Nr w 13 phase 5

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Phase V will consist of an Abstract :

Abstract: An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of your topic. The abstract should be 350 word or less and should be accurate, non-evaluative, coherent, readable, and concise. The following elements of an abstract should be included:

a. The research problem or issue you are presenting

b. Phase 1, 2, 3, & 4 ( ARE ATTACHED TO THIS POST)

c. Your conclusions

d. Implications for nursing education and the nursing profession

4.  Reference page:

a. All of the sources used in your abstract and in your phase 1,2,3, and 4 must be included.

b. The list should follow APA format. Authors should be alphabetized by last name of author, double spaced, and have a hanging indent.

c. The sources must be relevant to the topic, peer-reviewed and/or evidence-based, and current (within 5 years). 


Running Head: Phase Three

Evaluation of a Research Study

Phase III

Yusleiby Castillo

Florida National University

Professor Nora Hernandez Pupo

Date June 28, 2022

Evaluation of a Research Study: “Translating evidence to practice in the health professions: a

randomized trial of Twitter vs Facebook”

Has the author formulated an appropriate research question based on the problem/issue?

The main purpose of the research study was to develop a comparison of the change within the research-informed knowledge of health professionals and the intended practice following the exposure to adequate research information delivered through either Twitter or Facebook. Thus, the author of the articles tends to appropriately formulate the research question in regards to the identified research problem. In general, there tends to be a major gap between the research-generated healthcare knowledge as well as the clinician practice (Tunnecliff et al., 2016). The formulated research question allows the targeted audience to be in a position to attain a detailed understanding of the ability of social media to connect diverse researchers as well as a clinician from various regions, disciplines and areas of practice across the globe and its ability to be a positive medium for exchanging knowledge as well as education.

Furthermore, understanding the impact social media, Twitter and Facebook, respectively, have on the enhancement of clinician knowledge and ability to promote behaviour change allows health facilities and professionals to appropriately utilized the information attained from the social media to enhance their skills and knowledge in their divers fields within the medical practice (Tunnecliff et al., 2016).

Is the research question clearly defined in terms of its scope and relevance?

The advancement of information technology tends to have a significant impact on how various activities are being conducted in the modern world. Thus, it may be asserted that the developed research question tends to clearly define the aim as well as the relevance of the research. Further, it tends to review the effectiveness of various social media platforms to be able to develop a robust conclusion on the impact social media have on clinician knowledge enhancement (Tunnecliff et al., 2016).

In addition, it also tends to guide the researcher to focus closely on the use of social media platforms in education and the various impacts it may have in promoting learning experiences and enhancing knowledge as well as skills. Moreover, the formulated research question also tends to be relevant as it focuses on the two main social media platforms ( Twitter and Facebook) by reviewing the ability of these applications to utilize user interaction and text, videos as well as web links to allow their users to be able to effectively engage with each other (Tunnecliff et al., 2016).

What is the author’s orientation towards the research problem/issue- is it critical analysis or interpretation based?

Research orientation may be described as the level of emphasis that a person or organization may have on specific research compared to other academic activities. Research orientation tends to be a major influence on the attitudes towards research, research motivation as well as the perceived level of intellectual demand by the research. The author’s orientation towards the research was academic as they sought to identify the gap between the research-generated healthcare knowledge and the clinical practice(“Themes, orientations, and research directives,” 2017). The academic research orientation often focuses on the scientific community, which tends to be the main audience for researchers who want to address their results. In addition, the academic orientation further tends to reflect on the traditional academic values as well as norms which include academic freedom and curiosity-driven choice of the research topics.

Additionally, following the aspects of the academic orientation, the authors’ orientation of the research has significantly motivated the researchers to focus more on achieving a detailed understanding of how social media platforms are significant tools for enhancing the knowledge and skills of health care professionals (“Themes, orientations, and research directives,” 2017). In addition, a significant population of health professionals tends to utilize various social media platforms to achieve relevant knowledge and information regarding their profession.

How does this article contribute to your understanding of possible research modalities and methods?

