (see Figure 7.1). A coupled roof system may include some area where it is not possible to fix ceiling joists or collar ties to all rafters, e.g., hip ends or parts of T- or L-shaped house. 2.6.4.2 Non-coupled roof A pitched roof that is not a coupled roof and includes cathedral roofs and roofs constructed using ridge and intermediate beams. 2.6.4.3 Pitched roof A roof where members are cut to suit, and which is erected on site. 2.6.4.4 Trussed roof An engineered roof frame system designed to carry the roof or roof and ceiling, usually without the support of internal walls. 2.6.5 Span and spacing 2.6.5.1 General NOTE:Figure 2.10 illustrates the terms spacing, span, single span and continuous span. 2.6.5.2 Spacing The centre-to-centre distance between structural members, unless otherwise indicated. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 23 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 2.6.5.3 Span The face-to-face distance between points capable of giving full support to structural members or assemblies. In particular, rafter spans are measured as the distance between points of support along the length of the rafter and not as the horizontal projection of this distance. 2.6.5.4 Single span The span of a member supported at or near both ends with no immediate supports. This includes the case where members are partially cut through over intermediate supports to remove spring (see Figures 2.10(c) and 2.10(d)). 2.6.5.5 Continuous span The term applied to members supported at or near both ends and at one or more intermediate points such that no span is greater than twice another (see Figure 2.10(e)). 2.6.6 Stress grade The classification of timber to indicate, for the purposes of design, a set of structural design properties in accordance with AS 1720.1. 2.6.7 Stud height The distance from top of bottom plate to underside of top plate or the distance between points of lateral restraint provided to both the breadth and depth of the stud. 2.6.8 Two-storey In any section through the house, construction that includes not more than two levels of timber-framed trafficable floor. Trafficable floors in attics and lofts are included in the number of storeys. NOTE: This requirement does not preclude the application of this Standard to up to a two-storey timber-framed construction supported— (a) by a bearer and joist substructure designed in accordance with this Standard; or (b) by lower levels of timber wall framing or other support systems designed in accordance with engineering principles and approved by the regulatory authority. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 24 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Joists spacing (centre-line to centre-line)Joists spacing (centre-line to centre-line) Bearer spacing (centre-line to centre-line)Bearer spacing (centre-line to centre-line) Joists span (between internal faces of support members)Joists span (between internal faces of support members) (a) Bearers and joists Rafter span Overhang (b) Rafter Single spanSingle span (c) Two supports Single spanSingle span Single spanSingle span Saw cutSaw cut JointorlapJoint or lap (d) Joint or sawcut over supports Continuous spanContinuous span Continuous spanContinuous span (e) Continuous span NOTE: The design span is the average span unless one span is more than 10% longer than another, in which case the design span is the longest span. FIGURE 2.10 SPACING AND SPAN Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 25 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia SECTION 3 SUBSTRUCTURE 3.1 GENERAL This Section sets out the requirements for site preparation, subfloor supports and the determination of footing sizes that are suitable to support timber-framed houses. 3.2 SITE PREPARATION AND DRAINAGE The clearing and drainage of the site, on which the building is to be erected, shall be adequate to ensure protection of any timber framing or components from the effects of prolonged dampness or insect attack. 3.3 GROUND CLEARANCE AND SUBFLOOR VENTILATION Ground clearance and subfloor ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of the Building Code of Australia. 3.4 TERMITE MANAGEMENT In any area in which the risk of termite attack is known to exist, protection against such attack shall be provided in accordance with provisions of the Building Code of Australia. 3.5 SUBSTRUCTURE BRACING The substructure shall be adequately braced (see Section 8). 3.6 SUBFLOOR SUPPORTS 3.6.1 General This Clause sets out the requirements for the selection of stumps or posts and pad footings or soleplates required to transfer roof, wall and floor loads to the soil foundation. NOTES: 1 The bracing requirements of Section 8 may necessitate the use of alternative footing or post/stump details to those given in this Section. 2 For other roof spans, bearer spans, and wind classifications greater than N2, see AS 1684.2. 3.6.2 Footing classification For the purposes of this Clause, footings for stumps or posts are classified as types 1 to 5, as given in Table 3.1. Footing types 1 to 4 are for use in areas where the allowable foundation bearing pressure is at least 100 kPa. Type 5 footings are only suitable where the allowable foundation bearing pressure equals or exceeds 125 kPa. When measured across the grain, timber soleplates shall not project from the face of the stump or post they support by a distance greater than their own thickness. The maximum projection from the face of the stump along the grain, which could be considered as effective, shall be three times the thickness of the soleplate. Footings shall be proportioned to evenly distribute vertical and lateral loads from the building to the foundation material such that significant settlement or other movement is prevented. Further provisions, including minimum depth requirements, are given in AS 2870. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 26 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 3.1 FOOTING CLASSIFICATION Footing type Minimum bearing area, m 2 Minimum size of unreinforced concrete pad footing, mm Minimum size of timber sole plates, mm 1 0.045 230 × 230 × 100 deep or 250 dia. × 100 deep 200 × 225 ×38 thick 2 0.090 300 × 300 × 150 deep or 350 dia. × 150 deep 250 × 360 × 75 thick 3 0.120 350 × 350 × 200 deep or 400 dia. × 200 deep 300 × 400 × 75 thick 4 0.180 430 × 430 × 250 deep or 500 dia. × 200 deep 300 × 600 × 100 thick 5 0.180 430 × 430 × 250 deep or 500 dia. × 200 deep 300 × 600 × 100 thick 3.6.3 Stumps or posts 3.6.3.1 Sizes Stump or post sizes shall be appropriate to the footing type used, as given in Table 3.2. The use of stumps or posts in material other than timber shall be subject to the requirements of the relevant authority. Timber durability and/or preservative treatment shall be appropriate for the expected service conditions. NOTE: Specifications for stumps or posts in material other than timber are given in the BCA. TABLE 3.2 STUMP/POST SIZES Footing type (see Table 3.1) Stress grade F4 F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 Minimum timber stump/post size, mm 1 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 2 125 × 125 or 125 dia. 125 × 125 or 120 dia. 100 × 100 or 115 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 3 125 × 125 or 135 dia. 125 × 125 or 130 dia. 125 × 125 or 120 dia. 100 × 100 or 115 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 4 150 × 150 or 150 dia. 125 × 125 or 145 dia. 125 × 125 or 135 dia. 125 × 125 or 125 dia. 125 × 125 or 120 dia. 100 × 100 or 115 dia. 5 As approved NOTES: 1 Stump or post size is also dependent upon height above ground (see Clause 3.6.3.2). 2 For termite management, refer to the Building Code of Australia. 3 Clause 1.13 is not applicable to this Table. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 27 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 3.6.3.2 Height The above-ground height of any stump or post determined by using Table 3.2 shall not exceed 15 times the required minimum face width or diameter. NOTE: Where posts or stumps are designed in accordance with engineering principles, the height limitation may be increased. 3.6.3.3 Embedment Stump or post embedment in the foundation material shall be at least 0.3 times the stump height above ground level or 450 mm, whichever is the greater. 3.6.4 Footing type support limitations Tables 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 give maximum permissible bearer spans for each footing type, based on footing capacity. The Span Tables in Appendix A give maximum bearer spans based on the capacity of the relevant timber cross-section. Both of these requirements shall be satisfied. TABLE 3.3 BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 2—BEARERS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY Footing type Bearer spacing, mm 1500 1800 2100 Maximum permissible bearer span, mm 1 1900 1600 1400 2 3900 3300 2800 NOTE: Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type. Bearer size is determined from the relevant Span Tables given in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 28 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 3.4 BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 5—BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS Footing type Roofing type Rafter or truss span, mm 3000 6000 9000 12 000 Maximum permissible bearer span, mm Bearer spacing up to 1500 mm 1 2 3 4 5 Sheet 1300 2700 3600 5400 6700 1100 2200 3000 4400 5600 1000 1900 2500 3800 4800 NS 1700 2200 3300 4200 1 2 3 4 5 Tile 1000 1900 2600 3900 4800 NS 1500 1900 2900 3600 NS 1200 1600 2300 2900 NS 1000 1300 1900 2400 Bearer spacing 1500 to 2100 mm 1 2 3 4 5 Sheet 1000 2100 2800 4200 5200 NS 1800 2400 3600 4500 NS 1600 2100 3200 4000 NS 1400 1900 2800 3600 1 2 3 4 5 Tile NS 1600 2200 3200 4000 NS 1300 1700 2500 3200 NS 1000 1400 2100 2600 NS NS 1200 1800 2200 NOTES: 1 NS = not suitable 2 Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type. Bearer size is determined from the relevant member Span Tables given in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 29 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE 3.5 BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 5—BEARERS SUPPORTING TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS Footing type Roofing type Rafter or truss span, mm 3000 6000 9000 12 000 Maximum permissible bearer span, mm Upper plus lower floor joist spans up to 4800 mm 1 2 3 4 5 Sheet NS 1100 1400 2100 2700 NS 1000 1300 2000 2500 NS NS 1200 1800 2300 NS NS 1100 1700 2100 1 2 3 4 5 Tile NS NS 1200 1800 2300 NS NS 1000 1600 2000 NS NS NS 1400 1800 NS NS NS 1300 1600 Upper plus lower floor joist spans 4800 to 7200 mm 1 2 3 4 5 Sheet NS NS 1000 1500 1800 NS NS NS 1400 1700 NS NS NS 1300 1700 NS NS NS 1300 1600 1 2 3 4 5 Tile NS NS NS 1300 1700 NS NS NS 1200 1500 NS NS NS 1100 1400 NS NS NS 1000 1200 NOTES: 1 NS = not suitable 2 Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type. Bearer size is determined from the relevant member Span Tables given in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 30 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au SECTION 4 FLOOR FRAMING 4.1 GENERAL 4.1.1 Application This Section sets out the requirements for the construction of timber-framed floors and shall be used in conjunction with Span Tables A3 to A8 and A38 to A39 given in Appendix A. 4.1.2 Materials Any timber species may be used for floor framing, provided it is kept dry; that is, not exposed to weather, well ventilated, not in contact with or close to the ground (see Clause 3.3). 4.1.3 Framing configurations Various configurations of bearers and joists may be used to support flooring at either the ground level, or at the first floor level including conventional joists over bearers and joists in line with bearers (low profile floor framing). 4.1.4 Weatherproofing The detailing of wall cladding, flashings and damp-proof course in any construction shall be such that timber floor frame members will be protected from the weather or ground moisture rising through the substructure. 4.1.5 Shrinkage Where large unseasoned timber members or members with different shrinkage characteristics are used, allowance shall be made for shrinkage. NOTE: Shrinkage associated with the use of small section unseasoned bearers and joists (overall depth of floor frame 200 mm or less) is usually of minimal significance for the overall performance of the structure when using low shrinkage species. Additional allowance should be made for high shrinkage species. 4.1.6 Cuts, holes and notches in bearers and joists Cuts, holes and notches shall not exceed the sizes, nor be at closer spacing than those, given in Figure 4.1. Unless otherwise specified, the member size shall not be reduced by any other method to a net section size less than that required to achieve the span requirements. NOTES: 1 Significant imperfections, such as knots, should be regarded as holes with respect to the hole spacing limitations given in Figure 4.1. 2 Engineered timber products may have their own specific limitations (see Clause 1.11). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 31 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia D D/2 or 100 max.D/2 or 100 max. D/2 or 100 max.D/2 or 100 max. 6 min.D6 min.D D/8 or 25 max.D/8 or 25 max. D/8 or 25 max.D/8 or 25 max. (e) DB 6 min.B6 min.B B/4 max.B/4 max. (i) D,200 or greaterD, 200 or greater Not less than hole ØNot less than hole Ø 50Ømax.50 Ø max. (h) NOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 of spanNOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 of span 50 min.50 min. D, less than 200D, less than 200 D/4 max.D/4 max. D/3 min.D/3 min. (g) NOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 of spanNOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 of span D/3 min.D/3 min. Dmin.Dmin. D/8 or 25 max.D/8 or 25 max. No min.No min. D/8 or 25 max.D/8 or 25 max. (f) NOTE: Not more than 3 holes per 1800 of spanNOTE: Not more than 3 holes per 1800 of span D, less than 200D, less than 200 D D/4 max.D/4 max. (b) D D/4 max.D/4 max. (c) D D/2 max.D/2 max. D/4 max.D/4 max. 100 max.100 max. Notch may be over supportNotch may be over support (a) Notch may be over supportNotch may be over support D D/2 max.D/2 max. D/3 max.D/3 max. 100 max.100 max. (d) DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES FIGURE 4.1 NOTCHES, CUTS AND HOLES IN BEAMS, BEARERS, JOISTS, RAFTERS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 32 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 4.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 4.2.1 Bearers 4.2.1.1 General Bearers shall span between subfloor supports or walls. Bearers may either be single or continuous span over supports (see Clause 2.6.5). Where required bearers shall be levelled, preferably by checking (notching) out the underside over supports. Packing of minor deficiencies in depth is permitted provided the packing is a corrosion-resistant, incompressible material over the full area of support. Bearers with minor spring, within the allowable limits, shall have the spring placed to allow for straightening under loading. Joints in bearers shall occur only over supports, with adequate bearing for both members. Figure 4.2 shows various connection methods that may be used over supports. All cuts shall be located over the support. Regardless of their length, if bearers are partially cut through (crippled) over supports to correct bow or spring, they shall be deemed to be supported at two points only, i.e., single span. The minimum bearing each side of the joint shall be 50 mm NOTES: 1 Bearers may be planed to within the allowable tolerances of the member specified. 2 Some engineered nailplated products may permit joints to occur other than over supports (see Clause 1.11). Butt jointButt joint Half checkHalf check Dove tailDove tail Halved jointHalved joint Vertical scarfVertical scarf Scarfed jointScarfed joint NOTE: Bearers may also be lapped over supports. FIGURE 4.2 BEARER SUPPORTS (ALTERNATIVES) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 33 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 4.2.1.2 Fixing of bearers to supports Except as permitted for masonry veneer construction, bearers shall be fixed to their supporting stumps, posts or columns in such a manner as will give adequate bearing and provide restraint against lateral movement (see Section 9 and Table 9.3). 4.2.1.3 Built-up bearers The required breadth of larger section bearers may be obtained by vertically nail-laminating thinner sections together (see Clause 2.3). 4.2.2 Joists 4.2.2.1 General Joists shall be laid with their top surfaces level to receive flooring. The undersides of joists having minor excesses shall be notched over bearers in order to bring them to the required level. Packing of joists having minor deficiencies in depth may be utilized, provided the packing is fixed and is of corrosion-resistant and incompressible material over the full area of contact. Spacing of joists shall be determined by the span capacity of the flooring (see Section 5). Additional single or double joists shall be provided, where required, to support loadbearing walls parallel to joists (see Clause 4.3.3.4) or flooring (see Clause 5.2). Joists having minor spring (within allowable limits) shall be laid such as to allow for straightening under loading. Regardless of their length, if joists are partially cut over supports to correct bow or spring they shall be deemed to be supported at two points only (single span). Where cuts are used they shall be located centrally over the support, so that each side of the cut section is adequately supported. Joints in joists shall be as shown in Figure 4.3 and shall be made only over bearers or supports. Joists joined over bearers or supports shall have minimum 30 mm bearing for each joist. Joints in joists, which are required to be in line (e.g., supporting wall plates or fitted flooring), shall be butted or scarfed, but shall not be lapped. The minimum length of the lap shall be 3 times the joist depth. Butt jointButt joint Scarf jointScarf joint Timber cleat or metal plateTimber cleat or metal plate Lap FIGURE 4.3 TYPICAL METHODS OF JOINING JOISTS 4.2.2.2 Location of joists The following shall apply: (a) Fitted flooring For flooring that abuts wall plates, a pair of joists shall be provided under each wall that is parallel to the direction of the joists. These joists shall be spaced to provide solid bearing and fixing for the bottom wall plate and to project not less than 12 mm to give support for fixing of the flooring (see Figure 5.1). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 34 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au (b) Platform flooring Where flooring is continuous under wall plates, joists shall be provided directly under all loadbearing walls parallel to the joists (see Clause 4.3.3.4). A single joist only is required under external non-loadbearing walls. Joists are not required under internal non-loadbearing walls except as required to support flooring. 4.2.2.3 Deep joists Where the depth of floor joists is equal to or exceeds four times the breadth (deep joists), the joists shall be restrained at their supports with either— (a) a continuous trimming joist provided to the ends of joists above external bearers or wall plates; or (b) solid blocking or herringbone strutting between the outer pairs of joists and between intermediate pairs at not more than 1.8 m centres. Trimmers or solid blocking may be 25 mm less in depth than the joists (see Figure 4.4) and solid blocking shall be a minimum thickness of 25 mm. In addition, for deep joists in unseasoned timber where the span exceeds 3.0 m and there is no ceiling installed on the underside of joists, herringbone strutting or solid blocking shall be provided between all joists in evenly spaced rows not exceeding 1800 mm centres. Additional blocking or strutting for unseasoned deep joists over 3.0 m span with no ceiling underneathAdditional blocking or strutting for unseasoned deep joists over 3.0 m span with no ceiling underneath Outside joist pairs shall be blockedOutside joist pairs shall be blocked 1800 max. 1800 max. Lower storey studs (all supporting walls)Lower storey studs (all supporting walls) Deep floor joist. Depth ( ) equal to or greater than 4×breadth( )D BDeep floor joist. Depth () equal to or greater than 4 × breadth () D B B D NOTES: 1 For engineered timber products, see Clause 1.11. 2 A temporary batten across the tops of blocked joists, additional blocking or similar fixings, may be necessary to ensure joists do not twist or roll over during construction (prior to fixing of flooring). FIGURE 4.4 STRUTTING AND BLOCKING FOR DEEP JOISTED FLOORS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 35 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 4.2.2.4 Fixing of joists to bearers or lower wall plates Joists shall be fixed to bearers at all points of support (see Section 9). Where joist hangers or specialist connections are utilized, joists shall be completely seated into the hanger and fixed to maintain structural integrity. 4.2.2.5 External floors (decks, verandahs) When constructing floors that are exposed to the weather (decks, verandahs etc.), attention shall be given to the durability of materials and detailing required to ensure an adequate service life (see Clause 1.7). 4.3 MEMBER SIZES 4.3.1 General Clauses 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 provide details with respect to the determination of floor framing member sizes. Reference shall also be made to the notes accompanying each of the Span Tables given in Appendix A. The Span Tables for joists and bearers are also suitable for decks up to 1 m above ground. For decks over 1 m above ground (see AS 1684.2). 4.3.2 Bearers 4.3.2.1 Bearers supporting loadbearing walls The size of bearers supporting single- or upper-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables A3 to A6 in Appendix A. The size of bearers supporting the lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables A38 to A39 in Appendix A. These Tables are applicable to loadbearing walls parallel to the bearers where loads are distributed evenly along the bearers (see Clause 4.3.2.3). For support of other non-uniform loads, see Clause 4.3.2.4. 4.3.2.2 Bearers supporting floor loads only The size of bearers supporting floor loads only shall be determined from Span Table A7 in Appendix A. 4.3.2.3 Single- or upper-storey bearers supporting loadbearing walls at right angles Where loadbearing walls are supported at or within 1.5 times the bearer depth from the bearer support, the bearer may be considered as supporting floor loads only. Where the loadbearing wall occurs outside 1.5 times the depth of the bearers from its support, the allowable offset or cantilever shall be determined from Table 4.1 (see Figure 4.5). TABLE 4.1 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOADBEARING WALLS AT RIGHT ANGLES Permissible cantilevers and offsets for bearers under loadbearing walls (maximum roof load width 3600 mm) Depth of member Maximum permissible cantilever as proportion of actual backspan, % Maximum permissible offset as proportion of allowable span, % mm Sheet roof Tile roof Sheet roof Tile roof Up to 125 11 8 22 16 126 to 200 15 10 30 20 201 to 275 17 12 34 24 Over 275 19 14 38 28 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 36 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Offset Loadbearing wallsLoadbearing walls Flooring Joists Bearer cantileverBearer cantilever Loadbearing wallsLoadbearing walls Flooring Backspan FIGURE 4.5 OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS 4.3.2.4 Single- or upper-storey bearers supporting roof point loads The maximum roof area contributing to roof point loads that bearers can support are given in Table 4.2. TABLE 4.2 AREA OF ROOF POINT LOAD* Roof type Maximum area of roof supported, m 2 Sheet 5 Tiles 2.5 * Load from a roof strut, strutting beam, girder truss, lintel, and similar members, delivered through studs supporting concentrations of load and studs at sides of openings. 4.3.3 Floor joists 4.3.3.1 General The size of floor joists shall be determined from Span Table A8 in Appendix A Floor joists supporting floor loads only may cantilever up to 25% of their allowable span provided the minimum backspan is at least twice the cantilever distance. 4.3.3.2 Floor joists supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls The size of joists supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls shall be the same as the adjacent floor joists. Where required for the support of flooring, a single joist shall be used. 4.3.3.3 Floor joists with loadbearing walls at right angles to joists Where loadbearing walls are offset up to 1.5 times the joist depth from the supporting bearer or wall, the joist may be considered as supporting floor loads only (see Figure 4.6). Roof loadsRoof loads Middle half of spanMiddle half of span Loadbearing wallLoadbearing wall 1.5D1.5D D Roof loadsRoof loads FIGURE 4.6 LOADBEARING WALL OFFSET Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 37 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 4.3.3.4 Single- or upper-storey floor joists supporting roof point loads or loadbearing walls parallel to joists Floor joist sizes determined from Table A8 in Appendix A may support roof point loads or loadbearing walls parallel to joists in accordance with Table 4.3. Where multiple joists are used, the maximum rafter span or point load area may be increased in proportion to the number of additional joists. For rafter spans greater than those given in Table 4.3, the joists may be considered as for bearers in accordance with the bearer Span Tables in Appendix A and an equivalent joist size provided. TABLE 4.3 JOISTS SUPPORTING UNIFORM PARALLEL LOADS OR ROOF POINT LOADS Roof type Uniform load parallel to joists Point load* Maximum rafter span + overhang, mm Maximum area of roof supported, m 2 Sheet 3600 5 Tile 2100 2.5 * Load from a roof strut, strutting beam, girder truss, lintel, and similar members, delivered through studs supporting concentrations of load and studs at sides of openings. 4.3.3.5 Openings in floors Trimming joists and trimmers supporting curtailed joists shall be of the same size, and shall be not less in size than the associated floor joists. Trimmers between 1000 mm and 3000 mm in length shall have their breadth, including the breadth of trimming joist, increased by at least 20% more than the common joist breadth for each 300 mm in length, or part thereof, greater than 1000 mm. Trimmers exceeding 3000 mm in length shall be designed as bearers. Trimmers and curtailed joists greater than 1000 mm in length shall not rely solely on the strength of nails into end grain and shall be suitably connected (e.g., metal nailplate connectors) (see Figure 4.7). 3000 mm max. Trimming joistTrimming joist Trimmers Metal connectors when span exceeds 1000 mmMetal connectors when span exceeds 1000 mm Curtailed joists (trimmed joists)Curtailed joists (trimmed joists) FIGURE 4.7 OPENINGS IN FLOORS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 38 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au SECTION 5 FLOORING AND DECKING 5.1 GENERAL This Section specifies the requirements for the installation of tongued and grooved strip flooring and decking as well as plywood and particleboard sheet flooring. NOTE: Appendix B provides information on the moisture content of timber flooring. 5.2 FITTED FLOORS (CUT-IN FLOORS) Fitted floors (cut-in floors) are installed after walls have been erected, and after roofing, wall cladding, doors and windows have been fixed. NOTE: Fitted floors may be tongued and glued, or may be sheet flooring. Where boards are laid parallel with walls, a minimum 10 mm gap shall be provided between the board adjacent to the bottom plate and the bottom plate, as shown in Figure 5.1. Bearer 12 mm min. bearing12 mm min. bearing Bearer 12 mm min. bearing12 mm min. bearing Joist 10 mm min. gap10 mm min.gap 10 mm min. gap10 mm min.gap FIGURE 5.1 FITTED FLOORS 5.3 EXPANSION JOINTS For continuous floor widths over 6 m, measured at right angles to flooring, intermediate expansion joints shall be provided in addition to the perimeter gaps. Each expansion joint shall be either of a single 10 mm wide gap (under a wall or across a hallway), or of smaller gaps with closer spacings to give an equivalent space (for example, 1 mm gaps at 1 m spacing or loose cramping). 5.4 LAYING AND FIXING 5.4.1 Strip flooring 5.4.1.1 Laying Fitted flooring shall be kept 10 mm clear of walls or wall plates that are parallel to the length of the boards. End-matched flooring may be laid with end joints between joists, provided end joints are joined tightly together and well distributed and end-matched joints in adjoining boards do not fall within the same joist spacing. Board lengths shall be at least the equivalent of two joist spacings (see Figure 5.2). Finger-jointed hardwood flooring that is manufactured in accordance with AS 2796.1 shall be considered equivalent to continuous strip flooring. Butt joints shall be cut square and butted tightly together over floor joists. Joints in adjoining boards shall be staggered (see Figure 5.2). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 39 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (a) Butt joints over joists—Staggered (not to occur in adjacent boards on same joist) (b) End-matched joints—Staggered (not to occur in adjacent boards within same span) FIGURE 5.2 END JOINTS 5.4.1.2 Fixing Boards up to 85 mm cover width shall be fixed by face-nailing with one or two nails or shall be secret-nailed with one nail at each joist (see Figure 5.3). Boards over 85 mm cover width shall be fixed with two nails at each joist. Alternate nails in double-nailed boards shall be skewed slightly to the vertical, in opposing directions (see Figure 5.4). The minimum edge distance for nailing at butt joints or board ends shall be 12 mm. FIGURE 5.3 SECRET NAILING 12 mm from ends12 mm from ends Alternate nails in opposing directionsAlternate nails in opposing directions (a) Intermediate joists (b) Butt ends NOTES: 1 All nails, including machine nails, should be punched a minimum of 3 mm below the top surface. Nail punching is to allow for sanding and finishing and to draw boards tightly onto joists. 2 Pre-drilling boards for fixings at butt ends aids in reducing splitting. FIGURE 5.4 FACE NAILING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 40 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au The nail sizes for flooring up to 21 mm thick shall be as given in Table 5.1. TABLE 5.1 NAIL SIZES FOR FIXING TONGUED AND GROOVED FLOORING TO JOISTS Nailing Softwood joists Hardwood and cypress joists Hand-driven 65 × 2.8 mm bullet-head 50 × 2.8 mm bullet-head Machine-driven 65 × 2.5 mm 50 × 2.5 mm 5.4.1.3 Fixing to structural plywood underlay Underlay shall be structural plywood to AS/NZS 2269.0. The thickness shall be determined from Table 5.3 except that it shall be not less than 15 mm thick. Strip flooring shall be face-nailed or secret-nailed to plywood underlay in accordance with Table 5.2. Double face-nailing shall be used for boards exceeding 85 mm cover width. TABLE 5.2 NAIL SIZES FOR FIXING TONGUED AND GROOVED FLOORING TO STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD UNDERLAY Strip flooring thickness mm Required nailing (for 15 mm min. thickness subfloor) 19 or 20 38 × 16 gauge chisel point staples or 38 × 2.2 mm nail, at 300 mm spacing 12 , 19 or 20 32 × 16 gauge chisel point staples or 30 × 2.2 mm nails, at 200 mm spacing 5.4.2 Structural plywood flooring 5.4.2.1 Laying Plywood panels shall be laid with the face grain of the plies at right angles to the line of the supporting joists and shall be continuous over at least two spans. Ends of sheets shall be butted over joists. Edges of sheets, unless tongued and grooved, shall be joined over noggings between joists. Noggings shall be of timber not less than 70 × 35 mm section and shall be set flush with the top of the joists. 5.4.2.2 Fixing (see Figure 5.5) Nails used for fixing plywood shall be either 2.8 mm diameter flat-head or bullet-head hand-driven nails or 2.5 mm diameter machine-driven nails and of a length of not less than 2.5 times the thickness of the panel. Nails shall be spaced at 150 mm centres at panel ends and at 300 mm centres at intermediate joists and along noggings. Nails shall be not less than 10 mm from edge of sheets. Deformed shank nails shall be used where a resilient floor covering is fixed directly to the plywood. Structural adhesive or deformed shank nails shall be used where plywood is fixed to unseasoned floor joists of depth greater than 150 mm. Where possible, panel ends shall be staggered. Structural plywood flooring shall not be cramped during installation. Structural elastomeric adhesive shall be used in a designated wet area. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 41 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer Stump 300 mm centres at intermediate joists and noggings300 mm centres at intermediate joists and noggings 10 mm from edge at 150 mm centres at ends and joints10 mm from edge at 150 mm centres at ends and joints Direction of face grain of plywoodDirection of face grain of plywood FIGURE 5.5 FIXING OF PLYWOOD SHEET FLOORING 5.4.3 Particleboard Particleboard flooring shall be laid and fixed in accordance with AS 1860.2. 5.5 JOIST SPACING—FLOORING The maximum allowable spacing of supports for tongued and grooved strip and sheet flooring shall be in accordance with Table 5.3. Table 5.3 shall not be used for plywood in which the outer veneers are thinner than any or all of the inner veneers. For plywood sheets supported over one span only, the tabulated spacings shall be reduced by 25%. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 42 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 5.3 STRUCTURAL FLOORING—MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SPACING OF JOISTS Flooring Standard Grade Thickness mm Maximum spacing of joists, mm Butt joined End matched Strip flooring Australian hardwoods AS 2796.1 Select Medium feature— Standard 19 19 680 620 520 470 Other hardwoods —Density less than 560 kg/m 3 —Density greater than 560 kg/m 3 AS 2796.1 Medium feature— Standard Medium feature— Standard 19 19 510 580 390 450 Cypress AS 1810 Grade 1 Grade 2 19 20 580 580 450 450 Radiata Pine AS 4785.1 Standard Utility Standard 19 19 30 450 510 920 390 — 700 Softwood other than cypress or radiata pine: —Density less than 560 kg/m 3 —Density greater than 560 kg/m 3 AS 4785.1 Standard Standard 19 19 510 580 390 450 Sheet flooring Standard Thickness mm Maximum spacing of joists, mm Grade F8 F11 F14 Plywood (see Note 3) AS/NZS 2269.012 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 400 430 460 480 510 540 560 590 610 640 660 420 450 480 520 540 560 590 620 650 670 700 440 480 510 540 570 600 620 660 680 710 740 Particleboard (see Note 4) AS/NZS 1860.1 See AS/NZS 1860.1 NOTES: 1 An allowance has been made for light sanding. 2 Strip flooring boards may be regraded after elimination of imperfections by docking. 3 For plywood flooring thicknesses detailed above, it has been assumed that in any thickness of plywood the veneers are all of equal thickness. For plywood of a given total thickness, the dimensions listed in this Table will be slightly conservative if the outer veneers are thicker than any or all of the inner veneers. 