In research, modality may be described as the form of behaviour, expression or way of life which tends to belong to a specific person or a group of people. On the other hand, research methods may be described as the various approaches that are utilized to collect as well as analyze data (Namey et al., 2021). Thus, from a personal understanding, the research tends to follow a systematic research approach to enable it to be able to acquire the appropriate data to answer the research question. The research utilized an open-label randomized comparative design and a mixed-methods approach to be able to acquire as well as analyze the necessary data. In addition, the research modalities utilized in the research are the various ways in which the social media platform may be used to enhance the knowledge and skills of health care professionals (Namey et al., 2021). Majorly, the significant use of Twitter and Facebook in the modern world tends to be the main modality of this research as it aids in understanding forms of behavior within the social media platform as well as the approaches that may be utilized to enhance knowledge and skills among the healthcare professions.

What are the strengths, limitation of the study?

A major strength of the study is that it offered a detailed understanding of how the various social media platforms ( Twitter and Facebook, respectively may be used to enhance knowledge and skills among the health care professionals(Tunnecliff et al., 2016). Another significant strength is that it offers a detailed understanding of the various behaviour that health care professionals may have about the social media platform and how it may be utilized to enhance continuous knowledge and skills advancement.

On the other hand, the main limitation of the research is that it tends to lack a controlled group hence not able to adequately evaluate the impact of learning effect from a social media platform. Due to this, it is quite essential for another research to be conducted with a controlled group to be able to determine if the use of social media platforms as a tool to enhance the skills and knowledge of health care professionals is helpful or not(Tunnecliff et al., 2016). Additionally, the research also followed a randomization approach, which comprised of high risk of bias, and as a result, the findings of the research may not be generalized.

Which Essentials do you see represented in this article and why?

The main essential that I have identified being represented in the study is the importance of social media platforms to promote knowledge and skills. The research identifies that technology is part of modern society, and it is important for various organizations and filed to develop ways in which they may promote continuous knowledge and skills enhancement through the social media platform(Tunnecliff et al., 2016). Additionally, a significant population around the world are members of either Twitter, Facebook or both, and thus it tends to be a convenient way of sharing crucial information within the healthcare field as well as other professional fields.


Namey, E., Guest, G., O’Regan, A., Godwin, C. L., Taylor, J., & Martinez, A. (2021). How does qualitative data collection modality affect disclosure of sensitive information and participant experience? Findings from a quasi-experimental study. Quality & Quantity.

Themes, orientations, and research directives. (2017). Ethnographies of Reason, 199-200.

Tunnecliff, J., Weiner, J., Gaida, J. E., Keating, J. L., Morgan, P., Ilic, D., Clearihan, L., Davies, D., Sadasivan, S., Mohanty, P., Ganesh, S., Reynolds, J., & Maloney, S. (2016). Translating evidence to practice in the health professions: A randomized trial of Twitter vs Facebook. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 24(2), 403-408.

Running head: PHASE 4: RESULTS


Phase 4: Results

Yusleiby Castillo

Florida National University

Class: Nursing Research and Evidence Based

Professor’s Name: Nora Hernandez-Pupo

July 13, 2022

Phase 4: Results

The study conducted by interviewing 80 nursing staff and patients was successful 90% (72) of the participants were available for the interview, which was a good number to provide the necessary data for the research. 37 patients and 35 nursing participated in the study and responded to the 10 interview questions that were subjected to them. The response to the interview indicated that 80% of the nurses accepted that there is a value in developing relations with the patients and their families when offering care, especially in transitional nursing. However, 100% of the patients agreed that relationship management is the best intervention needed for successful transitional nursing where they felt that an improved recovery rate is experienced in the scenario where the nurses are much more friendly and accommodative in handling their nursing case (Toles et al., 2021). The nurses were given time to express themselves beyond the limits of the interview questions. That is where they argued that they needed good nursing leadership to assist them in achieving effective transitional nursing.