4 For full details on particleboard flooring, see AS/NZS 1860.1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 43 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 5.6 DECKING The maximum allowable spacing of joists for timber decking shall be in accordance with Table 5.4 (see also Clause 4.3.3). Specifications given in Tables 5.4 and 5.5 are applicable to decking boards of nominal width up to 100 mm. NOTE: Spacing of decking boards should allow for possible shrinkage and/or expansion in service. Decking-board fixing requirements for decking up to 22 mm thickness shall be in accordance with Table 5.5. TABLE 5.4 DECKING BOARDS Decking Minimum grade Thickness mm Maximum joist spacing mm Hardwood Standard grade (AS 2796.1) 19 500 Cypress Grade 1 (AS 1810) 19 21 400 450 Treated softwood Standard grade (AS 4785.1) 19 22 400 450 TABLE 5.5 DECKING-BOARD FIXING REQUIREMENTS Decking Joists Nailing (Hot dipped galvanized or stainless steel, 2 nails per board crossing) Machine driven Hand driven Hardwood and cypress Hardwood and cypress 50 × 2.5 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.8 bullet-head Treated softwood 50 × 2.5 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.5 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.8 bullet-head deformed shank 65 × 2.8 bullet-head Treated softwood Hardwood and cypress 50 × 2.5 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.8 flat- or dome-head Treated softwood 50 × 2.5 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.5 flat-head 50 × 2.8 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.8 flat-head Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 44 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au SECTION 6 WALL FRAMING 6.1 GENERAL 6.1.1 Application This Section sets out requirements for the construction of conventional stud-framed walls and shall be used in conjunction with Span Tables A9 to A26 and A42 to A50 given in Appendix A. 6.1.2 Bracing Temporary and permanent bracing shall be provided to stud walls to resist horizontal forces applied to the building. Appropriate connections shall also be provided to transfer these forces through the framework and subfloor structure to the building foundation (see Section 8). 6.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 6.2.1 Studs 6.2.1.1 Straightening of studs (crippling) Common studs may be straightened by crippling with saw cuts and cleats, as shown in Figure 6.1. Up to 20% of common studs, including those in bracing walls, may be crippled. Studs at the sides of openings and studs supporting concentration of load shall not be crippled. NOTE: Studs may be planed provided the minimum size remaining is not less than the minimum design size required; for example, a stud of 90 mm depth may be planed down to 70 mm depth if the minimum design depth required is 70 mm. 600 mm min.600 mm min. D Saw-cut /2 max. DSaw-cut /2 max. D 42x19x600mm min. length cleats fixedwith4/50mm nails42 x19 x600 mm min. length cleats fixed with 4/50 mm nails FIGURE 6.1 STUD CRIPPLING 6.2.1.2 Common studs Common studs shall be evenly spaced to suit loads, lining and cladding fixing. Large size studs may be made up by nail-laminating together two or more smaller-sized studs (see Clauses 2.3 and 2.4). 6.2.1.3 Wall junctions Studs at wall junctions and intersections shall be in accordance with one of the details shown in Figure 6.2. Studs shall be not less in size than common studs. All junctions shall have sufficient studs, which shall be located so as to allow for adequate fixing of linings. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 45 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Internal and external walls shall be fixed together with a minimum of 2/75 mm nails at 900 mm centres. Noggings at max. 900 mm spacingNoggings at max. 900 mm spacing Special fixing may be required for internal liningsSpecial fixing may be required for internal linings Studs to be securely fixed with blocking and nailsStuds to be securely fixed with blocking and nails Provide minimum 200 mm long stud size blocks spaced max. 900 mm apartProvide minimum 200 mm long stud size blocks spaced max. 900 mm apart Suitable for external brick veneer wallsSuitable for external brick veneer walls Studs to be securely fixed with blocking and nailsStuds to be securely fixed with blocking and nails (a) Intersections (b) Corners FIGURE 6.2 TYPICAL WALL JUNCTIONS 6.2.1.4 Notching, trenching and holes in studs and plates The maximum size and spacing of cuts, holes, notches, and similar section-reductions, in studs and plates shall be in accordance with Figure 6.3 and Table 6.1. Holes in studs and plates shall be located within the middle half of the depth and breadth of the member respectively. Stud Stud depthDStud depthD Bottom plateBottom plateE E F F AA H H Stud breadth BStud breadth B C P FIGURE 6.3 NOTCHING OF WALL STUDS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 46 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 6.1 HOLES AND NOTCHES IN STUDS AND PLATES Symbol Description Limits Notched Not notched A Distance between holes and/or notches in stud breadth Min. 3D Min. 3D H Hole diameter (studs and plates) Max. 25 mm (wide face only) Max. 25 mm (wide face only) C Notch into stud breadth Max. 10 mm Max. 10 mm E Notch into stud depth Max. 20 mm (for diagonal cut in bracing only) (see Notes 1 and 2) Not permitted (see Note 1) F Distance between notches in stud depth Min. 12B N/A P Trenches in plates 3 mm max. NOTES: 1 A horizontal line of notches up to 25 mm may be provided for the installation of baths. 2 Except as permitted for diagonal cut in bracing, notches up to 20 mm may occur in every fifth individual stud. 3 For additional jamb stud requirements, see Figures 6.4 and 6.8. 4 Top and bottom plates in internal non-loadbearing and non-bracing walls may be discontinuous up to 60 mm (cut or drilled) to permit installation of services provided that, at the discontinuity, the plates are trimmed or otherwise reinforced either side of the discontinuity to maintain the lateral and longitudinal integrity of the wall. Studs may be designed as notched or not-notched. For common studs, the maximum notch depth for single- or upper-storey or lower-storey construction shall be 20 mm. When determined in accordance with the Span Tables in Appendix A, top and bottom plate sizes may be trenched up to a maximum of 3 mm. Where trenching exceeds this depth, the minimum remaining net depth of the plate shall be used when determining the allowable design limits from the Span Tables given in Appendix A. NOTE: As an example, if a 45 mm deep plate is trenched 10 mm, then the design using the Span Tables shall be based on a 35 mm deep plate. Jamb Studs in external walls and other loadbearing walls shall not be notched within the middle half of their height or within the height of the opening. A notch up to a maximum of 20 mm in depth is permissible outside this region at the top and/or the bottom of the stud (see Figure 6.4). Notching of jamb studs not permitted within height of openingNotching of jamb studs not permitted within height of opening Notching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs heightNotching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs height Notching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs heightNotching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs height Middle half of stud heightMiddle half of stud height FIGURE 6.4 NOTCHING OF JAMB STUDS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 47 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 6.2.1.5 Nogging Where required, wall studs shall have continuous rows of noggings, located on flat or on edge, at 1350 mm maximum centres (see Figure 6.5). Noggings are not required to be stress graded. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum nogging size shall be the depth of the stud minus 25 mm by 25mm thick, or a nogging shall have a minimum cross-section of 50 mm × 38 mm for unseasoned timber and 42 mm × 35 mm for seasoned timber, and shall be suitable, where required, for the proper fixing of cladding, linings, and bracing. Where required to provide fixing or support to cladding or lining or for joining bracing sheets at horizontal joints, noggings shall be installed flush with one face of the stud. Where required to permit joining bracing sheets at horizontal joints, noggings shall be the same size as the top or bottom plate required for that bracing wall. In other cases, noggings may be installed anywhere in the depth of the stud. Stagger in the row of noggings shall be not greater than 150 mm. B To p plateTo p plate Stud Nogging Bottom plateBottom plate 1350 mm max.1350 mm max. FIGURE 6.5 NOGGING 6.2.2 Wall plates 6.2.2.1 General Top plates shall be provided along the full length of all walls, including over openings. Bottom plates shall be provided along the full length of all walls except at door openings. 6.2.2.2 Bottom plates Bottom plates may be butt-jointed provided both ends are fixed and supported by floor joists, solid blocking or a concrete slab. Bottom plates supporting jamb studs to openings exceeding 1200 mm, or below studs supporting concentrations of load, shall be stiffened as shown in Figure 6.6. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 48 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Concentration of loadConcentration of load Solid blocking min.35mmthickSolid blocking min. 35 mm thickStud(s) Bottom plateBottom plate FIGURE 6.6 BOTTOM PLATE STIFFENING 6.2.2.3 Stiffening of top plates For supported roof area up to 10 m 2 and where a concentration of load (from roof beams, struts, strutting beams, hanging beams or counter beams 3000 mm or more in length, combined strutting/hanging beams, combined strut/counter beams, or similar members) occurs between studs (that is, studs supporting concentrations of load are not provided), top plates shall be stiffened in accordance with Figure 6.7, or by placing the block, on edge, extending from stud to stud, on top of the top plate. Concentration of loadConcentration of load Top plateTo p plate Two nails at each jointTw o nails at each joint Intermediate vertical blocking, min. size as for common studsIntermediate vertical blocking, min. size as for common studs FIGURE 6.7 TOP PLATE STIFFENING For supported roof area between 10 m 2 and 20 m 2, metal nailplate connectors shall be used for the fixing of blocking to studs. Alternatively, double blocking shall be used and be provided with 3 nails at each end of blocking (total 6 nails at each stud). 6.2.2.4 Joints in top plates Top plates shall be joined using one of the methods given in Section 9 for the relevant wind classification. 6.2.3 Openings Openings shall be framed with jamb studs and lintels (heads) as shown in Figure 6.8. Where required, jack studs shall be the same size, spacing, and orientation as the common studs, as shown in Figure 6.9 but may be made up by horizontal nail lamination. A minimum clearance of 15 mm shall be provided between the underside of the lintel or lintel trimmer and the top of the window frame. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 49 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Nogging To p plateTo p plate Jamb stud (stud at side of opening)Jamb stud (stud at side of opening) Jack studJack stud Lintel (housed into jamb stud by =W/4and10mm) the lesser of NLintel (housed into jamb stud by = W/4 and 10 mm) the lesser of N N W Common studCommon stud Jack studJack stud Lintel Common studCommon stud D D/2 max.D/2 max. Jamb stud (stud at side of opening)Jamb stud (stud at side of opening) Ledger (not required where lintel 120 mm or less in depth)Ledger (not required where lintel 120 mm or less in depth) 45 mm min.45 mm min. (a) Spans not exceeding 1800 mm (Non-loadbearing walls) (b) Lintel breadth less than or equal to half stud depth Jack studJack stud Lintel Common studCommon stud D/2 max.D/2 max. Jamb studJamb stud Ledger (not required where lintel 120 mm or less in depth)Ledger (not required where lintel 120 mm or less in depth) 45 min.45 min. D Secondary jamb studSecondary jamb stud x= combined width of jamb studsx= combined width of jamb studs 35 min.35 min. (c) Lintel breadth less than or equal to half stud depth—Alternative Jack studJack stud Common studCommon stud x= combined width of jamb studsx= combined width of jamb studs Lintel (housing for jack stud not permitted)Lintel (housing for jack stud not permitted) Secondary jamb studSecondary jamb stud D 35 mm min.35 mm min. Lintel Secondary jamb studSecondary jamb stud Lintel trimmerLintel trimmerJamb stud Jack stud, cut around lintel, or on flatJack stud, cut around lintel, or on flat NOTE: Where jack studs are not appropriate, a full-length trimmer shall be fixed to the underside of the lintel. (d) Lintels having breadth greater than half stud depth (e) Lintel directly below top plate FIGURE 6.8 OPENINGS A1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 50 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 6.2.4 Framing around chimneys and flues Placement of all framing members shall be in accordance with AS 1691 and AS/NZS 2918. 6.2.5 Lateral support for non-loadbearing walls 6.2.5.1 External walls External walls shall be laterally supported against wind forces. External walls supporting ceiling joists, rafters or trusses are deemed to have adequate lateral support. Non-loadbearing external walls, such as gable end walls and verandah walls, where trusses are supported by a verandah plate or other beam, shall be restrained laterally at a maximum of 3000 mm centres by means of— (a) intersecting walls; (b) ends of hanging or strutting beams; (c) continuous timber ceiling battens; or (d) tie members (binders, see Figure 6.9). Where binders are required, they shall be 35 × 70 mm min. continuous members fixed to the external top plate as shown in Figure 6.9. Binders may be spliced, provided 4/75 mm nails, or equivalent, are provided for each side of the joint; that is, binders overlap at least two ceiling joists with 2/75 mm nails to each joist and/or binder crossing. Ceiling joistCeiling joist Binder (tie) 35 70 mm×Binder (tie) 35 70 mm × To p plateTo p plate Stud Provide M10 bolt, 80 mm from end of binder or two framing anchors (no min. end distance)min.Provide M10 bolt, 80 mm from end of binder or two framing anchors (no min. end distance) min. 30 0.8mmG.I.strapwith 4/2.8mm nails each end×30 0.8 mm G. I. strap with 4/2.8mm nails each end × Binder (tie) 35×70mmBinder (tie) 35 × 70 mm Ceiling joistCeiling joist Blocking size as for ceiling joistBlocking size as for ceiling joist To p plateTo p plate Nail block to top plate with 2/75 mm nailsNail block to top plate with 2/75 mm nails (a) Bolt or framing anchors (b) Metal strap FIGURE 6.9 BINDERS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 51 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 6.2.5.2 Internal walls ⎯ (trussed roofs) Non-loadbearing walls shall be kept a minimum of 10 mm below the underside of the bottom chord (or ceiling battens when used). Trusses shall be fixed to internal non- loadbearing walls as shown in Figure 6.10. Truss parallel to wallTruss parallel to wall Wall top plateWall top plate For fixing of internal bracing walls, see Section 8For fixing of internal bracing walls, see Section 8 Truss at right angle to wallTruss at right angle to wall Slotted bracket at 1800 mm centrestoallowvertical movement of truss on loadingSlotted bracket at 1800 mm centres to allow vertical movement of truss on loading (a) Truss parallel to wall (b) Truss perpendicular to wall FIGURE 6.10 FIXING OF TRUSSES TO A NON-LOADBEARING INTERNAL WALL 6.3 MEMBER SIZES 6.3.1 General Clauses 6.3.2 to 6.3.8 provide details with respect to the determination of wall framing member sizes, which shall be determined from the appropriate Span Table given in Appendix A. NOTE: In some instances, sheeting, lining or cladding fixing requirements may necessitate larger sizes than those determined from the Span Tables in Appendix A. 6.3.2 Wall studs 6.3.2.1 Common studs The size of studs in single- or upper-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables A9 and A10 in Appendix A for studs at 450 mm centres and Span Tables A11 and A12 in Appendix A for studs at 600 mm centres. The size of studs in the lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables A40 and A41 in Appendix A for studs at 450 mm centres and Span Tables A42 and A43 in Appendix A for studs at 600 mm centres. The Span Tables in Appendix A provide for the design of notched and not-notched wall studs. Where cut-in or metal angle bracing is used (see Clause 6.2.1.4), the studs shall be designed as notched. 6.3.2.2 Studs supporting concentrated loads The size of studs supporting concentrated loads in single- or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables A13 and A14 in Appendix A for 2400 mm and 2700 mm high walls respectively. The Span Tables in Appendix A for studs supporting concentrations of load (upper storey) are appropriate for determining the size of studs supporting concentrated loads such as from strutting beams, roof struts, girder trusses or hanging beams 3000 mm or more in length. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 52 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au The Tables require an input in terms of roof area supported. Where studs support hanging beam loads only, ‘roof area’ is not relevant. In such cases, an area equal to half the area of ceiling supported by the hanging beam should be used in the Tables in lieu of area of sheet roof supported. Design parameters for studs supporting concentrated loads shall be as shown in Figure 6.11. Underpurlin Strutting beamStrutting beam Roof strutRoof strut B A Stud supporting concentrated loadStud supporting concentrated load Roof area supported = (A × B)/4 where A = total underpurlin spans B = total of rafter spans NOTE: Ridge is assumed to be strutted. FIGURE 6.11 STUDS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS 6.3.2.3 Jamb studs (studs at sides of openings) The size of jamb studs for single- or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables A15 and A16 in Appendix A for 2400 mm high walls and Span Tables A17 and A18 of Appendix A for 2700 mm high walls. The size of jamb studs in the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables A44 and A45 in Appendix A for 2400 mm high walls and Span Tables A46 and A47 in Appendix A for 2700 mm high walls. Jamb studs that support lintels, which in turn support major concentrated loads from strutting beams, roof struts, girder trusses, floor bearers or similar members (see Clause 6.3.2.2), shall have their size increased by the size required for a stud supporting the equivalent concentrated load, as determined from Span Tables A13 and A14 in Appendix A. Where the concentrated load is located at or within the central third of the lintel span, the breadth of the jamb studs, either side of the opening, shall be increased by half of the breadth of the stud required to support the concentrated load. Where the concentrated load is located at or within one-third of the lintel span from the jamb stud, this jamb stud shall be increased in size by the size of the stud supporting the concentrated load. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 53 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia For doorway openings up to 900 mm, jamb studs may be the same size as the common studs provided jamb linings or other comparable stiffeners are used and these studs do not support concentrated loads. Where the jamb stud size required by the Span Tables in Appendix A is made up of multiple members, the following shall apply: (a) 2 members (e.g., 2/90 × 35)—provide 1 full-length stud plus 1 secondary jamb stud. (b) 3 members (e.g., 3/70 × 35)—provide 2 full-length studs plus 1 secondary jamb stud. (c) 4 members (e.g., 4/90 × 45)—provide 2 full-length studs plus 2 secondary jamb studs. See Figure 6.8 for the terminology of secondary jamb stud. 6.3.2.4 Gable or skillion end wall studs The height of gable or skillion end wall studs shall be determined from Figure 6.12 and their size shall be determined from Span Table A19 in Appendix A. Loadbearing ridge beam support (see Note 2)Loadbearing ridge beam support (see Note 2) Ceiling, if applicable (see Note 1)Ceiling, if applicable (see Note 1) = average height of 5 longest studs =(++++)/5 12345hhhhh = average height of 5longest studs = (++++)/5hhhhh 12345 Stud heightStud height h1h1 h2h2 h3h3 h4h4 h5h5 NOTES: 1 Where the house has a horizontal ceiling or where a specially designed horizontal wind beam is provided, the stud height is measured as the greater of the ceiling height or the height from ceiling to roof. 2 Where studs support a loadbearing ridge or intermediate beam, separate consideration is required (e.g., studs supporting concentration of load or posts). 3 Noggings have been omitted for clarity. FIGURE 6.12 GABLE OR SKILLION END WALL STUD HEIGHT Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 54 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 6.3.2.5 Mullions The size of mullions shall be determined as for jamb studs in Clause 6.3.2.3 except that the opening width shall be equal to the combined opening width either side of the mullion less 600 mm (see Figure 6.13). To p plateTo p plate Lintel a bLintel Mullion shall be designed for opening width of ( + 600 mm)ab-Mullion shall be designed for opening width of ( + 600 mm) ab- Sill trimmerSill trimmer Lintel trimmerLintel trimmer FIGURE 6.13 MULLIONS 6.3.2.6 Concentrated loads on non-loadbearing internal walls Where studs supporting concentrated loads (see Clause 6.3.2.2) are incorporated in an internal wall that is otherwise non-loadbearing, the remainder of the wall shall be deemed to be non-loadbearing. 6.3.3 Bottom plates The size of bottom plates in single- or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables A20 or A21 in Appendix A for 70 or 90 mm wall frames respectively. The size of bottom plates in the lower storey of two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table A48 in Appendix A. If wall studs are positioned at or within 1.5 times the depth of bottom plates from supporting floor joists, the bottom plates may be the same size as the common studs, for any stress grade. If the wall studs are positioned directly above floor joists or are supported by blocking or a concrete floor, bottom plates may be 35 mm minimum depth, for any stress grade. Where bottom plates support studs supporting concentrated loads, posts or jamb studs, the plate shall be supported over a floor joist, solid blocking between bottom plate and bearer or concrete slab. 6.3.4 Top plates The size of top plates for single storey or the upper storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables A22 or A23 in Appendix A for 70 or 90 mm wall frames, respectively. The size of top plates for the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table A49 in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 55 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Wall plate sizes in the Span Tables in Appendix A are appropriate for wall plates supporting rafters or trusses located at any position along the length of the plate. Top plates may be a minimum of 35 mm deep by the breadth of the stud for any stress grade except— (a) where rafters or trusses are not required to have specific fixings to top plates (see Tables 9.4 to 9.7); and (b) where top plate loads from roof trusses, rafters, floor joists, and similar members, are located directly above studs or at or within 1.5 times the depth of the plate from the stud. Roof beams, struts, strutting beams, girder truss, hanging beams or counter beams 3000 mm or more in length, combined strutting/hanging beams, combined strut/counter beams, and similar members, shall be supported by jamb studs, studs supporting concentrations of load, or posts. Where required, stiffening or blocking of top plates shall be in accordance with Figure 6.7. 6.3.5 Studs, plates and noggings in non-loadbearing internal walls Non-loadbearing internal walls, with or without openings, shall be constructed using the minimum sizes given in Table 6.2, for any stress grade of timber. Where studs supporting concentrations of load are incorporated in an internal wall that is otherwise non-loadbearing, the remainder of the wall shall be deemed non-loadbearing. TABLE 6.2 FRAMING SIZES FOR NON-LOADBEARING INTERNAL WALLS Member Minimum size, mm Maximum spacing, mm Top and bottom plates 35 × 70 ⎯ Common studs of maximum height 2700 mm 70 × 35 600 Studs supporting lintels As for common studs ⎯ NOTES: 1 Plates may be trenched up to 5 mm. 2 Studs may be notched up to 20 mm. 6.3.6 Lintels 6.3.6.1 General Top plates shall be provided above lintels. Adequate bearing for lintels shall be provided as required by the Notes to the Span Tables in Appendix A. NOTE: The actual opening widths may be up to 70 mm greater than the maximum spans given in the Span Tables in Appendix A. 6.3.6.2 Lintels in loadbearing walls The size of lintels shall be determined from Table A24 in Appendix A for single- or upper- storey construction or from Span Table A50 in Appendix A for lower storey of two-storey construction. Span Table A24 in Appendix A shall not be used to determine lintel sizes where the lintel is required to support concentrated loads from girder trusses, large strutting beams, and similar members. NOTE: The size of lintels required to support concentrated loads may be determined from AS 1684.2 or by engineering design. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 56 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 6.3.6.3 Lintels in gable end walls The size of lintels in gable end walls not supporting roof loads shall be determined as for lintels supporting sheet roofing with a rafter or truss span of 3000 mm. 6.3.6.4 Lintels in non-loadbearing walls The size of lintels in internal walls supporting ceiling joists only, or supporting hanging beams, shall be determined by using the hanging beam or the counter beam (beams supporting hanging beams) Span Tables in Appendix A for these two applications respectively. For internal walls where ceiling loads are not supported and wall openings are wider than 1800 mm, the size of the lintel shall be determined from Span Table A23 in Appendix A using a ceiling load width of 1800 mm. Where wall openings wider than 1800 mm occur in non-loadbearing external walls, a lintel shall be provided and the size of the lintel shall be determined from Span Table A28 in Appendix A using a ceiling joist span of 1800 mm. 6.3.6.5 Windowsill trimmers Windowsill trimmers shall be in accordance with Table 6.3. For opening widths up to 2400 mm, windowsill trimmers may be the same size and grade as the common studs in that wall. TABLE 6.3 SIZE AND GRADE OF WINDOWSILL TRIMMERS Opening width, mm Size and grade of windowsill trimmer Up to 2400 1 × common stud Over 2400, up to 2700 2 × common stud or 90 × 45 mm Over 2700, up to 3000 2 × common stud Over 3000, up to 36 3 × common stud 6.3.7 Verandah beams (plates) The size of verandah beams shall be determined from Span Table A25 in Appendix A. The ends of beams that are supported on stud walls shall be carried by jamb studs (with beams considered as lintels) or posts. Cantilevered beams (e.g., gable ends) shall be sized in accordance with Clause 7.3.16 and Figure 7.20. 6.3.8 Verandah posts supporting roof loads The size of posts supporting roof loads shall be determined from Span Table A26 in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 57 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia SECTION 7 ROOF FRAMING 7.1 GENERAL 7.1.1 Application This Section specifies requirements for the building practice, design, and specification of roof framing members. This Section shall be used in conjunction with Span Tables A27 to A37 in Appendix A. NOTE: In some diagrams some members have been omitted for clarity. 7.1.2 Types of roofs and limitations 7.1.2.1 General Raftered roofs (‘pitched’ roofs) shall be either coupled or non-coupled (cathedral or skillion) (see Clause 2.6.4). 7.1.2.2 Coupled roofs The roof pitch in a coupled roof construction (see Figure 7.1) shall be not less than 10° and ceiling joists and collar ties shall be fixed to opposing pairs of rafters in accordance with Section 9. Rafters shall be continuous in length from ridge to wall plate, or shall be lapped or spliced at their support points. Rafters may be supported on underpurlins. For a coupled roof with no roof struts, provided with nominal fixing only (see Section 9), the maximum distance between external walls shall not exceed 6000 mm for sheet roofs or 4000 mm for tile roofs, except where the roof connections and members are designed in accordance with AS 1720.1. Ridgeboard Collar tieCollar tie UnderpurlinStrut Strutting beamStrutting beam Ceiling joistCeiling joist Strut Rafter Top plateTo p plate Top plateTo p plate FIGURE 7.1 COUPLED ROOF 7.1.2.3 Non-coupled roof A non-coupled roof (including cathedral and skillion) shall have rafters (raking beams) supported off walls, ridge beams and/or intermediate beams. It may have ceilings in the same plane as the roof. Rafters, ridge and intermediate beams may be exposed internally (see Figure 2.5). 7.1.2.4 Trussed roof The design of a timber roof truss shall be in accordance with engineering principles and AS 1720.1. The wind design criteria shall be consistent with that used in this Standard (see Clause 1.4.2). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 58 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 7.2.1 Ceilings Ceilings may be fixed to the underside of ceiling joists, rafters or purlins or the bottom chord of trusses, with or without battens. 7.2.2 Construction loads on ceiling framing Ceiling joist sizes determined in accordance with the Span Tables in Appendix A shall not be used to support construction loads or the loads of workers until the joists are adequately fixed and laterally restrained by the installation of ceiling lining or ceiling battens (see also Clause 7.3.4). Ceiling battens shall not support construction loads or the loads from workers. NOTE: Construction planks may be used on the top of ceiling joists during construction to support workers. 7.2.3 Ceiling battens Where ceiling battens are used, the size and fixings shall be appropriate for the mass of the ceiling material used, to provide a flat finish to the ceiling. 7.2.4 Ceiling joists 7.2.4.1 General Ceiling joists shall be at spacings to support ceiling linings. For coupled roofs, ceiling joists shall be in single lengths or spliced in accordance with Clause 7.2.4.2, and at the same spacing and in the same direction as the main rafters so that they may be fixed to, and act as ties between, the feet of pairs of opposing rafters. Intermediate ceiling joists may be required to support ceiling linings. End bearings of joists shall be the full width of the supporting wall plate except as provided for in Clause 7.2.4.2. 7.2.4.2 Splices and joints in coupled roof Where splices in ceiling joists are necessary they shall be made only at points of support. Splices shall be butt-joined with fishplates of minimum length six times the joist depth. Fishplates shall be a minimum of 19 mm thick by the full depth of ceiling joists. Alternatively, the ceiling joists may be lapped for a distance equivalent to at least three times their depth. Lapped ceiling joists, or both ends of the ceiling joists butted to fishplates, shall be secured with at least six hand-driven nails, or 8/3.05 mm diameter machine-driven nails, or with an M12 bolt (see Section 9). Engineered nailplated joists shall be spliced and supported in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 7.2.4.3 Connection to hanging beams Ceiling joists shall be fixed to hanging beams using a minimum of 35 × 32 mm timber cleats, 25 × 1.6 mm galvanized steel strapping, steel ceiling joist hangers or equivalent approved fasteners. Each alternate connection shall be fixed to opposite sides of the hanging beam (see Figure 7.3). 7.2.4.4 Trimming around openings Any opening in a joisted ceiling (manholes, skylights, and similar openings) shall be trimmed to provide full support for ceiling linings. Where no loads other than normal ceiling loads shall be carried, trimmers shall be as follows: (a) Openings up to 1000 mm—same size as ceiling joist. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 59 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (b) Openings greater than 1000 mm and up to a maximum of 3000 mm—breadth of trimmer to be increased by 20% for each 300 mm in length greater than 1000 mm. Members shall be connected by framing brackets. (c) Openings greater than 3000 mm—trimmer size as for hanging beams. 7.2.4.5 Platforms in roof spaces Ceiling joists shall support ceiling loads only. Any platforms constructed in the roof space above a ceiling for the support of a storage water heater, feed tank, flushing cistern, or similar members, shall be designed for these loads. 7.2.5 Hanging beams 7.2.5.1 General Hanging beams shall support ceiling joists and the attached ceiling materials only. Hanging beams are usually at right angles (or may be angled or placed off centre) to ceiling joists and are located directly above them (see Figure 7.2). Hanging beams shall be held in a vertical position at both ends by nailing or bolting to an available rafter, gable end struts or by means of angle strutting from internal walls. Requirements for beams supporting roof and ceiling loads are given in Clauses 7.2.7 and 7.2.8. Ceiling joistCeiling joist Ridgeboard Hanging beamHanging beam Rafter Counter beamCounter beam Supporting wallSupporting wall FIGURE 7.2 COUNTER BEAM SUPPORTING HANGING BEAMS 7.2.5.2 End support of hanging beams End-bearings of hanging beams shall be the full width of wall plate. Where hanging beams span 3.0 m or more, they shall be located directly above a stud or the wall plates shall be stiffened (see Figure 6.7). Where hanging beams are used as binders, the connection to the external walls shall be equivalent to that shown in Figure 6.9. Where the slope of rafters is such that the depth of a hanging beam has to be reduced by more than two-thirds in order to avoid interference with roof cladding, provision shall be made for additional support incorporating a jack joist (trimmer) as shown in Figure 7.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 60 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Hanging beamHanging beam Beam bolted to rafterBeam bolted to rafter Joists fixed with ties on alternate sides of hanging beamJoists fixed with ties on alternate sides of hanging beam Jack joist (trimmer)Jack joist (trimmer) Top plateTo p plate Rafter Ceiling joistCeiling joist FIGURE 7.3 SUPPORT OF HANGING BEAM WITH JACK JOIST (TRIMMER) 7.2.6 Counter beams 7.2.6.1 General Counter beams may be provided to support hanging beams (see Figures 7.2 and 7.4). End support to counter beams shall be similar to that for hanging beams (see Clause 7.2.5.2). Where roof loads are to be supported, a combined strutting/counter beam shall be used (see Clause 7.2.8). 7.2.6.2 Intersection of hanging and counter beams At intersections of hanging and counter beams, the hanging beam may be checked out over the counter beam, or butted up to the counter beam. The hanging beams shall be supported by 45 × 42 mm minimum ledgers fixed each side of the counter beam with 5/3.05 mm diameter nails or 2/No. 14 Type 17 screws, or by other connectors such as joist hangers (see Figure 7.4). Counter beamCounter beam Hanging beamHanging beam Proprietary connectors such as j or45×42mmledgers with 5/3.05 mm dia. nails or 2/No. 14 type 17 screwsoist hangers,Proprietary connectors such as j or 45 × 42 mm ledgers with 5/3.05 mm dia. nails or 2/No. 14 type 17 screws oist hangers, Ceiling joistCeiling joist 25 mm clearance at support for combined strutting/counter beam25 mm clearance at support for combined strutting/counter beam 35 32 mm cleat or proprietary tie × 35 32 mm cleat or proprietary tie × FIGURE 7.4 FIXING HANGING BEAM TO COUNTER BEAM 7.2.7 Combined strutting/hanging beams Combined strutting/hanging beams may be provided to support both roof (via struts and ceiling loads as for hanging beams. Combined strutting/hanging beams are usually at right angles (or may be angled or placed off centre) rafters and ceiling joists and are located directly above them. Requirements for end supports shall be as for strutting beams, as specified in Clause 7.2.9. NOTE: The clearance requirements specified for the strutting beam are not required, as the hanging beam is located directly over the ceiling joists. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 61 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 7.2.8 Combined strutting/counter beams Combined strutting/counter beams are usually located at right angles to hanging beams and parallel to ceiling joists, but may be angled or placed off centre. At intersections of hanging beams and combined strutting/counter beams, the hanging beam may be checked out over or butted up to the strutting/counter beam. It shall be supported by 45 × 42 mm timber ledgers fixed at each side of the strutting beam or by other proprietary connectors such as joist hangers. See Figure 7.4 for a similar detail. Requirements for end supports shall be as for strutting beams, as specified in Clause 7.2.9. Where counter beams are located between the ceiling joists, the 25 mm clearance specified for strutting beams is required. NOTE: Combined strutting/counter beams may be provided to support roof loads and ceiling loads via hanging beams. 7.2.9 Strutting beams Ends of strutting beams shall bear on the full width of wall plates. Strutting beams shall support roof loads only. They may extend in any direction in the roof space. Beams shall bear directly above studs supporting concentrations of load or the loads shall be distributed over two or more studs by means of top plate stiffening (see Figure 6.8). Where strutting beams occur over openings, the lintels shall be designed for a concentrated load (see AS 1684.2). Blocking shall be provided between strutting beams and wall plates to provide an initial clearance of 25 mm at midspan between the underside of the beams and the tops of ceiling joists, ceiling lining or ceiling battens as appropriate (see Figure 7.5). The ends of strutting beams may be chamfered to avoid interference with the roof claddings. Where the end dimension is less than 100 mm, or one-third the beam depth, whichever is greater, an alternative support method shall be provided similar to that shown for hanging beams (see Figure 7.3). RafterUnderpurlin Minimum end dimension 100 mm or /3 whichever is the greater.DMinimum end dimension 100 mm or /3 whichever is the greater. D 25 mm clearance at midspan of strutting beam25 mm clearance at midspan of strutting beam Block to provide strutting beam supportBlock to provide strutting beam support Strutting beamStrutting beam D Stud Strut FIGURE 7.5 INSTALLATION OF STRUTTING BEAMS 7.2.10 Underpurlins 7.2.10.1 General Underpurlins shall be in single lengths, where possible, and shall be in straight runs generally at right angles to the direction of rafters. Where two or more rows of underpurlins are required, they shall be spaced evenly between the ridge and the wall top plate. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 62 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2.10.2 Joints in underpurlins Where underpurlins are joined in their length, the joint shall be made over a point of support, with the joint halved and nailed or lapped and nailed (see Figure 7.6). Alternatively, underpurlins shall be lapped a minimum of 450 mm and spliced with 6 through nails, or 3/No. 14 Type 17 screws or 2/M10 bolts through the splice. Laps shall be made over a support. Halved, lapped and nailed jointHalved, lapped and nailed jointRafter Joint over supportJoint over support StrutUnderpurlin FIGURE 7.6 JOINING UNDERPURLINS 7.2.10.3 Cantilevered underpurlins The ends of an underpurlin may project (cantilever) beyond a support by up to 25% of the maximum allowable span of the underpurlin, provided the actual backspan is at least three times the cantilever length. 7.2.10.4 Support of underpurlins Underpurlins shall be securely fastened to hip or valley rafters in accordance with one of the following options: (a) Underpurlins supporting hip or valley rafters: (i) They shall not cantilever more than one-eighth of their allowable span. (ii) They shall be fastened to the hip or valley using one of the following means: (A) Cutting the underpurlin to and around the hip or valley and providing support directly below via a roof strut. (B) Proprietary framing anchors and blocking that provide 3 way support, see Figure 7.7, or by a method providing equivalent support. (C) Proprietary joist hangers. (D) Using a proprietary/patented tension rod system (equivalent to the old BARAP system). Hip or valley rafterHip or valley rafter Underpurlin supported by hip or valley rafterUnderpurlin supported by hip or valley rafter Jack rafterJack rafter Spacer blockSpacer block Strut Underpurlin supporting hip or valley rafterUnderpurlin supporting hip or valley rafter Proprietary or fabricated metal connectorProprietary or fabricated metal connector Framing anchor or metal tieFraming anchor or metal tie FIGURE 7.7 TYPICAL UNDERPURLIN CONNECTIONS TO HIP OR VALLEY Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 63 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (b) Underpurlins supported by hip or valley rafters: They shall be fastened to the hip or valley using one of the following means: (i) Proprietary/patented framing anchors and blocking that provide 3 way support. (ii) Proprietary/patented joist hangers. Where underpurlins are not strutted at the junctions with hip or valley rafters and the allowable underpurlin cantilever is exceeded, the underpurlins shall be deemed to be supported by the hip or valley rafters to which they are attached. 7.2.11 Rafters 7.2.11.1 General Rafters shall be single length members from wall plates to ridge. 7.2.11.2 Birdsmouthing Rafters may be birdsmouthed to a depth not exceeding one-third of the rafter depth (see Figure 7.19). 7.2.12 Ridgeboards 7.2.12.1 General Ridgeboards shall be provided to locate and stabilize rafter ends. Opposing pairs of rafters shall not be staggered by more than their own thickness at either side of their ridge junction. Where ridgeboards are strutted, they shall be strutted for their full length. The size of ridgeboards shall be determined from Table 7.5. Junctions of ridgeboard and hip or valley rafters shall be strutted where the hip or valley rafters exceed 5 m span, or where underpurlins are supported by hip or valley rafters. Where a ridgeboard is required to be strutted along its length, but there are insufficient strutting supports, the ridgeboard shall be designed as a ridge beam for a non-coupled roof, or alternative provisions shall be made for the full support of the rafter loads. NOTE: An example of an alternative would be the provision of a tie-bolt truss. 7.2.12.2 Joints in ridgeboards Ridgeboards may be joined using a scarf joint at the abutment of a rafter pair, or preferably nail-spliced (minimum of 6 nails per side of splice) using full depth fishplates on both sides of the ridgeboard, as shown in Figure 7.8. NOTE: Full length ridgeboards should be used wherever possible. Rafter Ridgeboard Joint shall be midway between raftersJoint shall be midway between rafters Full depth or close to full depth fishplates (min.19mmthick), fitted between rafters on both sides of the ridge and fixed with min.6/65×3.05mm diameter nails on each side of the jointFull depth or close to full depth fishplates (min. 19 mm thick), fitted between rafters on both sides of the ridge and fixed with min. 6/65 x3.05 mm diameter nails on each side of the joint FIGURE 7.8 FISHPLATED RIDGEBOARD SPLICE Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 64 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2.13 Hip and valley rafters Where strutting points are available and where required, hip and valley rafters shall be supported by struts at the same number of equally spaced intermediate points as for common rafters. Where strutting points are not available, hip rafters shall be supported by an underpurlin in at least one direction, and valley rafters shall be supported by underpurlins in both directions. Where the underpurlins are supported by the hip or valley rafters, a tie-bolt truss system, as shown in Figure 7.14, may be installed or the hip or valley rafter may be designed to support the underpurlin loads. This may be used where the underpurlins cantilever beyond a strut by more than 25% of the maximum span and no strutting point is available at the junction of the hip or valley with the underpurlin. If the hip or valley rafters support the underpurlin, a strut shall be used at the intersection of the hip/valley and ridgeboard. 7.2.14 Scotch valleys Where scotch valley construction (see Figure 2.4) is used at the junction of two roof surfaces, the pitching plate to which creeper rafters of the secondary roof are fixed shall be securely nailed at each common rafter crossing. The pitching plate shall be minimum 35 mm thick by such width as will provide full bearing for the feet of the creeper rafters. 7.2.15 Roof strutting 7.2.15.1 Roof struts Where necessary, struts shall be provided to support roof members, such as underpurlins, ridgeboards and hip and valley rafters. Struts shall be supported by walls, strutting beams, or combined strutting/hanging beams, or combined counter/strutting beams. Struts shall not be supported on hanging or counter beams. Except as provided for in Clauses 7.2.15.2, 7.2.15.3 and 7.2.15.4, struts shall be either vertical or perpendicular to the rafters or at an angle between vertical and perpendicular to the rafter. They shall be birdsmouthed or halved to underpurlins as shown in Figures 7.9 and 7.10. Alternatively, for struts between vertical and perpendicular to rafter that are not birdsmouthed or halved to the underpurlin, a 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap shall be passed over the underpurlin and nailed to each side of the strut with 4/30 × 2.8 mm dia. nails and to the underpurlin with 2/30 × 2.8 dia. nails each side in addition to at least 2 skew nails. One framing anchor with four nails to each leg may be used as an alternative to the strap. Rafter Underpurlin Not less than 38 mmNot less than 38 mm Not less than 38 mmNot less than 38 mm Rafter Max. 12 mmMax. 12 mm FIGURE 7.9 VERTICAL STRUTS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 65 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Studs supporting struts shall be determined in accordance with Clause 6.3.2.2 or Clause 6.3.2.3, as appropriate. Struts that are not vertical shall be restrained by blocks or chocks, as shown in Figure 7.10. Chock Not less than 25 mmNot less than 25 mm Not less than 40 mmNot less than 40 mm Strut set perpendicular to raftersStrut set perpendicular to rafters Not less than 3 nailsNot less than 3nails 2/75 mm nails2/75 mm nails Firm base for nailingFirm base for nailing FIGURE 7.10 STRUTS PERPENDICULAR TO RAFTERS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 66 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2.15.2 Tied and braced strut system Where struts are located at an angle greater than perpendicular to the rafter but less than 60° to the vertical, they shall be tied and braced to form a frame in accordance with Figure 7.11, or they shall be in accordance with Clause 7.2.15.4. 1/M16 bolt central through strut and ceiling joists1/M16 bolt central through strut and ceiling joists Rebate strut for one ceiling joistRebate strut for one ceiling joist Single ceiling joistSingle ceiling joist Next underpurlin or strutted ridgeNext underpurlin or strutted ridge Double ceiling joists (2/90 35 mm F8 min.)×Double ceiling joists (2/90 35 mm F8 min.) × Hanging beamHanging beam 1/M16 bolt through rafter and two ceiling joists1/M16 bolt through rafter and two ceiling joists 80 mm min.80 mm min. 4600 mm max.4600 mm max. 15° min.15° min. L1= 2700 mm max. L1= 2700 mm max. L2= 2700 mm max. L2= 2700 mm max. Strut 90 70 mm F8 min. × Strut 90 70 mm F8 min. × One framing anchor each sideOne framing anchor each side One framing anchorOne framing anchor 50 mm min.50 mm min. Rafter, min. 120 35 F8 at max. 600 mm centres×Rafter, min. 120 35 F8 at max. 600 mm centres × 90 70 mm F8 min. continuous-span underpurlin×90 70 mm F8 min. continuous-span underpurlin× The length of L 1 shall be between L 2 and 1.25 times L2 FIGURE 7.11 TIED ROOF STRUTS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 67 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 7.2.15.3 Fan struts A pair of struts (fan or flying struts) may be used in the same line as, or perpendicular to, the underpurlin with their supports opposing each other. The pair of struts shall be at the same angle, and not greater than 45° to the vertical (see Figure 7.12). Maximum fan strut length shall be 4.5 m with maximum 3.0 m spacing between the struts and underpurlin connection. Underpurlin Min. angle 60 to horizontal°Min. angle 60 to horizontal° Each strut 30 mm min. bearing to top plateEach strut 30 mm min. bearing to top plate Stiffener Chock nailed to plateChock nailed to plate Equal angles not less than 45°Equal angles not less than 45° 90 x 35 mm spreader cleats both sides of struts fixed with M12 through bolt or 2/No. 14 type 17 screws with min. 35 mm penetration into receiving member to each end of cleats90 x35 mm spreader cleats both sides of struts fixed with M12 through bolt or 2/No. 14 type 17 screws with min. 35 mm penetration into receiving memberto each end of cleats Strut nailed to underpurlin with 4/75 mm nailsStrut nailed to underpurlin with 4/75 mm nails Struts (see Table 7.5)Struts (see Table 7.5) NOTE: Maximum rafter span = 3000 mm. FIGURE 7.12 FAN OR FLYING STRUTS 7.2.15.4 Opposing struts Where roofs are strutted using opposing struts, they shall comply with Figure 7.13. Ridgeboard Collar tieCollar tie Underpurlin Strut Strutting beam, to be restrained in accordance with Clause 7.2.26 at strutting and support pointsStrutting beam, to be restrained in accordance with Clause 7.2.26 at strutting and support points Full-length blocking piece between bases of strutsFull-length blocking piece between bases of struts Ceiling joistCeiling joist Rafter 30 min o 30 min o Strut Top plateTo p plate Top plateTo p plate FIGURE 7.13 OPPOSING STRUTS 7.2.16 Collar ties Collar ties shall be provided in all coupled roof construction. Size of collar ties shall be in accordance with Table 7.5. Where the rafter span is such as to require support from underpurlins, collar ties shall be fitted to opposing common rafters at a point immediately above the underpurlins. Where underpurlins are not required, the collar ties shall be fitted to opposing rafters at a height above the top plate, not greater than two-thirds of the rise of the roof. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 68 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Collar ties shall be fitted to every second pair of common rafters, or at 1200 mm maximum spacing, whichever is the lesser. Collar ties shall be fixed to rafters with one M10 bolt for ties greater than 4.2 m long, or min. 2/75 hand-driven nails or 3/75 × 3.05 mm ∅ machine- driven nails for ties up to 4.2 m long. Collar ties that exceed 4.2 m in length shall be fixed in accordance with Figure D1, Appendix D. 7.2.17 Hip ends Hip ends shall be constructed in accordance with one or more of the alternative methods shown in Figure 7.14. When a tie-bolt system is used to support the hip/underpurlin connection, the underpurlin shall be supported at the first common rafterWhen atie-bolt system is used to support the hip/underpurlin connection, the underpurlin shall be supported at the first common rafter Strut at junction of hip and ridge when hip or valley rafters support underpurlinsStrut at junction of hip and ridge when hip or valley rafters support underpurlins A cantilever of 1/8 of the max. allowable span of the undepurlin is permitted to support the hip rafter, provided the actual backspan is at least three times the actual cantilever lengthAcantilever of 1/8 of the max. allowable span of the undepurlin is permitted to support the hip rafter, provided the actual backspan is at least three times the actual cantilever length Hip rafterHip rafter Span of underpurlinSpan of underpurlin Tie-bolt truss systemTie-bolt truss system The underpurlin that supports the creeper rafters in the hip endmaybesupportedbya tie-bolt truss as illustrated or a strutting, combined hanging/strutting, or combined counter/strutting beamThe underpurlin that supports the creeper rafters in the hip end may be supported by a tie-bolt truss as illustrated or a strutting, combined hanging/strutting, or combined counter/strutting beam Creeper rafterCreeper rafter Crown endCrown end Single or fan strut supportingSingle or fan strut supporting FIGURE 7.14 HIP END 7.2.18 Alternative support systems Where shown to be suitable through engineering design principles, tie-bolt trusses or other alternative support systems may be used in combination with underpurlins, hip or valley rafters or common or jack rafters, as appropriate. 7.2.19 Non-coupled roofs 7.2.19.1 General Non-coupled roof systems include cathedral roofs (ceiling in line with roof) as well as other raftered roofs outside the limits for ‘coupled roof construction’ (e.g., roof slope below 10°). Non-coupled roofs shall have rafters, or raking roof beams, supported off walls, ridge beams and/or intermediate beams. Rafters or raking roof beams to cathedral roofs shall be designed to support roof and ceiling loads. Studs supporting ridge or intermediate beams shall be designed as studs supporting concentration of load or as posts. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 69 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 7.2.19.2 Ridge and intermediate beams Ridge beams or walls shall be provided at the apex in the roof and shall be designed to support roof loads and ceiling loads (where required). Ridge beams shall be at right angles to the rafters and shall be continuous to points of support. They shall be placed either under the rafters or positioned between pairs of rafters, as for a ridgeboard. Intermediate beams shall be provided, where required, between the ridge and top plate of the wall. Intermediate beams shall support rafters (and ceiling loads where required) and shall be at right angles to the rafters. 7.2.20 Roof battens Where possible, battens shall be continuous span. 7.2.21 Trussed roofs 7.2.21.1 General Trusses shall be handled, erected, installed and braced in accordance with AS 4440. Trusses shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles. 7.2.21.2 Structural fascias A structural fascia that is capable of distributing overhang loads to adjacent trusses shall be installed. A minimum timber (softwood) structural fascia of 190 × 19 mm shall be used. NOTES: 1 Other fascias or combinations of members with similar stiffness may be used. 2 Grooves in fascia to accept eaves lining are permitted. 7.2.21.3 Truss layout Placement of trusses shall be strictly in accordance with the truss design. 7.2.21.4 Support of trusses Loadbearing walls supporting trusses shall be in accordance with Section 6. Girder trusses shall be considered concentrations of load and supported as outlined in Section 6. Lintels supporting girder trusses over openings shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles or AS 1684.2. Non-loadbearing walls shall be kept a minimum of 10 mm below the underside of the bottom chord, or ceiling battens when used. Trusses shall be fixed to internal non-loadbearing walls as shown in Figure 6.10. Trusses shall not be supported by internal walls unless the wall and the truss are specifically designed for the purpose. 7.2.22 Bracing for raftered and trussed roofs All roof frames shall be adequately braced to withstand horizontal forces applied to the building. Bracing shall be designed and fixed to transfer any loads to the supporting structure (see Section 8). 7.2.23 Fixing of ceiling framing to internal bracing walls All bracing walls shall be fixed to ceiling or roof framing. For trussed roof construction, for bracing walls at right angles to the trusses, blocks that do not prevent the vertical settlement of the trusses shall be nailed to the top plates between truss bottom chords. For bracing walls parallel to trusses, blocks shall be nailed between the truss bottom chord and the block shall be fixed to the top plate with a metal strap or timber cleat nailed off. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 70 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2.24 Eaves construction 7.2.24.1 General Where fascias and bargeboards are used as structural members to support roof loads, the size shall be determined as either for a rafter or verandah beam. 7.2.24.2 Boxed eaves Soffit bearers used in the construction of boxed eaves shall be spaced to suit eaves lining and shall be not less than the following sizes: (a) 45 × 32 mm where the span does not exceed 600 mm. (b) 70 × 35 mm where their span is greater than 600 mm but not greater than 1.5 m. In masonry veneer buildings, the inner ends of soffit bearers shall either be supported by means of minimum 45 × 19 mm hangers from rafters (see Figure 7.15(a)), or shall be fixed to the external wall studs (see Figure 7.15(b)). In the case of masonry veneer buildings where soffit bearers are supported by the wall frame, a minimum 12 mm clearance shall be provided between the soffit bearer and the top of the masonry to allow for frame shrinkage. Soffit bearerSoffit bearer Hanger min. 45×19mmHanger min. 45 × 19 mm 12 mm min. allowance for shrinkage12 mm min. allowance for shrinkage (a) Hanger support (b) Wall frame fixing FIGURE 7.15 TYPICAL BOXED EAVES CONSTRUCTION 7.2.25 Gable or verge construction 7.2.25.1 General Gables or verges shall be formed either— (a) with rafters supported on cantilevered extensions of ridgeboards or beams, underpurlins, intermediate beams and wall plates; or (b) with outriggers or outriggers at right angles to and trimmed into common rafters or trusses, which shall be adequately fixed and nogged to prevent overturning and to provide fixing for roof battens. Members cantilevered to support gables shall not project beyond their supports by more than 25% of the allowable span of the member and their backspan shall be at least twice that of the cantilever. 7.2.25.2 Open gables Open gable end walls may be constructed using— (a) for exposed rafter (cathedral) roofs, studs continuous up to a raking top plate below rafters; Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 71 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (b) for pitched roofs with a horizontal ceiling, gable end studs supported off the top plate; or (c) gable trusses fully supported off the gable end wall (see Figure 7.16). Gable end studs or additional vertical members and trusses shall be provided at the spacing required to fix cladding, or brick veneer where used, and shall be of sufficient size and stress grade to support dead, live and wind loads. For gable end studs, see Span Table A19 in Appendix A. Open gable eaves may be unlined or may be sheeted on the upper side or the underside of rafters. Verge rafterVerge rafterBlocking BargeboardOutrigger Gable studsGable studs Roof battenRoof batten Raking truss (gable end truss)Raking truss (gable end truss) Standard trussStandard truss FIGURE 7.16 OPEN GABLE OR VERGE—TRUSSED ROOF 7.2.25.3 Boxed gables Boxed gables shall have 70 × 35 mm soffit bearers fixed between the lower ends of gable studs and the frame wall. Horizontal location for gable studs and fixing for lower edges of gable lining shall be provided by a 70 × 35 mm plate on edge level with the soffit bearers (see Figure 7.17). Boxed gables shall be securely fixed off the structural wall plate with strutting or bracing as necessary to support the load of the gable framing and the roof covering. Upper outriggerUpper outrigger Standard trussStandard truss Lower outriggerLower outrigger Boxed gable-end trussBoxed gable-end truss Strut or brace (where required)Strut or brace (where required) Waling plateWaling plate 70x35mm soffit bearer70 x35 mm soffit bearer FIGURE 7.17 BOXED GABLE—TRUSSED ROOF Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 72 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.2.26 Lateral restraint of hanging, strutting, strutting/hanging beams, and similar members Where required, lateral restraint shall be provided by one of the methods shown in Figure 7.18. (a) Block skew-nailed to beam and to support with 3/75 mm skew nails to each member (b) Min 35 × 32 mm tie nailed to top of beam and to support with 2/75 mm nails each end (see Note 2) (c) Galvanized strap nailed to support and top of beam with 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end and to beam (see Note 2) NOTES: 1 Method used depends upon whether the ceiling joists are at 90° or parallel to the beam. 2 Methods given in Figures (b) and (c) are particularly suitable for restraining strutting beams and strutting/hanging beams at the intermediate points where the beams are supported, as they also permit these beams to be supported up clear of the ceiling joists by packing under at their supports. FIGURE 7.18 LATERAL RESTRAINT 7.2.27 Framing around chimneys and flues Placement of all framing members around chimneys and flues shall be in accordance with AS 1691 and AS/NZS 2918. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 73 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 7.3 MEMBER SIZES 7.3.1 General Clauses 7.3.2 to 7.3.17 provide details for the determination of roof framing member sizes. Member sizes shall be determined from the Span Tables given in Appendix A for coupled or non-coupled roof construction, as appropriate (see Figure 7.1). 7.3.2 Ceiling battens For glued or glued and screwed or machine-driven nailed ceiling linings with a mass up to 12 kg/m 2, the minimum ceiling batten sizes shall be as given in Table 7.1. For hand-driven nailed or hand-driven nailed and glued ceiling linings, batten sizes may need to be increased to avoid damage to ceiling lining or fixings due to flexibility. TABLE 7.1 CEILING BATTEN SIZE Ceiling batten grade Rafter or truss spacing, mm 600 900 1200 Batten spacing, mm 300 450 600 300 450 600 300 450 600 F5 Unseasoned 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 50 38 × 75 38 × 75 F8 Unseasoned 25 × 38 25 × 38 25 × 38 25 × 50 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 38 38 × 50 F5 Seasoned 35 × 42 35 × 42 35 × 42 35 × 42 35 × 42 35× 42 35 × 42 35 × 42 38 × 42 7.3.3 Ceiling lining and non-trafficable roof decking 7.3.3.1 General Ceiling lining or non-trafficable roof decking shall be attached directly to rafters or purlins, the underside of ceiling joists, bottom or top chord of trusses or to battens, to ensure the integrity of the roof and the ceiling diaphragm. NOTE: Suspended ceiling systems are not be assumed to provide diaphragm action to transfer wind loads to bracing walls. 7.3.3.2 Tongued and grooved non-trafficable roof decking Tongued and grooved timber boards used for non-trafficable roofs shall be in accordance with Table 7.2. Where boards are not at right angles to rafters, the spacing of support shall be taken along the length of the board . Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 74 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 7.2 TONGUED AND GROOVED BOARDS FOR NON-TRAFFICABLE ROOFS Standard Timber Visual grade Minimum thickness of boards, mm Spacing of supports, mm 450 600 900 1200 AS 2796.1 Western Australian hardwoods Standard 11 13 19 24 Select 10 12 17 22 AS 2796.1 South-eastern Australian hardwoods Standard 10 13 19 24 Select 11 12 17 22 AS 2796.1 North-eastern Australian hardwoods Standard 10 13 18 23 Select 10 12 17 22 AS 4785.1 Radiata One grade 12 15 21 26 AS 1810 Cypress Grade 1 and Grade 2 12 15 21 27 AS 4785.1 Softwood Standard and Select 12 15 21 26 AS 2796.1 Hardwood (density less than 560 kg/m 3) AS 4785.1 Softwood Standard and Select 11 14 20 25 AS 2796.1 Hardwood (density greater than, or equal to, 560 kg/m 3) NOTES: 1 Where battens are used and sized for the rafter spacing, lining is not considered structural. 2 Finger jointing is permitted. 3 Allowance has been made for light sanding. 7.3.3.3 Structural plywood for non-trafficable roof decking Structural plywood used for non-trafficable roof decking shall be in accordance with Table 7.3. TABLE 7.3 STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD TO AS/NZS 2269.0 FOR NON-TRAFFICABLE ROOFS Maximum rafter or truss spacing Minimum allowable plywood thickness, mm Stress grade mm F8 F11 F14 800 900 1200 13 16 19 12 15 17 12 15 16 NOTE: Allowance has been made for light sanding. Plywood sheets shall be laid with the grain of the face ply parallel to the span, and shall be continuous over at least two spans. Tabulated spacing shall be reduced by 25% if supported over one span only. Edges of sheets that are not tongued and grooved shall be supported. Structural plywood shall be fixed to all end and intermediate supports with— (a) 2.8 × 50 mm flat-head nails at 200 mm centres for general roof areas and 100 mm centres for areas within 1200 mm of the roof perimeter; or Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 75 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (b) for all roof areas with No. 8 × 40 mm Type 17 countersunk screws at 200 mm centres. 7.3.4 Loads on ceilings The member sizes given for ceiling joists, hanging beams, and similar members, are suitable for the support of normal ceiling loads and linings. Where ceiling framing is required to support other loads, including ladder or stair systems, storage, hot water systems or similar building services, the framing shall be designed in accordance with AS 1720.1. 7.3.5 Binders Binders may be required in ceilings to provide lateral restraint to external walls. Where required, they shall be a minimum of 35 × 70 mm. For details on the lateral restraint of external walls, see Clause 6.2.5. 7.3.6 Ceiling joists The size of ceiling joists shall be determined from Span Table A27 in Appendix A. 7.3.7 Hanging beams The size of hanging beams shall be determined from Span Table A28 in Appendix A. Hanging beams shall support ceiling loads only via ceiling joists. The top edge of hanging beams of a depth to breadth ratio exceeding 7 shall be laterally restrained at their supports. 7.3.8 Counter beams The size of counter beams shall be determined from Span Table A29 in Appendix A. This Table may also be used for lintels in internal walls supporting hanging beams. Counter beams shall support ceiling loads via hanging beams. 7.3.9 Combined strutting/hanging beams The size of combined strutting/hanging beams shall be determined from Span Table A30 in Appendix A. Combined strutting/hanging beams may support both roof loads from struts and ceiling loads from ceiling joists. The top edge of combined strutting/hanging beams with a depth to breadth ratio exceeding three, shall be laterally restrained at their supports and intermediately restrained at the strutting points. 7.3.10 Combined strutting/counter beams The size of combined strutting/counter beams shall be determined from Span Table A31 in Appendix A. Combined strutting/counter beams may support roof loads from struts and hanging beams from ceiling loads. The top edge of combined strutting/counter beams, of a depth to breadth ratio exceeding 3, shall be laterally restrained at their supports. 7.3.11 Strutting beams The size of strutting beams shall be determined from Span Table A32 in Appendix A. Strutting beams shall support roof loads only. The top edge of strutting beams, of a depth to breadth ratio exceeding 3, shall be laterally restrained at their supports and intermediately at the strutting points. 7.3.12 Underpurlins The size of underpurlins shall be determined from Span Table A33 in Appendix A. The ends of underpurlins may project (cantilever) beyond a support by up to 25% of the maximum allowable span of the underpurlin, provided the actual backspan is at least three times the cantilever length. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 76 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.3.13 Rafters and purlins 7.3.13.1 General The size of rafters supporting roofing only shall be determined from Span Table A34 in Appendix A. The size of rafters supporting roof and ceiling loads (cathedral roofs) shall be determined from Span Table A35 in Appendix A. 7.3.13.2 Rafter overhangs Rafter overhang limits contained in the Span Tables in Appendix A are applicable for use with a birdsmouth notch not exceeding one-third of the rafter depth in combination with a structural fascia that is rigidly connected to the ends of the rafters (see Figure 7.19(a)). A minimum timber (softwood) structural fascia of 190 × 19 mm shall be used. NOTES: 1 The maximum overhangs permitted by the Span Tables in Appendix A and Clause 7.3.13.3 may not be suitable for the support of attachments (pergolas and similar constructions) to the ends of overhangs. 2 Grooves in fascia, to accept eaves lining, are permitted. 3 For additional limitations on rafter overhangs, refer to the Notes to Span Tables A34 and A35 in Appendix A, and Figure 7.15(b). 7.3.13.3 Birdsmouthed and non-birdsmouthed rafters Where rafters are not birdsmouthed over top plates as shown in Figure 7.19(b), the allowable overhang may be 30% of the single-span value, up to a maximum of 750 mm, for all roof masses. Full bearing shall be provided by means of timber wedges or other alternative support systems; for example, framing anchors which provide equivalent bearing support. Where rafters are birdsmouthed less than one-third of the depth of the rafter, the allowable overhang may be determined by interpolation between the overhang permitted for a one- third depth birdsmouth and the overhang permitted for a non-birdsmouthed rafter, with a maximum of 750 mm. In hipped roofs, where common rafters are projected to form rafter overhangs that equal or exceed 750 mm, the hip or valley rafters shall be reinforced with 2/70 × 35 × 900 mm long fishplates extending 450 mm either side of the birdsmouth. D D/3 max.D/3 max. D Wedge or framing anchorWedge or framing anchor Max. overhang 30% single span value of rafter except where overhang for a birdsmouthed rafter permits agreater overhangMax. overhang 30% single span value of rafter except where overhang for a birdsmouthed rafter permits a greater overhang (a) Birdsmouthed (b) Non-birdsmouthed FIGURE 7.19 RAFTER OVERHANG AND BIRDSMOUTHING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 77 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 7.3.13.4 Dressed rafters Table 7.4 provides span and overhang reductions for dressed (undersized) rafters, as may be used in cathedral or flat/skillion roofs where rafters are exposed to view. Unseasoned timber dressed sizes shall be not more than 10 mm in depth or thickness under the nominal sizes stated in the rafter Span Tables in Appendix A, except that for 38 mm nominal thickness, the dressed thickness shall be not less than 32 mm. Seasoned timber dressed sizes shall be not more than 10 mm in depth and 5 mm in thickness under the sizes stated in the rafter Span Tables in Appendix A. Where the nominated sections suitable for nail lamination are used, each lamination shall be not more than 10 mm in depth and 5 mm in thickness under the sizes stated. The allowable overhang shall not exceed 30% of the reduced span value for a dressed rafter. TABLE 7.4 REDUCED SPANS AND OVERHANGS FOR DRESSED RAFTERS Rafter depth Allowable span for dressed beams as a percentage of allowable undressed beam span mm Seasoned timber Unseasoned timber Under 200 80% 85% 200 to 300 85% 90% Over 300 Not applicable 95% 7.3.14 Ridge or intermediate beams—Cathedral, skillion roofs, or similar roofs The size of ridge or intermediate beams in non-coupled cathedral, skillion or similar roofs shall be determined from Span Table A36 in Appendix A. 7.3.15 Roof battens The size of roof battens shall be determined from Span Table A37 in Appendix A. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 78 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 7.3.16 Cantilevered gable ends Where cantilevered at gable ends as shown in Figure 7.20, the size of lintels, verandah beams, underpurlins, and similar members, shall be determined from the appropriate Span Table in Appendix A for a single span equal to three times the cantilever distance. The backspan of the cantilevered member shall be at least twice the cantilever length. For ridge and intermediate beams, the cantilever shall not exceed the value given in Span Tables in Appendix A. Backspan minimum 2CBackspan minimum 2C Cantilever CCantilever C NOTE: To determine the size of a cantilevered member, refer to the appropriate Span Tables in Appendix A, using single span = 3 C. FIGURE 7.20 CANTILEVERED GABLE ENDS 7.3.17 Other members/components Requirements for miscellaneous roof framing members, which are not given in the Span Tables in Appendix A, are specified in Table 7.5. Junction of ridgeboard and hip or valley rafters shall be strutted where hip or valley rafters exceed 5 m span, or where underpurlins are supported off hip rafters. Roof strut length shall be measured from the underside of the underpurlin, or ridgeboard, or hip rafter, to the top of the strutting beam or wall. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 79 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE 7.5 OTHER MEMBERS AND COMPONENTS Member Application Minimum size, mm Ridgeboards Unstrutted ridge in coupled roof Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 19 thick Strutted ridge in coupled roof with strut spacing not greater than 1800 mm Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 19 thick Strutted ridge in coupled roof with strut spacing greater than 1800 and up to 2300 mm Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 35 thick Hip rafters Stress grade F11/MGP15 minimum and not less than rafter stress grade 50 greater in depth than rafters × 19 thick (seasoned) or 25 thick (unseasoned) Stress grades less than F11/MGP15 50 greater in depth than rafters × min. thickness as for rafters Valley rafters Minimum stress grade, as for rafters 50 greater in depth than rafters with thickness as for rafters (min. 35) Valley boards See Note 19 min. thick × width to support valley gutter Roof struts (sheet roof) Struts to 1500 mm long for all stress grades 90 × 45 or 70 × 70 Struts 1500 mm to 2400 mm long for all stress grades 70 × 70 Collar ties Ties to 4200 mm long for F8/MGP12 or higher stress grade 70 × 35 Ties to 4200 mm long for less than F8/MGP 12 stress grade 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 Ties over 4200 mm long for F8/MGP 12 or higher stress grade 90 × 35 Ties over 4200 mm long for less than F8/MGP 12 stress grade 90 × 45 or 120 × 35 Soffit bearers (boxed eaves) Max. span 600 mm 42 × 35 Span 600 mm to 1500 mm 70 × 35 Soffit bearer hangers Where applicable 42 × 19 Fascias Rigidly connected to rafter overhangs 190 × 19 Gable struts Braces for gable ends See Section 8 Roof struts (tiled roof) Struts to 1500 mm long for F8/MGP12 and higher stress grades 90 × 45 or 70 × 70 Struts to 1500 mm long for less than F8/MGP12 stress grade 70 × 70 Struts 1500 mm to 2400 mm long for F8/MGP12 and higher stress grades 70 × 70 Struts 1500 mm to 2400 mm long for less than F8/MGP12 stress grade 90 × 70 Roof struts (Roof load area up to 12 m 2) Roof type Length, mm Grade Type Size, mm Sheet Up to 1500 F5 or better Solid, glued or nail-laminated 90 × 45 or 2/70 × 35 1501 to 2400 2/90 × 45 2401 to 3000 F8 or better 2/90 × 45 3001 to 3600 MGP 12 or better 2/90 × 45 Tile Up to 1500 F5 or better Solid, glued or nail-laminated 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 1501 to 2400 F8 or better Nail-laminated 2/120 × 45 Solid or glue-laminated 2/90 × 35 2401 to 3000 MGP 12 or betterNail-laminated 2/120 × 45 Solid or glue-laminated 2/90 × 35 3001 to 3600 MGP 12 or better Solid or glue-laminated 2/90 × 45 NOTE: 175 × 25 × 6 mm hardwood weatherboards may also be used for valley boards. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 80 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au SECTION 8 BRACING 8.1 GENERAL Permanent bracing shall be provided to enable the roof, wall and floor framework to resist horizontal forces applied to the building (racking forces). Appropriate connection shall also be provided to transfer these forces through the framework and subfloor structure to the building’s foundation. Where required, bracing within the building, which normally occurs in vertical planes, shall be constructed into walls or subfloor supports and shall be distributed evenly throughout. Where buildings are more than one storey in height, wall bracing shall be designed for each storey. NOTE: Figure 8.1 illustrates examples of the types and positions where bracing is required. Gable end bracingGable end bracing Cross or sheet bracingCross or sheet bracing Cross or sheet bracingCross or sheet bracing Wind Subfloor cross-bracing, cantilevered stumps or bracing wallSubfloor cross-bracing, cantilevered stumps or bracing wall NOTES: 1 Horizontal wind (racking) forces are applied to external surfaces that are supported by horizontal or near horizontal diaphragms. Diaphragms include roofs, ceilings and floor surfaces including their associated framing. 2 Each horizontal diaphragm transfers racking forces to lower level diaphragms by connections and bracing. This continues down to the subfloor supports or concrete slab on the ground, where the forces are then resisted by the foundations. FIGURE 8.1 VARIOUS BRACING SYSTEMS CONNECTING HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 81 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 8.2 TEMPORARY BRACING Temporary bracing is necessary to support wind and construction loads on the building during construction. Temporary bracing shall be equivalent to at least 60% of permanent bracing required. Temporary bracing may form part of the installed permanent bracing. NOTE: The wind forces on unclad frames may be equal to, or greater than, those on a completed clad or veneered house. 8.3 PERMANENT BRACING 8.3.1 Subfloor bracing 8.3.1.1 General Subfloor bracing shall comply with the relevant details given in Table 8.1. Brickwork for subfloor bracing shall comply with the requirements of the relevant authority. TABLE 8.1 SUBFLOOR BRACING REQUIREMENTS Single- or two-storey building Outer wall construction (see Note 1) Full perimeter masonry base (see Note 2) Max. height of stumps above ground (see Note 3) Bracing requirement in Clause Single- or two-storey construction B.V. or clad frame Yes 1200 mm 8.3.1.2 Single-storey construction Clad frame No 1800 mm 8.3.1.3 NOTES: 1 B.V. = brick veneer on timber frame; clad frame = timber frame with attached timber or other cladding. 2 Minimum 110 mm unreinforced brickwork with engaged piers. 3 Stump/post sizes, height and embedment, see Section 3. 4 For additional subfloor bracing information, see AS 1684.2. 8.3.1.2 Full perimeter masonry base Where there is a full perimeter masonry base, the subfloor structure shall be considered to be adequately braced. 8.3.1.3 Diagonal bracing Diagonal bracing shall be provided to corner stumps/posts and the two adjacent stumps/posts in each case, or an equivalent bracing system shall be provided (see Figure 8.2). Where the height of the floor prevents the use of diagonal bracing, concrete backfill shall be provided to the corner stump and the two adjacent stumps. Where height and spacing of stumps permit, bracing shall be fixed across three stumps. A 12 mm diameter galvanized through-bolt nut and washer shall be used to fix the bracing at each point of contact and round stumps shall be checked out 12 mm in depth to accept the bracing. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 82 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 150 30 to 60° °30 to 60 ° ° 1800 mm max.1800 mm max. Max. Height to stump width ratio=15Max. Height to stump width ratio= 15 (a) Angle bracing—Minimum 600 mm stump embedment Max. Height to stump width ratio=15Max. Height to stump width ratio= 15 1800 mm max.1800 mm max. 150 30° to 60°30° to 60° (b) Cross-bracing—Minimum 450 mm stump embedment Brace sizes: Up to 2100 mm long—70 ×35 mm 2100 mm to 3600 mm long—70 × 45 mm 3000 mm to 4800 mm long—90 × 45 mm FIGURE 8.2 STUMP BRACING FOR SINGLE-STOREY CONSTRUCTION WITHOUT A MASONRY BASE 8.3.2 Wall bracing 8.3.2.1 General Walls shall be permanently braced to resist horizontal racking forces applied to the building. Structural wall bracing is classified as Type A or Type B bracing units (see Clause 1.5(f)). Type A and Type B bracing units are defined in Table 8.3. NOTE: The nail spacings given in Table 8.3 are nominal maximum spacings. Walls shall be permanently braced with any of the described bracing units, or a combination of bracing units. Nominal bracing, as defined in Clause 8.3.2.4, may provide up to a maximum of 50% of the total bracing required. Other types of structural bracing may be used provided the total capacity of the bracing system is equivalent to that obtained in accordance with this Standard. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 83 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Cut-in diagonal timber or metal angle braces shall only be installed in the same section of wall frame to one face of the wall; that is, notches are not permitted in both edges of the same stud. The distribution of bracing units shall be even (see Figure 8.4). Type A and Type B bracing units shall be connected to the floor frame or concrete slab in accordance with Clauses 8.3.2.7 and 8.3.2.8. 8.3.2.2 Procedure The procedure shall be as follows: (a) Determine the wind classification (see Clause 1.4.2). (b) From Figure 8.3 determine the appropriate house elevation option for single-storey or the upper storey or the lower storey of two-storey construction for both wind directions. NOTE: For mixed construction, i.e., split level houses, it will be necessary to consider each section separately to determine the number of bracing units for each section for both wind directions. (c) From Table 8.2 determine the number of bracing units required for each wind direction. (d) Distribute the structural wall bracing units evenly (see Figure 8.4). 6000 12 00012 000 18 00018 000 4500 5100 6300 Option S1Option S1Option S2Option S3 (a) Single- or upper-storey construction 6000 12 00012 000 18 00018 000 7200 7800 9000 Option L1Option L2Option L3 (b) Lower storey of two-storey construction NOTES: 1 Small areas of roof that project beyond the option limit are permitted, provided the parts that project beyond will fit within unused area remaining within the limit. 2 Multiples of, or a proportion of, the elevation options may be determined to accommodate larger or smaller buildings provided the total amount of required bracing is provided for each section or proportion of section. 3 Excluding gable overhang, eaves up to 750 mm wide may be ignored. DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES FIGURE 8.3 HOUSE ELEVATION OPTIONS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 84 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 8.2 AMOUNT OF BRACING Wind classification Type of construction House elevation options (see Figure 8.3)Total number of Type A bracing units Wind on all vertical surface elements (gable and skillion ends and flat walls) and on elevations with roof pitch up to 5° Wind on elevations with roof pitch greater than 5° N1 Single- or upper-storey construction S1 S2 S3 4 10 20 4 8 16 Lower storey of two-storey construction L1 L2 L3 9 17 31 8 15 28 N2 Single- or upper-storey construction S1 S2 S3 6 14 27 5 11 22 Lower storey of two-storey construction L1 L2 L3 11 24 42 10 22 38 8.3.2.3 Rules and allowances The following shall apply: (a) For each wind direction and storey, the house may be braced using a combination of Type A, Type B and nominal bracing. (b) Nominal bracing shall not constitute more than 50% of the required bracing for each wind direction or in each storey. (c) Where structural bracing (Type A or Type B) occurs in the same section of wall as nominal bracing, the nominal bracing in that section of wall shall not be considered as contributing to the house bracing requirements. (d) A minimum of two structural bracing units (Type A or Type B) shall be provided in each overall length of external wall of each storey, located as close to the external corners as possible. Where the overall length of an external wall does not permit two structural bracing units to be provided, a minimum of one structural bracing unit (Type A or Type B) may be installed in lieu, provided a structural bracing unit is installed in a wall parallel to, and not more than 6.0 m away from, the external wall in question, and the ceiling between the walls is sheeted. (e) One Type B bracing unit equals two Type A bracing units. 7.0 m of single-sided nominal bracing equals one Type A bracing unit. 4.0 m of double-sided nominal bracing equals one Type A bracing unit. NOTE: The following provides an example of the application of the above: (a) Wind classification N2. (b) Bracing for lower storey of two-storey construction. (c) House elevation option L1. (d) Total bracing required for the direction being considered = 11 Type A units. Alternatively, a combination of bracing using nominal bracing and Type A and/or Type B bracing units may be used, for example— (i) 6 Type A bracing units plus 20 m of double-sided nominal bracing (5 × 4 m); or (ii) 4 Type B bracing units plus 12 m of doubled-sided nominal bracing (3 × 4 m). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 85 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (f) Bracing units shall be installed at right angles to the wall area of elevation for which the bracing was defined. 8.3.2.4 Nominal wall bracing Nominal wall bracing is wall framing lined with sheet materials such as plywood, plasterboard, fibre cement or hardboard, or similar materials, with sheeting fixed in accordance with relevant Australian Standards and the wall frames nominally fixed to the floor and the roof or ceiling frame. Nominal wall bracing shall be evenly distributed throughout the building. If this is not the case, the contribution of nominal bracing shall be ignored. 8.3.2.5 Structural wall bracing Structural wall bracing is purpose-fitted bracing, being either sheet or diagonal timber or steel bracing. Table 8.3 defines various structural bracing unit types (Type A or Type B). For sheet-braced walls, the sheeting shall be continuous from the top plate to the bottom plate with any horizontal sheet joints made over nogging with the same fixings as required for top and bottom plates. Unless otherwise noted, sheet bracing units shall be a minimum of 900 mm wide per Type A or Type B bracing unit. The minimum joint strength group of timber framing for bracing units given in bracing types (g) to (m) of Table 8.3 shall be JD4. If JD5 strength group of timber is used, the required number of bracing units shall be increased by 15%. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 86 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 8.3 STRUCTURAL WALL BRACING (MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 2.7 m) Type of bracing Bracing unit type (a) Two diagonally opposed timber or metal angle braces 1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max. Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3)Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3) 30° to 60°30° to 60° Galv. metal angle (18161.2mm) brace fixed to studs with 1/30 2.8 mm Ø nail and to plate with 2 galv. flat-head nails×× × /30×2.8mmØGalv. metal angle (18161.2 mm) brace fixed to studs with 1/30 2.8 mm Ø nail and to plate with 2Ø galv. flat-head nails ×× × /30 × 2.8 mm 45 9 mm or 70 × 19 hardwood timber braced fixed to each and plate with 5 × galv.Ø ×1 mm stud 1/ 0 2.8 mm flat-head nail45 × 19 mm or 70 × 19 mm hardwood timber braced fixed to each stud and plate with 1/50 × 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nail Ø NOTE: All flat-head nails shall be galvanized or equivalent. A (b) Metal straps—Tensioned 1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max. Fixbottomplateto floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3)Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3) 60° to 30°60° to 30° 30 × 0.8 mm tensioned metal brace fixed to studs with 1/30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nail (or equivalent) and to plate with 3 galv. flat-head nails, or alternative metal strap, fixed as above, with a net sectional area not less than 15 mm 2 /30 2.8 mm× × 30 × 0.8 mm tensioned metal brace fixed to studs with 1/30 × 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nail (or equivalent) and to plate with 3 × galv. flat-head nails, or alternative metal strap, fixed as above, with anet sectional area not less than 15 mm /30 2.8 mm 2 A (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 87 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Type of bracing Bracing unit type (c) Timber and metal angle braces The maximum depth of a notch or saw-cut shall not exceed 20 mm. Saw-cut studs shall be designed as notched. Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3)Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3) Min. 75 15 mm F8 brace or metal angle of min. nominal section 20 18 1.2 mm× ××Min. 75 × 15 mm F8 brace or metal angle of min. nominal section 20 × 18 × 1.2 mm 2/50 × 2.8 mm Ø nails for timber brace, or 2/30 2.8 mm× Ø nails for metal brace, to each stud and plate2/50 × 2.8 mm Ø nails for timber brace, or 2/30 × 2.8 mm Ø nails for metal brace, to each stud and plate No end splits allowed; drill if necessaryNo end splits allowed; drill if necessary (See Detail 1)(See Detail 1) (See Detail 1)(See Detail 1) (See Detail 1)(See Detail 1) 1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max. Detail 1: 30 0.8 mm galv. metal strap looped over plate and fixed to stud with 3/30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nails (or equivalent) to each end. Alternatively, provide single straps to both sides, with 3 nails per strap end, or equivalent anchors or other fasteners.× ×ØDetail 1: 30 0.8 mm galv. metal strap looped over plate and fixed to stud with 3/30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nails (or equivalent) to each end. Alternatively, provide single straps to both sides, with 3nails per strap end, or equivalent anchors or other fasteners. × ×Ø A (d) Metal straps—Tensioned—With stud straps 30° to 60°30° to 60° 1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max. Fixbottomplatetofloorframeor slab, with nominal fixing requirementFix bottom plate to floor frame or slab, with nominal fixing requirement 30 × 0.8 mm galv. metal strap looped over plate and fixed to stud with 4/30 × 2.8 mm Ø galv. flat-head nails (or equivalent) to each end. Alternatively, provide single straps to both sides, with 4 nails per strap end, or equivalent anchors or other fasteners30 × 0.8 mm galv. metal strap looped over plate and fixed to stud with 4/30 × 2.8 mm Ø galv. flat-head nails (or equivalent) to each end. Alternatively, provide single straps to both sides, with 4nails per strap end, or equivalent anchors or other fasteners 30 metal strap studs with one 30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nail and to plates with 4/30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nails, or alternative metal strap, fixed as above, with a net sectional area not less than mm 2 × 0.8 mm tensioned fixed to ×Ø (or equivalent) ×Ø 21 30 metal strap studs with one 30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nail and to plates with 4/30 2.8 mm galv. flat-head nails, or alternative metal strap, fixed as above, with anet sectional area not less than mm × 0.8 mm tensioned fixed to ×Ø (or equivalent) ×Ø 21 2 B (continued) TABLE 8.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 88 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Type of bracing Bracing unit type (e) Diagonal timber wall lining or cladding Intermediate crossings of boards and studs shall be fixed with one nail. Perimeter nail spacingPerimeter nail spacing 30×0.8mm G. I. strap to each corner of bracing panel tying studs to plates 4/2.8 mm dia. nails each end30 × 0.8 mm G. I. strap to each corner of bracing panel tying studs to plates 4/2.8 mm dia. nails each end 2700 mm max.2700 mm max. 40° to 50°40° to 50° s Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab, with nominal fixing requirementFix bottom plate to floor frame or slab, with nominal fixing requirement x(min. length)x(min. length) NOTES: 1 Noggings have been omitted for clarity. 2 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab: Method A⎯M10 cup-head bolt at each end of bracing panel or proprietary fastener with 5.6 kN capacity. Method B⎯M10 bolt at each end of bracing panel or proprietary fastener with 8.1 kN capacity. A x = 1400 mm s = 60 mm B x = 2000 mm s = 40 mm (f) Other timber, metal angle and strap bracing shall be designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles. ⎯ (g) Plywood Plywood shall be nailed to frame using 30 × 2.8 ∅ mm galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Where required, one row of noggings staggered or single line at half wall heightWhere required, one row of noggings staggered or single line at half wall height Horizontal butt joints are permitted, provided fixed to nogging at 150 mm centresHorizontal butt joints are permitted, provided fixed to nogging at 150 mm centres Sheathed panels shall be connected to subfloorSheathed panels shall be connected to subfloor 300 mm300 mm 150 mm150 mm 150 mm150 mm 150 mm150 mm Fastener spacing: 150mm top and bottom plates 150 mm vertical edges, nogging 300 mm intermediate studsFastener spacing: 150mm top and bottom plates 150 mm vertical edges, nogging 300 mm intermediate studs NOTES: 1 Each 900 mm panel = one Type A bracing unit. 2 No other rods or straps are required between top or bottom plate. 3 Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3).Minimum plywood thickness, mm A Stress grade Stud spacing mm 450 600 No nogging (except horizontal butt joints) F8 F11 F14 F27 7 4.5 4 3 9 7 6 4.5 One row of nogging F8 F11 F14 F27 7 4.5 4 3 7 4.5 4 3 (continued) TABLE 8.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 89 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Type of bracing Bracing unit type (h) Plywood Plywood shall be nailed to frame using 30× 2.8 ∅ mm galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Method A requires M12 rods at each end of sheathed section top plate to bottom plate or floor frame. Method B has no rods but sheathing shall be nailed, at 50 mm centres, to top and bottom plates and any horizontal joists. Method A only: M12 rod top to bottom plate each end of sheathed sectionMethod A only: M12 rod top to bottom plate each end of sheathed section Sheathed panels shall be connected to subfloorSheathed panels shall be connected to subfloor 300 mm300 mm 150 mm s s Horizontal butt joints are permitted, provided nail fixed to nogging at = 150 mm centres for Method A, or = 50 mm centres for Method Bs sHorizontal butt joints are permitted, provided nail fixed to nogging at = 150 mm centres for Method A, or = 50 mm centres for Method Bs s NOTE: Each 900 mm panel = one Type B bracing unit. Minimum plywood thickness, mm B Stress gradeStud spacing mm 450 600 F8 F11 F14 F27 7 6 4 4 9 7 6 4.5 Fastener spacing (s) mm Top and bottom plate: Method A Method B 150 50 Vertical edges 150 Intermediate studs 300 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab Method A: M12 rods as shown plus an M10 bolt or other 13 kN capacity connection at max. 1200 mm centres. Method B: an M10 bolt or other 13 kN capacity connection at each end and intermediately at max. 1200 mm centres (i) Decorative plywood—nailed Decorative plywood shall be nailed to frame using minimum 40 × 2.5 mm ∅ bullet-head nails. The depth of groove shall not exceed one-third the nominal thickness. 100 mm100 mm 100 mm100 mm 200 mm200 mm Skew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheetSkew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheet NOTE: Each 1400 mm panel = one Type A bracing unit. Stress grade Min. nominal thickness of decorative structural plywood A F11 6 mm Fastener spacing mm Top and bottom plates 100 Vertical edges 100 Intermediate studs 200 Max. stud spacing: 600 mm NOTE: Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3). (continued) TABLE 8.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 90 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Type of bracing Bracing unit type (j) Decorative plywood—glued and nailed Decorative plywood shall be nailed to frame using min. 40 × 2.5 mm ∅ bullet-head nails. Continuous 6 mm bead of elastomeric adhesive shall apply to studs and plates. Double 6 mm glued bead shall be used where plywood sheets butt together on a common stud. The depth of groove shall not exceed one-third the nominal thickness. 200 mm200 mm 200 mm200 mm Skew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheetSkew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheet Double6mmgluebead where plywood sheets butt together on a common studDouble 6mm glue bead where plywood sheets butt together on acommon stud NOTE: Each 1200 mm panel = one Type B bracing unit. Stress grade Min. nominal thickness of decorative structural plywood B F11 6 mm Fastener spacing mm Top and bottom plates 200 Vertical edges 200 Intermediate studs 200 Max. stud spacing: 600 mm NOTE: Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with an M10 bolt or other 13 kN capacity connection at each end of braced panel and at max. 1200 mm centres (k) Hardboard Type A Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.4. Hardboard shall be nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm. Bracing panel minimum width = 900 mm. Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3)Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3) At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalentAt least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent 80 mm80 mm 150 mm150 mm 150 mm150 mm 300 mm300 mm Minimum hardboard thickness 4.8 mm A Fastener spacing, mm Top and bottom plates 80 Vertical edges and nogging 150 Intermediate studs 300 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab Type A: Nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3). (continued) TABLE 8.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 91 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Type of bracing Bracing unit type (l) Hardboard Types B and C Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.4. Hardboard shall be nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm. Bracing panel minimum width = 900 mm. At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalentAt least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent TypeConly:M12rodateachendand max. 1800 mm centres in betweenTy p e C only: M12 rod at each end and max. 1800 mm centres in between TypeBonly: M10 bolt at each end and max. 1200 mm centres in betweenTy p e B only: M10 bolt at each end and max. 1200 mm centres in between 40 mm staggered40 mm staggered 150 mm150 mm 300 mm300 mm 150 mm150 mm Minimum hardboard thickness 4.8 mm B Fastener spacing mm Top and bottom plates 40 Vertical edges and nogging 150 Intermediate studs 300 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab Type B: M10 bolts each end and intermediately at max. 1200 centres. Type C: M12 rods at each end and at max. 1800 centres in between. (m) Hardboard Types D and E—Short wall bracing systems Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.4, and nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm. Bracing panel minimum width = 460 mm. 150 mm150 mm TypeDonly: M10 × 50 mm long coach screw with 30 × 38 mm washer at each corner of panelTy p e D only: M10 × 50 mm long coach screw with 30 ×38 mm washer at each corner of panel TypeEonly:M12 rodateachendTy p e E only: M12 rod at each end 80 mm80 mm 150 mm150 mm 150 mm150 mm 150 mm150 mm 460 mm min.460 mm min. 460 mm min.460 mm min. 40 mm staggered40 mm staggered At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalentAt least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent Minimum hardboard thickness 4.8 mm 2/Type D A 2/Type E B Fastener spacing, mm Top and bottom plates Type D 80 Type E 40 Vertical edges and nogging 150 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab Type D: Nominal fixing only (see Table 9.3). Type E: M12 rods at each end. NOTES: 1 Bolt/rod washer sizes as per Table 9.1. 2 Two panels of Type D equal one Type A bracing unit. 3 Two panels of Type E equal one Type B bracing unit. TABLE 8.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 92 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 8.3.2.6 Distribution of bracing Bracing shall be approximately evenly distributed and shall be provided in both directions, as shown in Figure 8.4 NOTE: An example of even distribution of bracing is given in Figure C1, Appendix C. Bracing shall initially be placed in external walls and, where possible, at the corners of the building. The rest of the bracing shall then be evenly distributed throughout the internal walls. The distance between bracing units at right angles to the building length or width shall not exceed 9000 mm. Wind direction A Wind direction B Spacing between bracing walls for wind direction B (Panels5,6and7)Spacing between bracing walls for wind direction B (Panels 5, 6and 7) 1 56 7 2 3 4 Spacing between bracing walls for wind direction A (Panels1,2,3and4)Spacing between bracing walls for wind direction A (Panels 1, 2, 3and 4) FIGURE 8.4 DISTRIBUTION OF WALL BRACING UNITS 8.3.2.7 Connection at the bottom of bracing units The bottom of Type A and Type B bracing units shall be connected to the floor frame or concrete slab in accordance with the requirements in Table 9.3. Typical connection for the bottom plates of walls tied to supporting floor joists, or slab, is shown in Figure 8.5 or 8.6, as applicable. Fixings shall be to alternate joists only or at maximum 1200 mm centres. NOTE: The fixings should commence as close as possible to the ends of each bracing section. G.I. strap with 3/2.8Ø mm nails each end or 2/No. 14 Type 17 screwsG.I. strap with 3/2.8Ø mm nails each end or 2/No. 14 Ty p e 17 screws FIGURE 8.5 TYPICAL CONNECTION FOR TYPE B BRACING UNITS⎯ BOTTOM PLATE TO SUPPORTING FLOOR FRAMING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 93 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Chemical, expansion or fired proprietary fastenersChemical, expansion or fired proprietary fasteners Refer to manufacturer’s recommendations on minimum edge distances and safetyRefer to manufacturer’s recommendations on minimum edge distances and safety FIGURE 8.6 TYPICAL CONNECTION FOR TYPE B BRACING UNITS — BOTTOM PLATE TO CONCRETE SLAB 8.3.2.8 Connection at the top of bracing units The top of all bracing units shall be fixed to the ceiling frame or roof frame in accordance with the following: (a) Type A bracing units shall be fixed to rafters, ceiling joists or trimmers with a minimum of 6/3.05 mm diameter skew nails per bracing unit or other straps or framing anchors with a shear capacity of 3 kN. (b) Type B bracing units shall be fixed to rafters, ceiling joists or trimmers with a minimum of 12/3.05 mm diameter skew nails per bracing unit or other straps or framing anchors with a shear capacity of 6 kN. 8.3.2.9 Bracing units under eaves External walls under ends of eaves may be used as bracing units, provided they are suitably connected to the main ceiling diaphragms using appropriate connections such as crossed metal bracing straps to rafter overhangs or sheet bracing to rafter overhangs, as shown in Figure 8.7. The same structural requirements that apply to normal external bracing walls shall apply to the external bracing walls under the ends of eaves. The bracing units under eaves shall be limited to 20% of the total wall bracing required in each direction. Bracing wall under eavesBracing wall under eaves Diaphragm continued using suitable method, e.g., crossed metal straps or sheet bracing on rafter overhangsDiaphragm continued using suitable method, e.g., crossed metal straps or sheet bracing on rafter overhangs Eaves FIGURE 8.7 BRACING UNITS UNDER EAVES Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 94 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au 8.3.3 Roof bracing 8.3.3.1 Pitched roofs (coupled and non-coupled roofs) The following applies to the bracing of pitched roofs: (a) Hip roofs Hip roofs do not require any specific bracing as they are restrained against longitudinal movement by hips, valleys and similar structures. (b) Gable roofs For buildings with a roof pitch greater than 10° but less than 25°, roof bracing shall be provided in accordance with Table 8.4 and shall be braced using one of the following methods (see Figure 8.8): (i) Ridge to internal wall—minimum of two timber braces in opposing directions at approximately 45° (see Table 8.4). Minimum timber grade F5 shall be used. (ii) Ridge to external wall plates—single diagonal timber brace on both sides of the ridge running at approximately 45° from ridge to wall plate (see Table 8.4). (iii) Diagonal metal bracing—single or double diagonal bracing shall be designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles. (iv) Structural sheet bracing—structural sheet bracing shall be designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles. Gable roofs with a pitch greater than 25° shall be braced in accordance with engineering principles. TABLE 8.4 GABLE ROOF BRACING ALTERNATIVES Brace location alternative Brace specification* Length, mm Minimum size, mm End connection Ridge to internal wall in opposing directions Up to 2100 Over 2100 to 2400 Over 2400 to 3000 Over 3000 to 4200 70 × 45 2/90 × 35 2/90 × 45 3/120 × 35 5/3.05 nails or 4/3.33 ∅ nails M10 cup-head bolt M12 cup-head bolt 2/M10 cup-head bolts Ridge to external wall plates on both sides of ridge. As required 90 × 19 or 75 × 25 timber or equivalent metal system 5/3.75 nails each end * See Clause 8.3.3.1(b)(i) for minimum timber grade. RidgeboardRafter Gable endGable end Alternative bracing: opposing braces from ridgeboard to internal walls at approximately 45°Alternative bracing: opposing braces from ridgeboard to internal walls at approximately 45° Min.19×90mmor25 75mm brace at approximately 45° to rafters on both sides of ridge×Min. 19 × 90 mm or 25 75 mm brace at approximately 45° to rafters on both sides of ridge × FIGURE 8.8 GABLE ROOF BRACING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 95 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia (c) Intersection of timber braces Where timber braces intersect, they shall be spliced in accordance with Figure 8.9. 5/3.75 mm nails each side of joint5/3.75 mm nails each side of joint 700 mm long timber splice plate or equivalent nailplates700 mm long timber splice plate or equivalent nailplates FIGURE 8.9 TIMBER BRACING SPLICE 8.3.3.2 Trussed roofs Bracing requirements for trussed roofs shall be in accordance with AS 4440. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 96 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au SECTION 9 FIXINGS AND TIE-DOWN DESIGN 9.1 GENERAL This Section specifies fixing requirements for the various framing members described in this Standard. Figure 9.1 gives the load actions that fixing details are provided for. Live loads (people, furniture etc.)Live loads (people, furniture etc.) Dead load (structure)Dead load (structure) Dead load (structure)Dead load (structure) Construction load (people, materials)Construction load (people, materials) Suction Internal pressureInternal pressure Internal pressureInternal pressure Suction (uplift)Suction (uplift) Wind Dead load (structure)Dead load (structure) (a) Gravity loads (b) Uplift wind loads Construction load (people, materials)Construction load (people, materials) Wind Suction (c) Lateral wind loads FIGURE 9.1 LOAD ACTIONS 9.2 GENERAL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 9.2.1 General The general details given in Clause 9.2.2to 9.2.8 shall apply to all connections and fixings. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 97 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 9.2.2 Straps, bolts, screws, coach screws and framing anchors Straps, bolts, screws, coach screws and framing anchors shall be manufactured in accordance with or shall comply with the material requirements of the relevant Australian Standard. 9.2.3 Steel washers The size of steel washers shall be determined from Table 9.1. Circular washers of equivalent thickness and with the same net bearing area are also permitted to carry the same full design loads. For thinner washers or washers with smaller net bearing areas, the design loads shall be reduced in proportion to the reduction of thickness and net bearing area, that is less the hole diameter. TABLE 9.1 STEEL WASHERS Bolt or coach screw diameter mm Washer size mm M10 cup-head Standard M12 cup-head Standard M10 bolt/coach screw 38 × 38 × 2.0 M12 bolt/coach screw 50 × 50 × 3.0 9.2.4 Drilling for bolts Bolt holes in unseasoned timber shall be 2 mm to 3 mm greater in diameter than the bolt diameter, and for seasoned timber they shall be 1 mm to 2 mm greater than the bolt diameter. Bolt holes in steel shall provide a snug fit that is not more than 0.5 mm greater than the bolt diameter. 9.2.5 Drilling for coach screws Drilling for coach screws shall be as follows: (a) Hole for shank—shank diameter + 1 mm. (b) Hole for thread—root diameter. 9.2.6 Screw and coach screw penetration The minimum penetration of the threaded portion of screws and coach screws into the receiving member shall be not less than 35 mm for screws and 5 times the diameter of coach screws, unless otherwise noted. 9.2.7 Framing anchor and strap nails All nails used for framing anchor and straps shall be corrosion protected flat-head connector nails. Clout shall not be used for this purpose. 9.2.8 Joining of top plates Top plates in walls shall be joined by one of the methods shown in Figure 9.2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 98 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Nogging as for top plateNogging as for top plate 3/3.05 mm nails each side of joint3/3.05 mm nails each side of joint Stud Ribbon plate constructionRibbon plate construction 1200 mm min1200 mm min 2/75×3.05mm nails at each stud2/75 × 3.05 mm nails at each stud To p plateTo p plate StudStud Plate connectorPlate connector (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 9.2 JOINING OF TOP PLATES 9.3 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FIXING AND TIE-DOWN REQUIREMENTS The procedure to determine fixing and tie-down requirements shall be as follows: (a) From Clause 9.4 and Table 9.2 determine if nominal or specific fixings are required for tie-down. (b) If nominal fixings only are required, see Clause 9.5 and Table 9.3. (c) If specific fixings are required, determine the rafter or truss span and see Clause 9.6 and Tables 9.4 to 9.7. 9.4 NOMINAL AND SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS For all houses and wind speeds, the nominal (minimum) fixing requirements shall be in accordance with Clause 9.5. Requirements with respect to resisting racking forces and special fixings for bracing are given in Section 8. Table 9.2 gives the design situations where either nominal (minimum) fixings or specific fixings shall be used for wind classifications N1 and N2 for the various areas of connection in the house. TABLE 9.2 NOMINAL OR SPECIFIC FIXINGS Connection Wind classification N1 N2 Sheet roof Tile roof Sheet roof Tile roof Roof battens to rafters or trusses Within 1200 of edges S S S S General area S S S S Single storey or upper storey rafters/trusses to wall frames, floor frame or slab S N S N Single- or upper-storey floor frame to supports N N N N Lower storey wall frame to floor frame or slab N N N N Lower storey floor frame to supports N N N N N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.5). S = specific connection may be required for uplift forces (see Clause 9.6). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 99 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 9.5 NOMINAL FIXINGS (MINIMUM FIXINGS) Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of machine-driven nails shall be 3.05 mm for hardwood and cypress and 3.33 mm for softwood framing. Machine-driven nails shall be plastic polymer (glue) coated or annular or helical deformed shank nails. Where the nail length is not specified in Table 5.2 or elsewhere, the minimum depth of penetration into the final receiving member shall be 10 times the nail diameter where driven into side grain or 15 times the nail diameter where driven into end grain. Unless otherwise specified herein, not less than two nails shall be provided at each joint. Where plain shank hand-driven nails are used in lieu of machine-driven nails, they shall be a minimum diameter of 3.15 mm for hardwood and cypress and 3.75 mm for softwood and other low-density timber. Nails used in joints that are continuously damp or exposed to the weather shall be hot-dip galvanized, stainless steel or monel metal. The nominal (minimum) fixings for most joints are given in Table 9.3. TABLE 9.3 NOMINAL FIXINGS FOR TIMBER MEMBERS Joint Minimum fixing for each joint Floor framing Bearer to timber stump/post 4/75 × 3.33 mm dia. or 5/75 × 3.05 mm machine-driven nails plus 1/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap over bearer and fixed both ends to stump with 4/2.8 mm dia. each end; OR 1/M10 bolt through bearer halved to stump; OR 1/M12 cranked bolt fixed vertically through bearer and bolted to stump plus 4/75 × 3.33 mm or 5/75 × 3.05 mm machine-driven nails Bearer to masonry column/wall/pier (excluding masonry veneer construction) 1/M10 bolt or 1/50 × 4 mm mild steel bar fixed to bearer with M10 bolt and cast into masonry (to footing) Bearer to supports (masonry veneer construction) No requirement Bearer to concrete stump/post 1/6 mm dia. rod cast into stump, vertically through bearer and bent over Bearers to steel post 1/M10 coach screw or bolt Floor joist to bearer 2/75 × 3.05 mm dia. nails Wall framing Plates to studs Plates up to 38 mm thick—2/75 × 3.05 mm nails through plate; Plates 38 to 50 mm thick—2/90 × 3.05 mm nails through plate; OR 2/75 × 3.05 mm nails skewed through stud into plate Noggings to studs 2/75 × 3.05 mm nail skewed or through nailed Timber braces to studs or plates 2/50 × 2.8 mm dia. nails at each joint Lintel to jamb stud 2/75 × 3.05 mm dia. nails at each joint Bottom plates to joists Non-loadbearing and non-bracing walls 2/2.8 mm dia. nails at max. 600 mm centres Loadbearing, including walls with Type A braces Plates up to 38 mm thick ⎯ 2/75 × 3.05 mm nails at max. 600 mm centres Plates 38 to 50 mm thick ⎯ 2/90 × 3.05 mm nails at max. 600 mm centres Walls with Type B braces See Table 8.3 Bottom plates to concrete slab, including walls with Type A braces One 75 mm masonry nail (hand driven at slab edge), screw or bolt at not more than 1200 mm centres (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 100 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Joint Minimum fixing for each joint Bottom plates to concrete slabs for walls with Type B braces See Table 8.3 Ribbon plate to top plate Refer Notes to Span Tables in Appendix A, and Clause 2.5 and Clause 9.2.8 Multiple studs 1/75 mm nail at max. 600 mm centres Posts to bearers or joists 1/M12 or 2/M10 bolts (unless otherwise specified) Roof framing Roof trusses to top plates Standard trusses See Clause 1.11; OR One framing anchor with three nails to each leg; OR 1/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap over truss with strap ends fixed to plate with 3/2.8 mm dia. nails plus 2/75 mm skew nails Girder trusses In accordance with Tables 9.5, 9.6, or 9.7 Rafters to top plates—Coupled roofs 2/75 mm skew nails plus, where adjoining a ceiling joist of— (a) 38 mm thick ⎯ 2/75 mm nails; OR (b) 50 mm thick ⎯ 2/90 mm nails, fixing joist to rafter Rafters to top plates—Non-coupled roofs 2/75 mm skew nails Rafter to ridge 2/75 mm skew nails Ceiling joists to top plates 2/75 mm skew nails Ceiling joists to rafters In coupled roof construction, 1/75 hand-driven nail or 2/75 × 3.05 mm machine-driven nails Collar ties to rafters 1/M10 bolt for ties over 4.2 m or 3/75 mm nails for ties up to 4.2 m long Verandah, ridge, intermediate beams to post 1/M12 or 2/M10 bolts (unless otherwise specified for tie-down). NOTES: 1 Nails, that are smaller than the nominated size, or are other than those described, may be used provided their performance, as determined by testing, indicates they are not inferior to the nail sizes given above. 2 The nominal connections for roof trusses to top plates given in this Table are based on the minimum connection details recommended by truss plate manufacturers. TABLE 9.3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 101 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia 9.6 SPECIFIC FIXING (TIE-DOWN) 9.6.1 General Unless otherwise specified, the specific fixing requirements are in addition to the nominal fixing requirements of Clause 9.5. Specific fixings shall be determined from Tables 9.4 to 9.7 and Clause 9.6.2 for the relevant wind classification and type of roofing. Unless otherwise specified, a G.I. strap shall have a minimum of 2/30 × 2.8 mm dia. nails at each end and a framing anchor with 4/30 × 2.8 mm dia. nails to each leg. TABLE 9.4 SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND CLASSIFICATION N1 SHEET ROOF Joint or member Rafter or truss span mm Specific fixing requirements Top and bottom plates to studs 3000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1800 mm max. centres along wall 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails to each end of strap 6000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails to each end of strap 9000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails to each end of strap 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails to each end of strap Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Non- coupled roofs—No ridge tie-down but rafters tied at ridge For ridge connection, see Figure 9.3(a) or Figure 9.3(b) Rafter spacing, mm 600 900 1200 3000 (single) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 6000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or one framing anchor 3000 (continuous) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8mm ∅ nails each end or one framing anchor Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Non- coupled roofs— Ridge tie-down 3000 (single) Nominal fixing Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 6000 (single) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 3000 (continuous) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Coupled roofs—No ridge tie-down (see Note 4) For ridge connection, see Figure 9.3(a) or Figure 9.3(b) 3000 (single) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 3000 (continuous) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or one framing anchor Rafters to underpurlins— coupled roofs 3000 (continuous) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 G.I. strap or one framing anchor (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 102 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Joint or member Rafter or truss span mm Specific fixing requirements Roof trusses to top plates, beams or studs Truss spacing, mm 600 900 1200 3000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 6000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 9000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each leg 12 000 Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each leg 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or two framing anchors Intermediate beams, verandah beams and lintels to posts or studs Beam span, mm 1800 3000 6000 3000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end 6000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M10 or 1/M12 bolt 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. straps 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M10 or 1/M12 bolt 9000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 2/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M10 or 1/M12 bolt 1/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. straps 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M12 bolts M10 vertical tie-down anchor rod to floor frame or footing or 2/M10 bolts 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M10 or 1/M12bolt 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. straps 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or 2/M12 bolts M10 vertical tie-down anchor rod to floor frame or footing or 2/M12 bolts Roof battens to rafters or trusses Rafter or truss spacing mm Batten spacing, mm (see Note 3) 600 1200 600 1/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nail or 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 900 2/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nails or 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 2/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nails 1200 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 2/75 × 3.75 mm deformed shank nails or 1/75 × No. 14 Type 17 screw NOTES: 1 Except for nominal fixings, intermediate connections are not required where a connection is continued to a lower member in the frame; for example, connection of a rafter directly to a stud eliminates the need for individual rafter to top plate and to stud connections. 2 Specific tie-down connections in walls are only required in those walls used for tie-down purposes. 3 Unless otherwise specified, the minimum penetration into a rafter or truss is 38 mm. 4 Assumed to be adjoining a ceiling joist. 5 For continuous span beams, the centre support requires twice the fixing specified. TABLE 9.4 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 103 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE 9.5 SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS—WIND CLASSIFICATION N1 TILE ROOF Joint or member Rafter or truss spacing mm Specific fixing requirements (see Note) Roof battens to rafters or trusses Batten spacing 330 mm up to 600 1/50 × 2.8 mm plain shank nail—Min. penetration 25 mm 900 1/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nail 1200 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, the minimum penetration into a rafter or truss is 38 mm. TABLE 9.6 SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS—WIND CLASSIFICATION N2 SHEET ROOF Joint or member Rafter or truss span mm Specific fixing requirements Spacing of fixing along plate, mm 600 1 200 1 800 Bottom plates to floor frame or slab 3 000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 2/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or two framing anchors or M10 masonry anchor 6 000 Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor or M10 masonry anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or two framing anchors or M10 masonry anchor 9 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or two framing anchors or M10 masonry anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or M10 masonry anchor 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or two framing anchors or M10 masonry anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or M10 masonry anchor Top and bottom plates to studs 3 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1800 mm max. centres along wall 2/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails to each end of strap 6 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails to each end of strap 9 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails to each end of strap 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap at 1200 mm max. centres along wall 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails to each end of strap (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 104 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Joint or member Rafter or Specific fixing requirements Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Non- coupled roofs— No ridge tie- down but rafters tied at ridge Rafter spacing, mm 600 900 1 200 3 000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 6 000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails or two framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end (see Figure 9.3(b) or (c) for ridge connection) 3 000 (continuous) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails or two framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end (see Figure 9.3(b) or (c) for ridge connection) Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Non- coupled roofs— Ridge tie-down 3 000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 6 000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 3 000 (continuous) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor Rafters to top plates, beams or studs—Coupled roofs—No ridge tie-down (see Note 4) 3 000 (single) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 3 000 (continuous) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails or two framing anchor (see Figure 9.3(a) or (b) for ridge connection) 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end (see Figure 9.3(b) or (c) for ridge connection) Rafters to underpurlins— coupled roofs 3 000 (continuous) Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 G.I. strap or one framing anchor 30 × 0.8 G.I. strap or one framing anchor Roof trusses to top plates, beams or studs Truss spacing, mm 600 900 1 200 3 000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 6 000 Nominal fixing Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each leg 9 000 Nominal fixing 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or two framing anchors 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8mm nails each end or two framing anchors 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap or one framing anchor 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end or two framing anchors 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm nails each end. (continued) TABLE 9.6 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 105 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Joint or member Rafter or Specific fixing requirements Intermediate beams, verandah beams and lintels to posts or studs Beam span, mm 1 800 3 600 6 000 3 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end 6 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 3/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or 2/M10 bolts 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or 2/M12 bolts 9 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or 2/M10 bolts 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 4/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end, or M10 vertical tie- down anchor rod to floor frame or footing or 2/M10 bolts 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or M10 vertical tie-down anchor rod to floor frame or footing or 2/M12 bolts 12 000 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or 2/M10 bolts 2/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. looped strap 6/30 × 2.8 mm ∅ nails each end or M10 vertical tie- down anchor rod to floor frame or footing or 2/M10 bolts. M12 vertical tie-down anchor rod to floor frame or footing Roof battens to rafters or trusses Rafter or truss spacing mm Batten spacing, mm (see Note 3) 600 1 200 600 2/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nails or 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 2/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nails 900 2/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nails 2/75 × 3.33 mm deformed shank nails 1 200 2/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nails 1/75 × No 14 Type 17 Screw NOTES: 1 Except for nominal fixings, intermediate connections are not required where a connection is continued to a lower member in the frame; for example, connection of a rafter directly to a stud eliminates the need for individual rafter to top plate and to stud connections. 2 Specific tie-down connections in walls are only required in those walls used for tie-down purposes 3 Unless otherwise specified, the minimum penetration into a rafter or truss is 38 mm. 4 Assumed to be adjoining a ceiling joist. 5 For continuous span beams, the centre support requires twice the fixing specified. TABLE 9.6 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 106 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE 9.7 SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR WIND CLASSIFICATION N2 TILE ROOF Joint Rafter or truss spacing, mm Specific fixing requirements* Roof battens to rafters or trusses 450 1/50 × 2.8 mm plain shank nail (min. penetration 25mm) 600 1/65 × 2.8 mm plain shank nail 900 2/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nails or 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail 1200 2/75 × 3.05 mm plain shank nails or 1/75 × 3.05 mm deformed shank nail * Batten spacing shall be 330 mm, unless otherwise specified. The minimum penetration into a rafter or truss is 38 mm. 9.6.2 Rafter to ridge connection for sheet roof, N2 wind classification only In coupled roof construction, where the ridge is not used as a tie-down point, the rafters shall be tied together at the ridge as shown in Figure 9.3. 75 38 mm tie with 3/75 mm nails each end×75 × 38 mm tie with 3/75 mm nails each end (a) Type A 30 0.8 400 mm long G.I. strap 4 nails each end××30 × 0.8 × 400 mm long G.I. strap 4 nails each end NOTE: For N1 and N2, a metal ridge cap screwed down with No. 14 Type 17 screws at max. 450 mm centres may be used in lieu of the G.I. strap over the rafters. (b) Type B 30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4 nails each end (used with tie-down only)30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap 4nails each end (used with tie-down only) (c) Type C FIGURE 9.3 RAFTER TO RIDGE CONNECTION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 107 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia APPENDIX A MEMBER SPAN TABLES (Normative) A1 GENERAL To establish the correct sizes from the span tables for floor and wall framing members that support roof loads, input of rafter or truss span shall be required. In addition, the maximum eaves overhang shall not exceed 750 mm. For the purpose of this Appendix, the following shall apply: (a) Paragraphs A2 to A4 shall apply to the rafter or truss span input. (b) Figures A1 to A26 give the terminology applying to Span Tables, as appropriate. (c) Notes to Span Tables expressed in mandatory terms are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. A2 FLOOR AND WALL FRAMING (EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS) The following shall apply: (a) Strutted roof, maximum rafter span 3000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 3000 mm. (b) Unstrutted roof, maximum rafter span 1500 mm—use rafter/truss span of 3000 mm. (c) Unstrutted roof, maximum rafter span 3000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 6000 mm. (d) Rafters supporting roof and ceiling loads (cathedral roofs)— (e) Maximum rafter span 3000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 3000 mm. (f) Maximum rafter span 6000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 6000 mm. (g) Trussed roofs—use the spans as shown in the tables. A3 FLOOR AND WALL FRAMING (INTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS) The following shall apply: (a) Strutted roof—struts supported directly by studs supporting concentrations of load remainder of internal wall shall be considered as non-loadbearing. Concentrated load shall be supported directly by stumps, piers, and similar supporting structures, within allowable requirements (see Clauses 1.6, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.2.4, 4.3.3.3 and 4.3.3.4). (b) Rafters supporting roof and ceiling loads (cathedral roofs)— (i) Maximum rafter span 3000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 6000 mm. (ii) Maximum rafter span 4500 mm—use rafter/truss span of 9000 mm. (iii) Maximum rafter span 6000 mm—use rafter/truss span of 12000 mm. A4 SUBSTITUTION OF SEASONED TIMBER MEMBER SIZES The sizes given in the Span Tables for beam members (for example, joists, bearers, lintels, verandah beams, strutting beams) in seasoned timber stress grades are based on the smallest depth that provides a satisfactory solution for the design case. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 108 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Alternatively, deeper, thinner sections may be substituted for the sizes given in Table A1. TABLE A1 ALTERNATIVE SECTIONS Given size mm Substitute size mm 90 × 45 120 × 35 120 × 45 140 × 35 140 × 45 170 × 35 170 × 45 190 × 35 190 × 45 240 × 35* 240 × 45 290 × 35* 290 × 45 Not suitable 2/90 × 45 2/120 × 35 2/120 × 45 2/140 × 35 2/140 × 45 2/170 × 35 2/170 × 45 2/190 × 35 2/190 × 45 2/240 × 35 2/240 × 45 2/290 × 35 2/290 × 45 Not suitable * This substitution is not permitted for verandah beams in Table A25. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 109 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A2 SPAN TABLES LIST Span Table No. Title A3 Bearers supporting single storey external loadbearing walls—Sheet roof—Single span A4 Bearers supporting single storey external loadbearing walls—Sheet roof—Continuous span A5 Bearers supporting single storey external loadbearing walls—Tile roof—Single span A6 Bearers supporting single storey external loadbearing walls—Tile roof—Continuous span A7 Bearers supporting floor loads only (40kg/m 2) A8 Floor joists supporting floor loads only (40kg/m 2) A9 Common studs—450 mm centres—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A10 Common studs—450 mm centres—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A11 Common studs—600 mm centres—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A12 Common studs—600 mm centres—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A13 Studs supporting concentrated loads—70/75 mm frame—Single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A14 Studs supporting concentrated loads—90/100 mm frame—Single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A15 Jamb studs—Wall height 2400 mm—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A16 Jamb studs—Wall height 2400 mm—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A17 Jamb studs—Wall height 2700 mm—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A18 Jamb studs—Wall height 2700 mm—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A19 Studs in gable or skillion ends A20 Bottom plates—Not trenched—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A21 Bottom plates—Not trenched—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A22 Top plates—Not trenched—70/75 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A23 Top plates—Not trenched—90/100 mm frame—Supporting single storey or upper storey external loadbearing walls A24 Lintels supporting single storey or upper storey loadbearing walls A25 Verandah beams supporting roof loads only A26 Verandah posts supporting roof loads only—2400 mm high A27 Ceiling joists A28 Hanging beams A29 Counter beams (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 110 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Span Table No. Title A30 Combined strutting/hanging beams—Maximum rafter and ceiling joist spans 3000 mm A31 Combined strutting/counter beams A32 Strutting beams—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm A33 Underpurlins—Continuous span—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm A34 Rafters—Supporting roof loads only—Coupled roofs—Continuous span A35 Rafters—Supporting roof and ceiling loads—Non-coupled roofs (cathedral roofs)—Single span A36 Ridge and intermediate beams—Supporting roof and ceiling loads (cathedral roofs) single span A37 Roof battens—Supporting roofing only A38 Bearers supporting lower storey external loadbearing walls—Sheet roof—Upper + lower floor joist spans 7200 mm max. A39 Bearers supporting lower storey external loadbearing walls—Tile roof—Single span—Upper + lower floor joist spans 7200 mm max. A40 Common studs—450 mm centres—Stud height 2400 mm—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist spans 4800 mm max. A41 Common studs—450 mm centres—Stud height 2700 mm—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist spans 4800 mm max. A42 Common studs—600 mm centres—Stud height 2400 mm—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A43 Common studs—600 mm centres—Stud height 2700 mm—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A44 Jamb studs—Wall height 2400mm—Sheet roof—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls— Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A45 Jamb studs—Wall height 2400mm—Tile roof—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls— Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A46 Jamb studs—Wall height 2700 mm—Sheet roof—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls— Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A47 Jamb studs—Wall height 2700 mm—Tile roof—Lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls— Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A48 Bottom plates—Not trenched—Lower storey of two-storey external loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A49 Top plates—Not trenched—Lower storey of two-storey external loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. A50 Lintels lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls—Upper floor joist span 4800 mm max. NOTE: Timber member sizes in Span Tables A3 to A50 are in millimetres. TABLE A2 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 111 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Floor joistFloor joist Bottom plateBottom plate Loadbearing wallLoadbearing wall Floor bearerFloor bearer Bearer spanBearer span = pier, stump or other support= pier, stump or other support FIGURE A1 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOADBEARING WALLS— SINGLE OR UPPER STOREY Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 112 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A3 BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS— SHEET ROOF—SINGLE SPAN Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 175×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 3600 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 113 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 1800 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 3600 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1500 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 1800 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 3600 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For loadbearing walls parallel to bearers, cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 For allowable offsets and cantilevers of loadbearing walls at right angles to bearers, see Clause 4.3.2.3. For bearers supporting point roof loads, see Clause 4.3.2.4. 4 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A3 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 114 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A4 BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS SHEET ROOF—CONTINUOUS SPAN Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 3600 3600 300×75 275×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 — 300×75 250×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 115 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 — 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/140×35 1800 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/140×35 3600 3600 — — 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For loadbearing walls parallel to bearers, cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 For allowable offsets and cantilevers of loadbearing walls at right angles to bearers, see Clause 4.3.2.3. For bearers supporting point roof loads, see Clause 4.3.2.4. 4 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A4 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 116 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A5 BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS— TILE ROOF—SINGLE SPAN Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 1800 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 3600 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 225×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 1800 1200 125×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2100 1200 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 3600 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 117 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1500 1200 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1500 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 1800 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2100 250×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 1800 1200 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1500 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 1800 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2100 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2100 1200 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 1800 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2100 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 2/290×35 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1500 1200 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 1800 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2100 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 1800 1200 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 1800 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2100 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 2100 1200 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 1800 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2100 300×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/190×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 2/290×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For loadbearing walls parallel to bearers, cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 For allowable offsets and cantilevers of loadbearing walls at right angles to bearers, see Clause 4.3.2.3. For bearers supporting point roof loads, see Clause 4.3.2.4. 4 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A5 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 118 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A6 BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS— TILE ROOF—CONTINUOUS SPAN Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 ⎯ 300×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ 300×75 275×75 275×75⎯ ⎯ 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 119 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1500 1200 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 150×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 300×75 300×75⎯ ⎯ 2/290×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1500 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 1800 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2100 1200 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 1800 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 2/240×45 2/240×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For loadbearing walls parallel to bearers, cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 For allowable offsets and cantilevers of loadbearing walls at right angles to bearers, see Clause 4.3.2.3. For bearers supporting point roof loads, see Clause 4.3.2.4. 