The 20% of the nursing staff that were not in agreement about the value of relationship management concerning transition nursing argued that leadership in the clinical setting or organization matters most in determining their performance. The interview questions were about the value of relationship management and the leadership that would change the nursing role in the clinical setting. Transactional and transformational leadership emerged as the best leadership styles that would be of value for nurses to perform their duties because having their leadership will assist in shaping the profession to gain recognition and respect that result in value in the facility (Toles et al., 2021). Nurses have been shown as a profession that handles much of the work in the healthcare facility and deserves respect from the physicians and other healthcare providers. The nurses have argued that transactional and transformational leadership are dear to their hearts because it focuses on improving their professionalism and career development.

In addition, the nursing staff stated that the leadership styles relate much and influence the relationship in the healthcare facility where teamwork and collaboration are promoted, making it possible for different professionals to work together to achieve success. The patients stated that nurses who have managed a strong relationship work with passion and resilience in ensuring their independence is achieved before leaving them to the family support for other professional responsibilities (Joly, 2016). The patients argued that transitional nurses that have mastered the skills of relationship management have the best way of addressing issues of chronic illnesses, especially when highlighting red flags in their health status where they are expected to address them in the best way possible to avoid hurting the patients. Based on the results, highlighted concepts include the issue of teamwork and collaboration between professionals, nurses, and patients.

Teamwork is a powerful design option that nurses mentioned in the interview when it comes to meeting the ever-increasing demands on nursing professionals’ knowledge, increasing the quality of their work, and meeting their patients’ social requirements. Communication is critical to the success or failure of any team, and this was supported by the patients claiming that the collaboration between nurses and physicians improves their recovery rate and independence in transitional nursing (Joly, 2016). HR professionals must change their preconceptions about motivation, organization, and accountability to communicate effectively. Context-sensitive thinking requires flexible assumptions that encourage cross-functional cooperation and reciprocal accountability while maintaining a clear focus on the overall process. Teamwork in nursing is most effective when there is a high degree of task interdependence or a high degree of coordination and collaboration among team members. With complex and well-designed activities, it’s best to have a team of people working on them. Nurse leaders are responsible for urging their junior staff to accept some responsibility for changing the current social pattern to offer the best healthcare services to the patients.

Transitions nursing appears to be quite useful for patients who have difficulty altering the dynamics of their families to better their health and the health of their loved ones, which the participants supported. 100% of the participants agreed that transitional nursing was the change that has assisted the nursing sector in ensuring that the issue of shortage of nurses is addressed and patient independence, especially for chronic and terminally ill patients. Promoting the patients’ independence in managing their condition reduces the need for nurses in the care section, making it possible to have nurses in the emergency and critical care departments in the clinical setting (Toles et al., 2021). For example, the framework mentioned above can address various health challenges, such as managing patients’ requirements in a hostile social setting. Transitional nursing offers guidance, and those familiar with the environment take over since the patients will enjoy independence after the education offered.

In particular, for vulnerable groups, such as persons with HIV/AIDS and those with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the identified strategy is crucial because some feel they need to be independent and continue with their lives and family (Rosenberg et al., 2016). Transitions nursing applies to any situation where there is a conflict between a patient and a specific group of people because it provides a framework for an in-depth analysis of external factors affecting patients and the subsequent opportunities for the latter to either change or adapts to these conditions. As a result, transitional nursing should be considered essential to successful healthcare practice by using an innovative typology of factors that affect health and the best means to implement the transition. Transitional nursing should be made a vital framework for global health. It is critical to discuss leadership in nursing with professionals who operate at different organizational levels and have a wide range of patient care responsibilities. During the interview with the registered nurses, especially those in the surgical unit, they claimed that the recovery of the patients requires educating and creating awareness among patients and their families for independence (Pullen, 2016). The nurses stated that the transitional nursing model works in the patients’ best interests, who value being allowed to recover in home-based care. This applies most to elderly patients and those with chronic illnesses.

It was agreed upon that professionalism, as defined by the RN interviewed on the topic of leadership, as practicing within the scope of practice, being accountable for one’s responsibilities that do not go “above and beyond,” and maintaining professional relationships with everyone involved in the care process, as well as completing work on time and collaboratively (Pullen, 2016). During the interview, the participants supported transitional nurses that they manage diverse processes to accomplish the intended patient outcomes and are also trustworthy where they look forward to improving health in the community. Nurse leaders in healthcare in the healthcare setting are expected to be open-minded and content with their work to support the transitional nurses perform their work to the satisfaction of the patient.

Future Research

The research effectively showcased how the transitional nurses should have good relationship management in addressing the patient’s needs. The research proved that transitional nursing addresses patient demand for independence, especially for those vulnerable like HIV/AIDS patients and those with chronic illnesses. The gap involves the other healthcare professionals in the clinical setting, including the physicians and mental health therapists, about how they perceive transitional nursing and how it affects their relationship with nursing and performance (Joly, 2016). Future research is important because the nurses are positive about it since it favors their productivity, but the other professionals need to share their experience because it will assist in assessing the effectiveness of transitional nursing.


As patients migrate from one healthcare facility to another and from one doctor to another, the Transitional Care Model is a nurse-led intervention to prevent negative outcomes. Nurse staffing is a challenge addressed by transitional nursing, and the research has demonstrated that it gives a positive outcome based on the responses from nurses and patients. Over the past few years, staffing has shown to be a cost-effective strategy and collaboration between nurses and patients develops a good relationship that promotes quality care and quick recovery (Joly, 2016). The healthcare system can be improved and its expenses reduced if the correct workforce is in place and transitional nursing is well implemented and executed.


Joly, E. (2016). Integrating transition theory and bioecological theory: A theoretical perspective for nurses supporting the transition to adulthood for young people with medical complexity. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(6), 1251-1262. Web.

Pullen, R. (2016). Leadership in nursing practice. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy, 14(3), 26-31.

Rosenberg, N. E., Stanley, C., Rutstein, S. E., Bonongwe, N., Kamanga, G., Pettifor, A., Miller, W. C. (2016). Recruiting the social contacts of STI patients for HIV screening in Lilongwe, Malawi: Process evaluation and assessment of acceptability. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 92(8): 587–592. Web.

Toles, M., Frerichs, A. and Leeman, J., 2021. Implementing transitional care in skilled nursing facilities: Evaluation of a learning collaborative. Geriatric Nursing, 42(4), pp.863-868.



Value of Relationship Management in Transitional Nursing: Phase Two

Yusleiby Castillo

Florida National University

Nursing Research and Evidence-Based

Professor, Nora Hernandez-Pupo

Date: June 7, 2022

Value of Relationship Management in Transitional Nursing

Literature review

The topic of transitional nursing has been undergoing research over the past decade. However, the topic of relationship management in transitional nursing has not received enough attention from researchers; yet, it must be thoroughly covered. There is a need for more research into the topic since relationship management in transitional nursing is critical in assisting patients during their road to recovery and regaining a certain level of independence. According to Centeno and Kahveci (2017), there are various transitional care models that transitional nurse practitioners can utilize when providing care for patients. These include the adult physician model, switch models, and comfort and resource, models. The authors also note that relationship management during transitional periods is critical to achieving a seamless transition because patients are typically at their most vulnerable during these times.

In transitional nursing, relationship management is essential. According to Ortiz (2018), individuals who experience good relationships with their caregivers in their transition care have improved results. Leading healthcare institutions are actively working to establish strategic measures to enhance this process. In light of this development, the significance of healthcare providers cultivating meaningful relationships with their clients cannot be overstated. It is certainly not enough to merely work on increasing patient satisfaction, which is the primary approach that many healthcare organizations have taken up to this point to deal with this issue. Lee (2017) suggests that concentrating solely on the level of contentment experienced by patients can actually be counterproductive in efforts to provide high-quality care at a low cost. For instance, in order to maintain high levels of patient satisfaction, some medical professionals have been known to unnecessarily administering narcotic pain medications and antibiotics to their patients.

In order for transitional nurses to be successful in an environment driven by value-based reimbursement, they will need to adopt an orientation that is genuine towards patients and families to achieve excellent relationship management with their clients. Better health outcomes, enhanced patient decision-making, and more incredible therapeutic bonds between physicians and patients are all possible results of this approach (Boling, 2022). Value can be increased by forming deeper ties between transitional nurses and their patients; yet, these connections cannot be made by programs that are solely focused on patient satisfaction.