4 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A6 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 120 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Floor bearerFloor bearer Floor joistFloor joist Bearer spanBearer span = pier, stump or other support= pier, stump or other support FIGURE A2 BEARERS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY (40 kg/m 2) TABLE A7 BEARERS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY (40 kg/m 2) Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Single span 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 175×75 200×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 1200 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 121 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer spacing mm Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Continuous span 1500 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2100 1200 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1800 150×75 125×75 100×75 125×75 100×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 3600 3600 ⎯ ⎯ 300×75 250×75 250×75⎯ ⎯ 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 NOTES: 1 Cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 2 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 3 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A7 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 122 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A8 FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY (40 kg/m 2) Joist spacing mm Joist span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Single span 450 1200 100×50 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 120×35 90×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 120×35 90×35 90×35 70×45 1800 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 2100 150×38 150×38 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 2400 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 170×35 140×35 140×35 120×45 120×35 3000 200×38 175×50 175×50 175×38 150×50 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×35 3600 225×50 225×38 200×50 200×50 200×38 240×35 190×45 190×45 170×45 170×35 4800 300×50 300×50 275×50 275×50 250×50 290×45 240×45 240×45 240×35 240×35 600 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×38 120×35 120×35 90×35 70×35 70×35 1500 125×50 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 120×45 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 120×45 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 2100 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 125×50 140×45 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 2400 175×75 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 170×35 140×45 140×45 140×35 120×45 3000 200×50 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×50 240×35 190×35 170×45 170×35 140×45 3600 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 170×45 4800 ⎯ ⎯ 300×50 300×50 275×50⎯ 290×45 290×45 240×45 240×35 Continuous span 450 1200 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 90×45 90×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×35 70×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 2100 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 2400 150×38 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 3000 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 170×35 140×45 140×45 120×45 120×35 3600 200×38 175×50 175×50 175×38 150×50 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×35 4800 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 240×45 240×35 190×45 190×45 170×45 600 1200 100×38 100×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 90×45 90×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 75×50 120×35 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 1800 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 125×38 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 90×45 2400 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 125×50 140×35 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 3000 175×50 175×50 175×38 150×50 150×50 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×45 140×35 3600 225×38 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×50 240×35 190×45 170×45 170×45 170×35 4800 275×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 290×45 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 NOTES: 1 Cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 2 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. 3 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 123 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Stud spacingStud spacing Stud heightStud height Rafter or trussRafter or truss Rafter or truss spacingRafter or truss spacing FIGURE A3 COMMON STUDS—SINGLE OR UPPER STOREY TABLE A9 COMMON STUDS—450 mm CENTRES—70/75 mm FRAME SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 124 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm (continued) Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 ⎯ 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38⎯ 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 12 000 ⎯ ⎯ 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38⎯ 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. TABLE A9 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 125 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A10 COMMON STUDS—450 mm CENTRES—90/100 mm FRAME SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4. 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 126 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A11 COMMON STUDS—600 mm CENTRES—70/75 mm FRAME SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×45 12 000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 75×50 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50⎯ 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 ⎯ 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38⎯ 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 12 000 ⎯ ⎯ 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38⎯ ⎯ 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12 000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 127 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A12 COMMON STUDS—600 mm CENTRES—90/100 mm FRAME SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12 000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 128 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Underpurlin Strutting beamStrutting beam Roof strutRoof strut Stud supporting concentrated loadStud supporting concentrated load FIGURE A4 STUDS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS TABLE A13 STUDS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS—70/75 mm FRAME—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Roof area supported m 2 Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 5 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 10 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 15 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 Not notched 5 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 10 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 15 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 5 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 10 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 15 ⎯ ⎯ 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38⎯ 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 Not notched 5 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 10 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 15 ⎯ 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38⎯ 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 129 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Roof area supported m 2 Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 5 2/75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 10 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 15 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 Not notched 5 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 10 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 15 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 5 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 10 ⎯ ⎯ 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50⎯ 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 15 ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 3/75×50⎯ ⎯ ⎯ 3/70×45 3/70×45 Not notched 5 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 10 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 15 ⎯ ⎯ 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38⎯ 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For supported roof area, see Figure 6.11. TABLE A13 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 130 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A14 STUDS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATED LOADS—90/100 mm FRAME—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Roof area supported m 2 Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Wall height 2400 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 Not notched 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 Wall height 2700 mm Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 15 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 Not notched 5 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 10 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 15 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For supported roof area, see Figure 6.11. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 131 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Stud heightStud height Jamb studsJamb studsLintel Common studCommon stud Width of openingWidth of opening Rafter or trussRafter or truss Opening FIGURE A5 JAMB STUDS—SINGLE OR UPPER STOREY Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 132 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A15 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2400 mm—70/75 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet 3000 900 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 1200 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1800 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 2100 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 2400 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 3000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 3600 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 6000 900 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 1800 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 2100 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 2400 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 3000 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3600 3/75×38 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 9000 900 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2100 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2400 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 12 000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2100 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 — 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 133 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Tile 3000 900 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 2100 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 2400 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 3000 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 3600 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 6000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2100 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 2400 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 9000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 3/75×38 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 12 000 900 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 1200 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 1500 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 3600 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For limitations on notching and housing, see Clause 6.2.1.4 and Figure 6.3. 3 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 4 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 5 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A15 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 134 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A16 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2400 mm—90/100 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2400 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2400 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 9000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 12 000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 135 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Tile 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2400 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 6000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 9000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3600 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 12 000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3000 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For limitations on notching and housing, see Clause 6.2.1.4 and Figure 6.3. 3 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 4 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 5 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A16 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 136 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A17 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2700 mm—70/75 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet 3000 900 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 2100 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2400 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 3000 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3600 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 6000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2100 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 2400 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 9000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×38 3/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 — 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 12 000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 — 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 137 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Tile 3000 900 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1500 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1800 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 2100 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 2400 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 3000 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 3600 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 6000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 9000 900 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1200 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 — 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 3000 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 3600 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 12 000 900 3/75×38 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 1200 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1500 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2100 — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2400 — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 3000 — — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3600 — — — — 4/75×50 — — — 4/70×45 4/70×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For limitations on notching and housing, see Clause 6.2.1.4 and Figure 6.3. 3 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 4 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 5 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A17 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 138 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A18 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2700 mm—90/100 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 6000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 9000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 12 000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 3000 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3600 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 139 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Tile 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 6000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3600 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 9000 900 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 2400 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3000 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 4/90×35 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 12 000 900 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 2100 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 2400 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 3000 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 4/90×35 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 4/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For limitations on notching and housing, see Clause 6.2.1.4 and Figure 6.3. 3 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 4 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 5 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A18 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 140 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au h1h1 Loadbearing ridge beam support (see Note 2)Loadbearing ridge beam support (see Note 2) Ceiling, if applicable (see Note 1)Ceiling, if applicable (see Note 1) h2h2 h3h3 h4h4 h5h5 NOTES: 1 Where the house has a horizontal ceiling or where a specially designed horizontal wind beam is provided, the stud height is measured as the greater of the ceiling height or the height from ceiling to roof. 2 Where studs support a loadbearing ridge or intermediate beam, separate consideration is required (e.g., studs supporting concentration of load). 3 Noggings are omitted for clarity. FIGURE A6 STUDS IN GABLE OR SKILLION ENDS TABLE A19 STUDS IN GABLE OR SKILLION ENDS Stud height mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Stud spacing 450 mm centres 70/75 mm frame Notched—20 mm maximum 2400 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 2700 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 3600 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 Not notched 2400 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 2700 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 3600 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 141 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Stud height mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm fame Notched—20 mm maximum 2400 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2700 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 4800 — — — 2/100×50 2/100×50 — — — 2/90×45 2/90×45 Not notched 2400 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2700 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 4800 — — 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 — — — — 2/90×45 Stud spacing 600 mm centres 70/75 mm frame Notched—20 mm maximum 2400 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 2700 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×45 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 3600 — — 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 — 2/70×45 — 2/70×35 2/70×35 Not notched 2400 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 2700 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 3600 — 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 — 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 90/100 mm frame Notched—20 mm maximum 2400 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2700 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 4800 — — — — — — — — — — Not notched 2400 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 2700 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 3600 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 4800 — — — — 2/100×50 — — — — — NOTES: 1 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 2 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 3 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 4 For calculation of stud height, see Clause 2.6.7 and Figure A6. TABLE A19 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 142 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or trussRafter or truss Rafter/truss spacingRafter/truss spacing Upper floor joist spacingUpper floor joist spacing Stud Joist spacing Stud spacing Floor JoistFloor Joist Bottom plate (lower storey of two storeys)Bottom plate (lower storey of two storeys) Joist spacingJoist spacing FIGURE A7 BOTTOM PLATES Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 143 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A20 BOTTOM PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—70/75 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type/ Joist spacing mm Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet roof 450 3000 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 9000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 12000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 600 3000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 3/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 Tile roof 450 3000 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/35×70 2/35×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 12000 — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 — 3/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 600 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 45×70 45×70 6000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 9000 — — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 — 3/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 12000 — — — 3/50×75 3/50×75 — — — 3/45×70 2/45×70 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For plates for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 Plates that are required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 144 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A21 BOTTOM PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—90/100 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type/ Joist spacing mm Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet roof 450 3000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 2/35×90 2/35×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 600 3000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 Tile roof 450 3000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 600 3000 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/35×90 45×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 9000 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 12000 3/50×100 3/50×100 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 — 3/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For plates for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 Plates that are required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 145 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Rafter or trussRafter or truss Rafter/truss spacingRafter/truss spacing Stud Stud spacing To p plateTo p plate Upper floor joist spacingUpper floor joist spacing Stud Stud spacingStud spacing Upper floor joistUpper floor joist To p plateTo p plate FIGURE A8 TOP PLATES Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 146 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A22 TOP PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—70/75 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type/ Stud spacing mm Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet roof 450 3000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 45×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 9000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/35×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 12000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 600 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 Tile roof 450 3000 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/35×70 45×70 2/35×70 45×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 — 3/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 600 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 45×70 6000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 9000 — 3/50×75 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 — 3/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 12000 — — 3/50×75 3/50×75 3/50×75 — 3/45×70 — 3/45×70 2/45×70 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For plates for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 Plates that are required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 147 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A23 TOP PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—90/100 mm FRAME—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type/ Stud spacing mm Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet roof 450 3000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 600 3000 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 Tile roof 450 3000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 600 3000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/35×90 45×90 45×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 9000 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 12000 — 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 — 3/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For plates for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 Plates that are required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 148 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au StudLintel Rafter or trussRafter or truss Rafter/truss spacing Lintel spanLintel span FIGURE A9 LINTELS—SINGLE OR UPPER STOREY Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 149 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A24 LINTELS SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY LOADBEARING ALLS Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet 3000 900 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×50 100×38 75×75 75×75 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 120×45120×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 100×75 2/90×45 2/90×352/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35140×45 120×35 2/90×35 90×45 2400 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 2/120×45140×45 140×35 120×45 2/90×35 3000 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35190×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×35 3600 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/190×35 2/170×35 6000 900 100×50 100×50 100×38 75×75 75×75 120×3590×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 125×50 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 150×50 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 2/120×352/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 1800 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 2/120×45140×45 120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2100 175×75 175×75 175×50 150×75 150×75 170×452/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 120×45 2400 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×352/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 3000 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 3600 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 9000 900 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×352/90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 100×75 140×452/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 2/120×352/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 1800 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 140×35 2/90×45 2100 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×352/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2400 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/170×452/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 3000 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35240×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 3600 — — — 300×75 300×75 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 12 000 900 125×50 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 2/90×35120×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 125×50 2/120×352/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 2/140×352/120×35 140×35 120×45 2/90×45 1800 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×50 150×75 2/140×452/120×45 140×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×452/140×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/140×35 2400 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×452/170×35 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×45 3000 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45290×45 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 150 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile 3000 900 100×38 100×38 75×75 75×38 75×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 120×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 175×50 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 2/120×45 2/120×35 140×35 120×45 2/90×35 2100 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×50 150×75 190×35 170×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2400 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 190×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 3000 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 3600 — — 300×75 300×75 300×75 2/290×35 290×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×45 6000 900 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×38 75×75 2/90×35 120×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×50 100×75 120×45 120×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 175×50 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 2/120×45 2/120×35 140×35 120×45 2/90×35 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 190×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 190×45 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2400 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 3000 — 300×75 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 9000 900 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 150×78 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 140×45 120×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/120×45 140×45 2/120×35 120×45 1800 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2100 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 2400 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 3000 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 12 000 900 125×75 125×50 125×50 100×75 100×75 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 175×50 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 200×75 200×75 200×50 175×75 175×50 2/170×35 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 1800 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×45 2100 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 (15) 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2400 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 (5) 2/190×45 2/190×35 3000 — — — — — — 2/290×45 (5) 2/290×35 (20) 2/240×45 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Lintels supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles (see Clause 6.3.6.2). 3 Lintels for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be sized as for hanging beams. 4 Lintels shall be used in conjunction with top plates, ledgers and, where required, lintel trimmers. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). 6 Lintels in gable or skillion end walls not supporting roof loads shall be determined as for sheet roof, 3000 mm rafter span. 7 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 35 mm. Subscript values, where applicable, indicate the minimum additional bearing length where required to be greater than 35 mm. TABLE A24 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 151 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Rafter (or truss) spanRafter (or truss) span Verandah beamVerandah beam Verandah beam span FIGURE A10 VERANDAH BEAMS TABLE A25 VERANDAH BEAMS SUPPORTING ROOF LOADS ONLY Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet 1800 2100 175×50 175×50 150×50 150×50 150×50 170×35 170×35 140×35 120×35 120×35 2400 200×50 175×50 175×50 175×50 150×50 170×35 170×35 140×45 140×35 120×35 2700 225×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 175×50 190×35 170×35 170×35 170×35 140×35 3000 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 2/190×35 190×35 190×35 170×35 170×35 3000 2100 200×50 175×50 175×50 175×50 150×50 190×35 170×35 140×35 140×35 120×35 2400 225×50 200×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 190×35 170×35 170×35 170×35 140×35 2700 225×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 190×45 170×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 3000 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×45 2/170×35 190×45 190×35 170×35 6000 2100 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×35 2400 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 240×45 190×45 190×35 190×35 170×35 2700 250×75 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 190×45 190×45 190×35 3000 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 250×50 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 190×45 9000 2100 250×50 225×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 240×45 190×45 190×35 190×35 170×35 2400 250×75 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 190×45 190×45 190×35 2700 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 250×50 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 190×45 3000 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 12 000 2100 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 190×45 190×35 170×35 2400 250×75 250×75 250×75 250×50 250×50 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 190×45 2700 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 3000 ⎯ 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 152 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile 1800 2100 225×50 200×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 190×45 170×35 170×35 170×35 140×35 2400 250×50 225×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 240×45 190×45 190×35 190×35 170×35 2700 250×75 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 2/170×35 190×45 190×35 3000 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 250×50 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 190×45 3000 2100 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 240×45 190×35 170×45 170×35 170×35 2400 250×75 250×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 190×45 190×45 190×35 2700 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 250×50 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 190×45 3000 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 240×45 6000 2100 250×75 225×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×45 2/170×35 190×45 190×35 2400 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 190×45 2700 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 3000 — — — 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 240×45 9000 2100 275×75 250×75 250×75 250×75 250×50 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 190×45 2400 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 2700 — — — 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 240×45 3000 — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 12 000 2100 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 240×45 2400 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 2700 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 3000 — — — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/290×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). 3 The minimum bearing length for verandah beams shall be 35 mm at end supports and 70 mm at internal supports for continuous span members. 4 Overhangs shall not exceed 25% of the actual backspan. TABLE A25 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 153 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Verandah beamVerandah beam Verandah postVerandah post FIGURE A11 VERANDAH POSTS TABLE A26 VERANDAH POSTS SUPPORTING ROOF LOADS ONLY—2400 mm HIGH Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet 1800 2100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 2100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 6000 2100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 9000 2100 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 12 000 2100 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 90×90 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 154 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile 1800 2100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 2100 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 75×75 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 100×100 75×75 75×75 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 6000 2100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2400 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 75×75 90×90 70×70 70×70 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 70×70 3000 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 70×70 9000 2100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 70×70 2400 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 70×70 2700 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 3000 — 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100— 90×90 90×90 90×90 90×90 12 000 2100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 90×90 90×90 90×90 90×90 70×70 2400 — 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100 — 90×90 90×90 90×90 90×90 2700 — 100×100 100×100 100×100 100×100— 90×90 90×90 90×90 90×90 3000 — — 100×100 100×100 100×100— — — 90×90 90×90 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Verandah posts shall not be nail-laminated. 3 Minimum post sizes given above may need to be increased in size to enable verandah beams to be adequately supported. TABLE A26 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 155 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Continuous span joistContinuous span joist Hanging beamHanging beam Rafter Ceiling joist spanCeiling joist span Ceiling joist spacingCeiling joist spacing Single-span joistSingle-span joist FIGURE A12 CEILING JOISTS TABLE A27 CEILING JOISTS Joist spacing mm Joist span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 450 Single span 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 2400 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×50 120×35 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 3000 150×38 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 3600 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 150×38 170×35 140×35 120×45 120×45 120×35 Continuous span 1800 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 90×35 90×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 2400 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 3000 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 3600 150×38 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 600 Single span 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 2400 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 120×35 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 3000 150×38 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 3600 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 170×35 140×35 120×45 120×45 120×35 Continuous span 1800 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 90×35 90×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 2400 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 3000 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 3600 150×38 125×50 125×50 125×38 125×38 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 NOTES: 1 Maximum spans are based on the support of a maximum ceiling lining mass of 12 kg/m 2 including ceiling battens. 2 During construction, planks shall be secured on top of the ceiling joists to support construction loads. 3 Roof loads shall not be strutted onto ceiling joists. 4 The sizes and spans given in this Table are not suitable for the support of platforms used for storage in the ceiling space. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 156 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Hanging beamHanging beam Ceiling joistCeiling joist Hanging beam spanHanging beam span FIGURE A13 HANGING BEAM TABLE A28 HANGING BEAMS Ceiling joist span mm Hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 1800 2400 150×38 125×38 125×50 125×38 125×38 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 3000 175×38 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 140×45 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 3600 200×50 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×38 170×45 170×35 140×45 140×45 120×45 4200 250×38 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 240×35 190×35 170×45 170×35 140×45 4800 275×50 275×38 250×50 250×38 225×50 240×35 240×35 190×45 190×45 170×45 5400 300×50 300×50 300×38 275×50 275×38 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 6000 — — — 300×50 300×50 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×45 240×35 2400 2400 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 125×50 120×45 120×45 120×35 120×35 90×45 3000 200×38 175×50 175×50 175×38 150×50 170×35 140×45 140×35 120×45 120×35 3600 225×50 225×38 200×50 200×50 200×38 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×45 4200 275×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×35 240×35 190×45 190×35 170×35 4800 300×50 300×50 275×50 275×50 250×50 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 5400 — — — 300×50 300×38 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×45 240×35 6000 — — — — — — 290×45 290×35 290×35 240×45 3000 2400 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 140×45 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 3000 200×50 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×50 170×45 170×35 140×45 140×45 120×45 3600 250×50 225×50 225×50 225×38 250×50 240×35 190×45 170×45 170×45 170×35 4200 275×50 275×50 275×38 250×50 250×38 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 170×45 4800 — — 300×50 300×38 275×50 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 5400 — — — — 300×50 — 290×45 290×35 290×35 240×35 6000 — — — — — — — 290×45 290×45 290×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 157 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Ceiling joist span mm Hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 3600 2400 175×50 175×38 175×38 150×50 150×50 170×35 140×45 120×45 120×45 120×35 3000 225×50 200×50 200×50 200×38 175×50 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×35 3600 275×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×35 240×35 190×45 190×35 170×35 4200 300×50 300×50 275×50 275×50 250×50 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 4800 — — — 300×50 300×50 — 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×35 5400 — — — — — — — 290×45 290×35 240×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — 290×35 NOTES: 1 Maximum spans are based on the support of a maximum ceiling lining mass of 12 kg/m 2 including ceiling battens. 2 Beam ends may be chamfered to a minimum of 100 mm or one- third of the beam depth, whichever is greater. 3 Roof loads shall not be strutted onto hanging beams. 4 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 5 Where the depth to breadth ratio exceeds 7:1, the beam shall be restrained at the top at supports (see Clause 7.2.26). 6 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 7 Where the ceiling joist spans either side of the hanging beam differ, the average of the two spans shall be used to enter the table. TABLE A28 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 158 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Ridgeboard Hanging beamHanging beam Counter beamCounter beam Ceiling joistCeiling joist Counter beam spanCounter beam span FIGURE A14 COUNTER BEAMS TABLE A29 COUNTER BEAMS Counter beam span mm Hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 2400 2400 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 125×50 140×35 120×45 120×35 120×35 120×35 3000 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 125×50 140×45 140×35 120×35 120×35 120×35 3600 175×38 150×50 150×50 150×38 150×38 140×45 140×45 120×45 120×35 120×35 4800 175×50 175×50 175×38 150×50 150×50 170×35 170×35 140×35 120×45 120×35 3000 2400 175×50 175×50 175×38 175×38 150×50 170×35 140×45 140×35 120×35 120×35 3000 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×50 175×38 170×45 170×35 140×45 140×35 120×45 3600 200×50 200×50 200×38 175×50 175×50 170×45 170×45 170×35 140×45 140×35 4800 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 200×38 190×45 190×45 170×35 170×35 140×45 3600 2400 225×50 225×38 200×50 200×38 200×38 190×45 170×45 170×35 170×35 140×35 3000 250×50 225×50 225×38 225×38 200×50 240×35 190×45 170×45 170×35 140×45 3600 250×50 250×38 225×50 225×50 200×50 240×45 240×35 170×45 170×45 170×35 4800 250×75 250×50 250×50 250×38 225×50 240×45 240×45 190×45 190×45 170×45 4200 2400 250×75 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×45 240×35 190×45 190×35 170×45 3000 250×75 275×50 275×38 250×50 250×38 240×45 240×45 240×35 190×45 170×45 3600 275×75 300×50 275×50 275×38 250×50 290×45 290×35 240×35 240×35 190×45 4800 — — 300×50 275×50 275×50 290×45 290×45 240×45 240×35 240×35 4800 2400 300×75 275×75 300×50 275×50 275×50 290×45 240×45 240×35 240×35 240×35 3000 300×75 300×75 275×75 300×50 300×50 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×45 240×35 3600 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 300×50 2/290×35 290×45 290×35 240×45 240×35 4800 — — — 300×75 300×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 290×45 290×35 NOTES: 1 Maximum spans are based on the support of a maximum ceiling mass of 15 kg/m 2. The mass of ceiling joists and hanging beams is included in the Span Table calculations. 2 Beam ends may be chamfered to a minimum of 100 mm or one-third of the beam depth, whichever is greater. 3 Roof loads shall not be strutted onto counter beams. 4 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 6 Where the hanging beam spans differ either side of the counter beam, the average of the two spans shall be used to enter the table. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 159 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Underpurlin Rafter Roof strutRoof strut Combined strutting/hanging beamCombined strutting/hanging beam Ceiling joistCeiling joist Hanging beam spanHanging beam span FIGURE A15 COMBINED STRUTTING/HANGING BEAM TABLE A30 COMBINED STRUTTING/HANGING BEAMS—MAXIMUM RAFTER AND CEILING JOIST SPANS 3000 mm Roof type mm Combined strutting/ hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet roof 1800 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2400 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 3000 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×35 3600 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 4800 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — — Tile roof 1800 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2400 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 3000 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 3600 — — 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 4800 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×35 6000 — — — — — — — — — — NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and ceiling masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Beam ends may be chamfered to a minimum of 100 mm or one-third of the beam depth, whichever is greater. 3 Roof loads can be strutted onto strutting/hanging beams. 4 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 6 Where the depth to breadth ratio exceeds 3:1, the beam shall be restrained at the top edge at supports (see Clause 7.2.26). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 160 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Ridgeboard Combined counter/strutting beamCombined counter/strutting beam Roof strutRoof strut Hanging beamHanging beam Underpurlin Rafter Counter/strutting beam spanCounter/strutting beam span FIGURE A16 COMBINED COUNTER/STRUTTING BEAM TABLE A31 COMBINED COUNTER/STRUTTING BEAMS Counter/ strutting beam span mm Hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet roof 2400 2400 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 3000 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 3600 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 4800 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3000 2400 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 3000 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3600 275×75 250×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 4800 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 2400 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3000 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 4800 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 4200 2400 — — 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 3000 — — — 300×75 300×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 3600 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 4800 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 4800 2400 — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 3000 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 4800 — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 161 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Counter/ strutting beam span mm Hanging beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile roof 2400 2400 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3000 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3600 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 4800 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 3000 2400 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 3000 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 3600 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 4800 — — — — 300×75 — — 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 3600 2400 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 3000 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 4800 — — — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/240×45 4200 2400 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 3000 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 3600 — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 4800 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 4800 2400 — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 3000 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and ceiling masses, see Clause 1.4.11. The mass of rafters, underpurlins and strutting beams is included in the Span Table calculations. 2 Beam ends may be chamfered to a minimum of 100 mm or one-third the beam depth, whichever is greater. 3 Roof loads may be strutted onto combined strutting/hanging beams. 4 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 6 Where the depth to breadth ratio exceeds 3:1, the beam shall be restrained at the top edge at supports (see Clause 7.2.26). TABLE A31 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 162 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Strutting beam spanStrutting beam span Ridgeboard Underpurlin Strutting beamStrutting beam Roof strutRoof strut FIGURE A17 STRUTTING BEAM TABLE A32 STRUTTING BEAMS—MAXIMUM RAFTER SPAN 3000 mm Roof type Strutting beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 1200 mm underpurlin span Sheet roof (20 kg/m 2) 1800 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 125×50 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2400 175×50 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 2/120×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 3000 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 3600 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 4800 275×75 250×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 6000 — 300×75 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×35 Tile roof (60 kg/m 2) 1800 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2400 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/140×35 2/120×45 3000 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 3600 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×45 4800 — — — 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 6000 — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 163 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Strutting beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 2400 mm underpurlin span Sheet roof (20 kg/m 2) 1800 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 2400 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 3000 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 3600 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 4800 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 6000 — — — — — — 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 Tile roof (60 kg/m 2) 1800 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2400 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 3000 300×75 300×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 4800 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and ceiling masses, see Clause 1.4.11. The mass of rafters and underpurlins is included in the S pan Table calculations. 2 Beam ends may be chamfered to a minimum of 100 mm or one-third of the beam depth, whichever is greater. 3 Roof loads may be strutted onto strutting beams. 4 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 5 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 6 Where the depth to breadth ratio exceeds 3:1, the beam shall be restrained at the top edge at supports (see Clause 7.2.26). TABLE A32 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 164 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Ridgeboard Rafter Roof strutRoof strut Underpurlin Strut spacing Strut spacing Rafter span Rafter span FIGURE A18 UNDERPURLIN TABLE A33 UNDERPURLINS—CONTINUOUS SPAN—MAXIMUM RAFTER SPAN 3000 mm Roof type Strut spacing mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet 1200 75×75 75×50 75×50 75×50 75×50 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 100×75 100×50 100×50 75×75 75×75 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 100×75 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 Tile 1200 100×50 100×50 75×75 75×75 75×75 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 100×75 2/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/70×45 2400 — 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof mass, see Clause 1.4.11. The mass of rafters is included in the Span Table calculations. 2 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 70 mm. 3 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 4 Maximum allowable cantilever is 25% of the span, but not more than one-third of the actual backspan. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 165 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Ridgeboard Rafter Overhang SpanxSpanx SpanxSpanx Ceiling joistCeiling joist Underpurlin Rafter spacingsRafter spacings FIGURE A19 RAFTERS—COUPLED ROOF TABLE A34 RAFTERS—SUPPORTING ROOF LOADS ONLY—COUPLED ROOFS—CONTINUOUS SPAN Roof type (mass) Rafter spacing mm Rafter span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet (20 kg/m 2) 900 1800 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 90×35 90×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 O’hang 300 400 400 450 500 300 300 400 550 700 2100 100×38 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 O’hang 350 400 550 600 650 350 400 450 650 700 2400 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 O’hang 450 400 550 750 750 400 400 450 750 750 2700 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 O’hang 450 550 550 750 750 450 400 450 750 750 3000 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 O’hang 500 650 700 750 750 450 500 600 750 750 1200 1800 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 90×35 90×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 O’hang 300 400 350 500 450 300 350 350 450 600 2100 100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 75×50 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 O’hang 300 450 500 650 550 350 350 400 600 600 2400 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 120×35 120×35 90×35 90×35 70×45 O’hang 400 450 500 650 700 400 450 450 700 650 2700 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 O’hang 450 450 600 650 700 400 450 500 700 700 3000 125×38 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 O’hang 450 550 700 750 750 400 450 500 750 700 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 166 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type (mass) Rafter spacing mm Rafter span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile (60 kg/m 2) 450 1800 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 O’hang 450 400 450 650 700 300 300 400 700 750 2100 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 90×35 90×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 O’hang 450 600 600 750 700 400 400 500 700 750 2400 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 70×35 O’hang 600 600 750 750 750 400 400 700 750 750 2700 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 450 500 700 750 750 3000 125×50 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 650 500 700 750 750 600 1800 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 90×35 90×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 O’hang 400 350 400 500 600 350 350 350 600 750 2100 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 75×50 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 O’hang 400 450 600 750 700 400 350 450 600 750 2400 125×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×45 90×35 70×45 70×35 O’hang 550 600 750 750 750 400 400 500 700 750 2700 125×38 125×38 125×38 100×50 100×50 120×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 70×45 O’hang 550 700 750 750 750 500 400 500 750 750 3000 150×38 125×50 125×38 125×38 125×38 120×35 120×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 500 550 700 750 750 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof mass, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Allowable overhangs are based on a maximum birdsmouth depth of D/3 (see Figure 7.19). Where rafters are not birdsmouthed, the allowable overhang may be increased to 30% of the single span for that member, provided the overhang does not exceed 50% of the actual backspan. For intermediate values, see Clause 7.3.13.3. 3 Overhang limits are only applicable where rafter ends are supported by a structural fascia (see Clause 7.3.13.2). 4 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. TABLE A34 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 167 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Ridgeboard Rafter Overhang SpanxSpanx SpanxSpanx Ceiling joistCeiling joist Underpurlin Rafter spacingRafter spacing FIGURE A20 RAFTERS—NON-COUPLED (CATHEDRAL) ROOF TABLE A35 RAFTERS—SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING LOADS—NON-COUPLED ROOFS (CATHEDRAL ROOFS)—SINGLE SPAN Roof type (mass) Rafter spacing mm Rafter span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet (40 kg/m 2) 900 3000 175×50 175×50 175×50 150×50 150×50 140×45 140×45 140×35 120×45 120×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 700 750 800 750 750 3600 225×50 200×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 170×45 170×45 170×35 140×45 140×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1050 950 750 750 4200 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 240×35 190×45 190×35 170×45 170×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1150 1000 750 750 4800 300×50 275×50 275×50 250×50 250×50 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 190×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1250 1250 750 750 5400 300×75 275×75 300×50 275×50 275×50 290×35 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1450 1450 750 750 1200 3000 200×50 175×50 175×50 175×50 150×50 170×45 170×45 140×45 140×35 120×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 700 700 800 750 750 3600 225×50 250×50 200×50 200×50 200×50 190×45 190×35 170×45 170×35 140×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 850 900 750 750 4200 250×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×35 240×35 190×45 190×35 170×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1050 1000 750 750 4800 275×75 275×75 275×50 275×50 250×50 290×35 240×45 240×35 240×35 190×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1200 1050 750 750 5400 — — 300×75 300×50 300×50 290×45 290×35 290×35 240×45 240×35 O’hang — — 750 750 750 750 1200 1200 750 750 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 168 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Roof type (mass) Rafter spacing mm Rafter span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile (90 kg/m 2) 600 3000 200×50 200×50 175×50 175×50 175×50 170×45 170×35 140×35 140×35 120×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 950 1050 750 750 3600 250×50 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 240×35 190×45 170×35 170×35 170×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1350 1200 750 750 4200 275×50 275×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 240×45 240×35 190×35 190×45 170×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1500 1350 750 750 4800 275×75 275×75 300×50 275×50 275×50 290×35 290×35 240×35 240×35 240×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1850 1600 750 750 5400 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 300×50 — 290×45 240×45 240×45 240×35 O’hang — 750 750 750 750 — 2250 1850 750 750 900 3000 225×50 225×50 200×50 200×50 175×50 190×45 190×35 140×45 170×35 140×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 800 950 750 750 3600 275×50 250×50 250×50 225×50 225×50 240×35 240×35 170×45 190×35 170×45 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1150 1100 750 750 4200 275×75 275×75 300×50 275×50 275×50 290×35 240×45 190×45 240×35 240×35 O’hang 750 750 750 750 750 750 1400 1250 750 750 4800 — 300×75 300×75 275×75 300×50— 290×45 240×45 240×45 240×35 O’hang — 750 750 750 750 — 1750 1500 750 750 5400 — — — — 300×75— — 290×35 290×45 290×35 O’hang — — — — 750 — — 1500 750 750 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof mass, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Allowable overhangs are based on a maximum birdsmouth depth of D/3 (see Figure 7.19). Where rafters are not birdsmouthed, the allowable overhang may be increased to 30% of the single span for that member, provided the overhang does not exceed 50% of the actual backspan. For intermediate values, see Clause 7.3.13.3. 3 Overhang limits are only applicable where rafter ends are supported by a structural fascia (see Clause 7.3.13.2). 4 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. TABLE A35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 169 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Ridge beam spanRidge beam span Ridge beamRidge beam Rafter Supporting wall or intermediate beamSupporting wall or intermediate beam Supports (post, wall, etc.)Supports (post, wall, etc.) Intermediate beamIntermediate beam Ridge beamRidge beam Supporting wallSupporting wall Supports (post, wall, etc.)Supports (post, wall, etc.) = supports= supports FIGURE A21 RIDGE AND INTERMEDIATE BEAMS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 170 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A36 RIDGE AND INTERMEDIATE BEAMS—SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING LOADS (CATHEDRAL ROOF)—SINGLE SPAN Roof type (mass) Beam spacing mm Beam span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet (40 kg/m 2) 2400 2400 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/140×35 140×45 2/120×35 120×45 3000 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 190×35 2/140×35 2/120×45 3600 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 4800 400×75 300×100 300×100 300×75 300×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 6000 400×100 400×100 — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 3600 2400 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 3000 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3600 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 240×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 4800 400×75 400×75 — — 300×100 — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 4800 2400 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×35 2/140×35 3000 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3600 400×75 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 240×45 4800 400×100 400×100 400×75 400×75 400×75 — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 6000 — — — — — — — — — — 6000 2400 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×45 3000 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 400×75 300×100 300×100 300×75 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 4800 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — — Tile (90 kg/m 2) 2400 2400 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 3000 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3600 300×100 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 4800 400×100 400×75 400×75 — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 6000 — — — — — — — — — — 3600 2400 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3000 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 3600 400×75 400×75 300×100 300×100 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 4800 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 6000 — — — — — — — — — — 4800 2400 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3000 300×100 300×100 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 3600 400×75 400×75 — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 4800 — — — — — — — — — — 6000 — — — — — — — — — — 6000 2400 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×35 2/170×45 3000 400×75 400×75 300×100 275×100 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (10) 2/240×35 2/240×35 3600 400×100 400×100 — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/290×35 4800 — — — — — — — — — — 6000 — — — — — — — — — — NOTES: 1 For allowable roof mass, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated in accordance with Clause 2.3. 3 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 35 mm. Subscript values, where a pplicable, indicate the minimum additional bearing length where required to be greater than 35 mm. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 171 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Batten spacingBatten spacing Batten overhangBatten overhang Batten spanBatten span Roof battenRoof batten Rafter or trussRafter or truss FIGURE A22 ROOF BATTENS TABLE A37 ROOF BATTENS—SUPPORTING ROOFING ONLY Roof type (mass) Rafter spacing mm Batten spacing mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Sheet (10 kg/m 2) 900 600 50×75 50×50 38×75 38×50 38×50 35×90 35×90 35×70 35×42 900 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 38×50 45×70 45×70 35×70 35×42 1200 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 38×50 45×90 45×70 35×70 35×42 1200 600 50×75 50×75 50×50 38×75 38×50 45×90 45×70 35×90 35×42 900 — 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 — 45×90 45×70 35×70 1200 — 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 — 45×90 45×70 35×70 Tile (60 kg/m 2) 450 330 25×75 25×50 25×38 25×50 25×50 35×42 35×42 35×42 35×42 600 330 38×38 38×38 25×50 25×50 25×50 35×42 35×42 35×42 35×42 900 330 50×50 38×50 38×38 38×50 25×75 35×70 35×70 35×42 35×42 NOTES: 1 Battens are not suitable for support of workers prior to the fixing of roof cladding. 2 For allowable roof mass, see Clause 1.4.11. 3 Roof battens shall not cantilever by more than 25% of their span and cantilevers shall not exceed 50% of the actual backspan. 4 Where possible, battens shall be supported at a minimum of three points (continuous span). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 172 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Upper floor joistUpper floor joist Upper floor joist spacingUpper floor joist spacing Top plateTo p plate Floor bearerFloor bearer Bearer span Loadbearing wallLoadbearing wall =pier,stumpor other support= pier, stump or other support FIGURE A23 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOADBEARING WALLS— LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY CONSTRUCTION TABLE A38 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOWER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS—SHEET ROOF—UPPER + LOWER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 7200 mm MAX. Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Single span Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1200 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 1800 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 275×100 275×100 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×35 (5) 2/190×45 2/170×45 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1200 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 1800 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 275×100 275×100 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (5) 2/190×45 2/190×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 173 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Single span (continued) Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 1800 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 275×100 275×100 275×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (5) 2/240×35 2/190×35 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 1800 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 ⎯ 275×100 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (5) 2/240×35 2/190×45 Continuous span Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1200 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×45 1800 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 275×100 275×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×35 (5) 2/290×35 (5) 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1200 175×75 150×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/140×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×45 1800 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 275×100 275×75 250×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1200 175×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×35 2/140×35 2/120×35 2100 275×100 275×75 250×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/190×45 2/170×35 2/140×35 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1200 175×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 275×75 250×75 225×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/170×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2100 275×100 275×75 250×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (30) 2/170×35 2/140×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. Subscript values, where applicable, indicate the minimum additional bearing length where required to be greater than 35 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports. 4 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A38 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 174 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A39 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOWER STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS—TILE ROOF—UPPER + LOWER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 7200 mm MAX. Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Single span Strutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1500 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 1800 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 275×100 275×100 275×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (5) 2/240×35 2/190×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1200 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 1500 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 1800 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2100 — 275×100 275×100 275×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (5) 2/240×35 2/190×45 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1200 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 1500 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 1800 275×100 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 2100 — — 275×100 300×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (10) 2/240×35 2/190×45 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1200 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 1500 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 1800 275×100 275×100 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/290×35 (5) 2/290×35 (5) 2/240×35 (10) 2/190×45 2/170×45 2100 — — — 300×75 300×75 — — 2/240×45 (5) 2/240×35 2/240×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 175 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Bearer span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Continuous span Strutted roof—maximum rafter span 3000 mm 1200 175×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 275×100 275×75 250×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 Unstrutted roof—Maximum rafter span 3000 mm or trussed roof maximum span 6000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 275×75 250×75 225×75 175×75 175×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/170×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2100 275×100 275×75 250×75 225×75 200×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×35 (35) 2/170×35 2/140×45 Trussed roof maximum span 9000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 125×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 225×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 1800 275×75 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/120×45 2100 — 275×100 250×75 225×75 200×75 2/290×45 (5) 2/290×45 (5) 2/240×35 (40) 2/170×35 2/140×45 Trussed roof maximum span 12000 mm 1200 200×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 125×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/90×35 1500 250×75 225×75 200×75 175×75 150×75 2/240×35 (5) 2/240×35 (5) 2/170×35 (5) 2/120×45 2/120×35 1800 275×100 275×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/290×35 (30) 2/290×35 (30) 2/190×45 2/140×45 2/140×35 2100 — 275×100 275×75 225×75 225×75 — — 2/240×45 (25) 2/170×45 2/170×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Cantilevers shall not exceed 25% of the allowable span. 3 Minimum bearing length shall be 50 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports of continuous span members. Subscript values, where applicable, indicate the minimum additional bearing length where required to be greater than 35 mm at end supports and 100 mm at internal supports. 4 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). TABLE A39 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 176 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or truss spacingRafter or truss spacing Stud Stud spacingStud spacing Stud heightStud height Upper floor joistUpper floor joist FIGURE A24 COMMON STUDS—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY CONSTRUCTION TABLE A40 COMMON STUDS—450 mm CENTRES—STUD HEIGHT 2400 mm—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 177 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame (continued) Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 — 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×45 70×35 90/100 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. TABLE A40 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 178 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A41 COMMON STUDS—450 mm CENTRES—STUD HEIGHT 2700 mm—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter/ truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 6000 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 6000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 9000 — 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38— 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 12000 — — 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38— 2/70×45— 2/70×45 2/70×35 Not notched 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 179 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter/ truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. TABLE A41 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 180 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A42 COMMON STUDS—600 mm CENTRES—STUD HEIGHT 2400 mm—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter/ truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 9000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 12000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12000 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 Not notched 3000 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 70×45 70×45 70×35 90/100 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 181 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A43 COMMON STUDS—600 mm CENTRES—STUD HEIGHT 2700 mm—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPANS 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 Not notched 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 9000 75×50 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 12000 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×35 70×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 6000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 9000 — 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38— 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 12000 — — 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38— 2/70×45— 2/70×45 2/70×35 Not notched 3000 75×50 75×38 75×38 75×38 75×38 70×45 70×35 70×45 70×35 70×35 6000 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 9000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 12000 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 90/100 mm frame Sheet Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 Tile Notched—20 mm maximum 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 9000 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 12000 100×50 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 Not notched 3000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 6000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 9000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 12000 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Studs for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 182 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Lintel Jamb studsJamb studs Width of openingWidth of opening Upper floor joistUpper floor joist Stud heightStud height FIGURE A25 JAMB STUDS—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY CONSTRUCTION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 183 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A44 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2400 mm—SHEET ROOF—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame 3000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 2/70×35 70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 1800 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 2100 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 2400 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×452/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 3000 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 6000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×452/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 2100 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×35 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 9000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 12 000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 1200 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 1800 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 184 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm frame 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 6000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 9000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 12 000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3600 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For studs for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A44 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 185 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A45 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2400 mm—TILE ROOF—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame 3000 900 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×38 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1800 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 2100 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 3600 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 6000 900 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1200 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×35 4/70×45 4/70×35 2/70×45 3600 — — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 9000 900 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1200 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1500 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1800 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 2100 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2400 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3600 — — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 — — — — 3/70×45 12 000 900 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1200 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1500 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 1800 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2100 — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2400 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 4/75×38 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3000 — — — 4/75×50 4/75×38 — — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3600 — — — — 4/75×50 — — — — 4/70×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 186 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm frame 3000 900 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1800 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 6000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 3000 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3600 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 9000 900 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 2400 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3000 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 3/90×45 3/90×35 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 12 000 900 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 2100 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 2400 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 3000 3/100×50 3/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 3/90×45 3/90×35 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 3600 4/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×50 4/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For studs for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 187 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A46 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2700 mm—SHEET ROOF—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame 3000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 70×45 70×35 1200 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×35 1500 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 3/70×35 2/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 1800 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 2400 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 4/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3600 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — — — 4/70×45 2/70×45 6000 900 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1200 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1500 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2100 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 3000 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 9000 900 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1200 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 70×45 1500 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 2100 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 3600 — — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 12 000 900 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×35 1200 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1500 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 2100 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2400 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 3600 — — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 — — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 188 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm frame 3000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 90×45 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 3600 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 3/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 6000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3600 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 90×45 9000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3000 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3600 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 12 000 900 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 2100 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 2400 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3000 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×45 2/90×35 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For studs for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A46 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 189 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A47 JAMB STUDS—WALL HEIGHT 2700 mm—TILE ROOF—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 70/75 mm frame 3000 900 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 75×50 2/70×45 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 70×45 1200 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×35 2/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×45 70×45 1500 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1800 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 2100 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×35 2400 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 4/70×45 2/70×45 3000 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 4/70×45 2/70×45 3600 — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 6000 900 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×38 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1200 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×38 3/70×45 2/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2/70×35 1500 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 1800 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2100 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 — 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 2400 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×35 3000 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3600 — — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 — — — — 3/70×45 9000 900 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×35 3/70×35 3/70×35 2/70×45 2/70×35 1200 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 2/75×50 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×35 1500 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 1800 — — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2100 — — 4/75×50 4/75×38 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×35 2400 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 3000 — — — — 4/75×50 — — — — 4/70×35 3600 — — — — — — — — — 4/70×45 12 000 900 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 2/75×50 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 2/70×45 1200 — 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×38 4/70×45 3/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 2/70×45 1500 — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 4/70×45 3/70×45 3/70×35 1800 — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 3/75×50 — 4/70×45 — 4/70×45 3/70×45 2100 — — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 — — — 4/70×45 3/70×45 2400 — — — 4/75×50 4/75×50 — — — — 3/70×45 3000 — — — — — — — — — 4/70×45 3600 — — — — — — — — — — (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 190 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 90/100 mm frame 3000 900 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1800 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 2100 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 2400 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 3000 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3600 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 6000 900 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 1800 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 2100 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 2400 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 3000 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 3/90×45 3/90×35 3/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×35 9000 900 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×38 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1200 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 100×38 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 1800 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 2100 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2400 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 3000 3/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 4/90×45 3/90×35 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 3600 3/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 4/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×45 2/90×45 12 000 900 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1200 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/10×38 100×50 100×50 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 1500 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 100×50 3/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 1800 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 2/90×35 2100 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 2/100×38 2/100×38 3/90×45 3/90×35 3/90×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 2400 3/100×50 3/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×50 2/100×38 4/90×35 3/90×35 3/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 3000 4/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×38 2/100×50 4/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×45 3/90×35 2/90×45 3600 — 4/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×50 3/100×38 — — 4/90×45 3/90×45 2/90×45 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 For studs for internal non-loadbearing walls, see Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on notching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.4). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum stud width of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 For openings greater than 900 mm, a secondary jamb stud may be required to support the lintel (see Figure 6.8). TABLE A47 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 191 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia TABLE A48 BOTTOM PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Joists at 450 mm centres—70/75 mm frame—upper and lower floor joists Sheet 3000 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 6000 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 9000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 12000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 Tile 3000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 9000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75— 2/45×70— 2/45×70 45×70 Joists at 450 mm centres—90/100 mm frame Sheet 3000 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 35×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 6000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/35×90 45×90 2/35×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 12000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 Tile 3000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 6000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 — 35×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/35×90 3/45×90 — 45×90 Joists at 600 mm centres—70/75 mm frame—upper and lower floor joists Sheet 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 Tile 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 6000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75— 3/45×70— 3/45×70 2/45×70 12000 — — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75— 3/45×70— 3/45×70 2/45×70 Joists at 600 mm centres—90/100 mm frame Sheet 3000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 Tile 3000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 9000 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 12000 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Plates for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm. 6 Plates required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads, shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.2. 7 For other design requirements, see Clause 6.3.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 192 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A49 TOP PLATES—NOT TRENCHED—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY EXTERNAL LOADBEARING WALLS—UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 F8 MGP10 MGP12 F17 Studs at 450 mm centres—70/75 mm frame Sheet 3000 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 38×75 2/45×70 45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 6000 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 9000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 12000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 Tile 3000 2/50×75 2/38×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 38×75 2/45×70 2/35×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 35×70 9000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/35×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 Studs at 450 mm centres—90/100 mm frame Sheet 3000 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 6000 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 9000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 12000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 45×90 35×90 Tile 3000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 6000 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 38×100 2/45×90 45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/35×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 35×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/38×100 50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/35×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 Studs at 600 mm centres—70/75 mm frame Sheet 3000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 50×75 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 6000 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 9000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 12000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 Tile 3000 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 45×70 6000 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75 3/45×70 2/45×70 3/45×70 2/45×70 2/35×70 9000 — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75 2/50×75— 3/45×70— 3/45×70 2/45×70 12000 — — 3/50×75 3/50×75 2/50×75— 3/45×70— 3/45×70 2/45×70 Studs at 600 mm centres—90/100 mm frame Sheet 3000 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 35×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 9000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 12000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 Tile 3000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 50×100 2/45×90 2/35×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 6000 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 2/35×90 45×90 9000 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 45×90 12000 3/50×100 3/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 2/50×100 3/45×90 2/45×90 3/45×90 2/45×90 2/45×90 NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Plates for internal non-loadbearing walls shall be in accordance with Clause 6.3.5. 3 For limitations on trenching, see Clause 6.2.1.4. 4 Multiple members shall be nail-laminated (see Clause 2.5). 5 Edge distances for some sheet bracing materials may require a minimum plate depth of 45 mm for joining sheets. 6 Plates required to support concentrated loads from jamb studs, posts or studs supporting concentrated loads, shall be supported in accordance Clause 6.2.2.3. 7 For other design requirements, see Clause 6.3.4. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 193 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Lintel span Lintel Stud FIGURE A26 LINTEL—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY CONSTRUCTION Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 194 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au TABLE A50 LINTELS—LOWER STOREY OF TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS— UPPER FLOOR JOIST SPAN 4800 mm MAX. Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Sheet 3000 900 100×50 100×75 100×50 100×75 100×50 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 125×75 125×75 125×50 100×75 100×75 2/90×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1500 150×75 175×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 2/120×45 2/120×35 140×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×50 150×75 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×35 2/120×35 2/120×35 2100 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 190×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2400 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 290×45 (5) 290×45 (5) 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 3000 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 3600 — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 (5) 2/240×45 2/240×45 6000 900 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×50 100×50 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×50 100×75 120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1500 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 120×45 2/90×45 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2400 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 2/170×45 2/170×35 3000 — — 300×75 275×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 9000 900 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×50 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 125×75 125×75 125×75 125×50 2/120×35 120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2400 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3000 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 12 000 900 100×75 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 140×45 120×45 2/90×35 90×45 1500 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 120×45 1800 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2100 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2400 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×45 3000 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 195 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia Roof type Rafter or truss span mm Opening width mm Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 Tile 3000 900 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 100×50 90×45 90×45 90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×50 125×50 125×75 125×50 125×50 2/120×35 120×45 120×35 2/90×35 90×35 1500 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 1800 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 170×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2100 250×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/170×35 2/140×35 2400 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 3000 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×35 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 3600 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 6000 900 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 100×50 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 125×75 2/120×35 2/120×35 120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 150×75 2/170×35 190×45 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 1800 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2100 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2400 300×75 300×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 3000 — — — — 300×75 2/290×45 2/290×45 2/290×35 2/240×45 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×35 9000 900 125×50 125×50 100×75 100×75 100×50 2/90×35 2/90×35 2/90×35 90×35 90×35 1200 150×75 150×75 150×75 150×50 125×75 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 2/90×35 1500 200×75 200×75 175×75 175×75 175×75 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 1800 225×75 225×75 225×75 200×75 200×75 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2100 275×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2400 300×75 300×75 275×75 275×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/190×35 3000 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 2/240×45 2/240×35 3600 — — — — — — — — — 2/290×45 12 000 900 125×75 125×75 125×50 125×50 100×75 2/120×45 2/90×45 2/90×35 90×45 90×35 1200 175×75 175×75 150×75 150×75 150×75 2/140×35 2/120×45 2/120×35 2/120×35 2/90×45 1500 225×75 200×75 200×75 200×75 175×75 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2/140×35 2/120×45 1800 250×75 250×75 225×75 225×75 225×75 2/240×35 2/190×45 2/170×45 2/170×35 2/140×45 2100 300×75 300×75 275×75 250×75 250×75 2/240×45 2/240×45 2/190×45 2/190×45 2/170×45 2400 — — 300×75 300×75 275×75 2/290×45 (5) 2/290×45 (5) 2/240×35 (10) 2/240×35 2/190×45 3000 — — — — — — — 2/290×45 (10) 2/290×35 2/240×45 3600 — — — — — — — — — — NOTES: 1 For allowable roof and floor load masses, see Clause 1.4.11. 2 Lintels supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles. 3 Lintels shall be used in conjunction with bottom and top plates, ledgers and, where required, lintel trimmers. 4 Multiple members shall be vertically nail-laminated (see Clause 2.3). 5 Lintels in gable or skillion end walls not supporting roof loads shall be determined as for sheet roof, 3000 mm rafter span. 6 Minimum bearing length at supports shall be 35 mm. Subscript values, where applicable, indicate the minimum additional bearing length where required to be greater than 35 mm. TABLE A50 (continued) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 196 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au APPENDIX B MOISTURE CONTENT (Informative) Timber flooring should be installed at an average moisture content appropriate to the average internal equilibrium moisture content for the location. Table B1 lists equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) likely to be encountered. TABLE B1 MOISTURE CONTENT OF FLOORING Climatic zone Average indoor EMC Seasonal EMC range Recommended average moisture content at installation % % % Coastal (Zone 3) 12 10 to 15 12 Inland (Zone 1 and Zone 2) 9 7 to 12 9 Airconditioned 9 7 to 12 9 NOTES: 1 For a map of climate zones, refer to the subfloor ventilation requirements in the Building Code of Australia. 2 More detailed information for specific locations can be obtained from timber advisory services. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 197 AS 1684.4—2010 www.standards.org.au © Standards Australia APPENDIX C EXAMPLE OF EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING (Informative) Ty p e ATy p e A Ty p e BTy p e B Ty p e BTy p e B Ty p e ATy p e A Wind directionWind direction NOTE: The sections of the house have been separated to illustrate the distribution required. FIGURE C1 EXAMPLE OF EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 198 © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au APPENDIX D COLLAR TIES WITH MULTIPLE ROWS OF UNDERPURLINS (Normative) This Appendix specifies typical fixing details for collar ties with multiple rows of underpurlins, which are given in Figure D1. RafterRidgeboard Collar tiesCollar ties Underpurlin Ceiling joistCeiling joist (a) Typical method of fixing scissor collar ties when two underpurlins are required on a roof with equal pitches RafterRidgeboard Underpurlin Collar tiesCollar ties Stablizer between, to support collar tiesStablizer between, to support collar ties Ceiling joistCeiling joist (b) Typical method of fixing conventional collar ties when two underpurlins are required on a roof with equal or unequal pitches NOTE: Collar tie may be spliced as for ceiling joist (see Clause 7.2.4.2). FIGURE D1 FIXING OF COLLAR TIES WITH MULTIPLE ROWS OF UNDERPURLINS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) 199 AS 1684.4—2010 BIBLIOGRAPHY Attention is drawn to the following related documents: FWPA www.timber.org.au MRTFC—Multi-residential Timber Framed Construction Manuals Timber Stairs, Balustrades and Handrails—External and Internal EWPAA LP91, Low profile plywood floor system Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) AS 1684.4—2010 200 AS 1684.4—2010 Amendment No. 1 (2012) CORRECTION SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Figures 6.8(d) and 6.8(e) . Published on 21 June 2012. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) Standards Australia Standards Australia develops Australian Standards® and other documents of public benefit and national interest. These Standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak non-government national standards body. Standards Australia also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards. For further information visit www.standards.org.au Australian Standards® Committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian Standards. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology. International Involvement Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of International Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Standards Australia represents Australia at both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Sales and Distribution Australian Standards®, Handbooks and other documents developed by Standards Australia are printed and distributed under license by SAI Global Limited. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) Standards Development Standards Australia GPO Box 476 Sydney NSW 2001 Phone: 02 9237 6000 Fax: 02 9237 6010 Email: [email protected] Internet: www.standards.org.auSales and Distribution SAI Global Phone: 13 12 42 Fax: 1300 65 49 49 Email: [email protected] ISBN 978 – 0 – 7337 – 9436 – 0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed) This page has been left intentionally blank. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA on 17 Feb 2015 (Document currency not guaranteed when printed)

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