In the same way that businesses operating outside of the healthcare industry have developed methods, applications, and workflows revolving around client relationship management (CRM), organizations operating within the healthcare industry should construct the same discipline revolving around the idea of patient relationship management (PRM) (Chou & Lin, 2019). There has been some forward movement to improve relationship management in transitional nursing. However, there is still a need for additional research to understand better the value of these connections to boost the acceptance of these relationships by transitional nurses.

Methodology and Design of the Study

The problem in this study will be evaluated using descriptive, quantitative, and empirical studies. Random sampling will be used to select the study participants (eighty nursing staff and patients) from several local health care facilities. First, patients and caregivers from various health care facilities are less likely to communicate with one another. Hence the results generated from the various facilities will be less skewed. Second, various healthcare institutions have varying perspectives on how transitional methods should be applied.

A questionnaire method will not be appropriate for the study since questionnaires are prone to low response rates. Instead, a qualitative study interviewing (in-person conversations with people willing to share their thoughts and feelings) will be used. This is because interviews provide more comprehensive information than survey questions (Bloomfield & Fisher, 2019). Such interviews also enable researchers to work very closely with respondents and ensure that respondents are not influenced by other parties during their responses.

Participants will be contacted when the medical institutions’ administrations have consented to provide the researcher access to these individuals. The prospective volunteers will be sent a letter that will contain a description of the study and some data about the investigator and their background. The participants who will be included in the sample will each receive contact details (email address or mobile number). Before the interviews take place, a written agreement from all the study participants will be required. Participants below eighteen years will have their parents contacted, and their parents will be required to give their written consent. The investigator will make an effort to conduct a one-on-one interview with each participant within the sample size. Those individuals who decline to participate in the research will be approached to understand better the participants’ decision to decline participation.

Unstructured and casual interviews will be used as the data collection method for this project. The participants will be given time throughout these interviews to think about the questions and clarify their thoughts and responses to the person conducting the interview. As a result, the researcher will be able to gain a better understanding of the participants’ perspectives on the topic at hand (Value of Relationship Management in Transitional Nursing), as well as whether or not they believe these relationships are crucial and the kinds of modifications that they recommend for enhancing relationship management in transitional nursing.

Sampling Methodology

Simple random sampling will be used to generate the sample size. The advantage of taking this strategy is that it results in a selection that is not biased in any way, and it gives each individual unit in the sample population an equal opportunity to be chosen. In addition, statistical software applications can be utilized to generate a random sample selection. Nevertheless, it is essential to keep in mind that the representativeness of a sample increases in direct proportion to the size of the population that it is drawn from. In this research, data will be collected from two samples: nursing staff who work with patients who are transitioning and patients who have recently undergone such a transition from one department to another or from a health center to their dwelling units. A total of eighty participants, consisting of twenty nurses and sixty patients selected randomly, will participate in the study.

Necessary Tools

To successfully carry out personal interviews, several different tools will be required. First, the person conducting the interview must have the appropriate credentials and should be familiar with the questions and problems under investigation. Second, an outline of the interview, even if it is just a rough draft, is necessary to determine which subjects and questions need to be covered. When conducting research, it is best to steer clear of contentious topics if at all possible. After the interviewer has finished creating an overview or a roadmap for the interview, equipment such as an audio recorder will be required to transcribe the interview. If interviews are to be audio recorded, the equipment needs to be tested to ensure that it is functioning correctly. Any observations that were made during the interview will also be documented.

Interview Flow Map

Interview outline

Interview preparation

Preparation of necessary tools

Data gathering

Results interpretation


Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal Of The Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses’ Association22(2), 27-30.

Boling, P. (2022). Improving Transitional Care and Reducing Hospitalization for Nursing Facility Residents. JAMA Network Open, 5(5), e2210200.’

Centeno, M., & Kahveci, K. (2017). Transitional Care Models. Critical Care Nursing Clinics Of North America, 26(4), 589-597.


Lee, J. (2017). Transitional care intervention. Nursing Management, 48(3), 32-39.

Ortiz, M. (2018). Transitional Care: Nursing Knowledge and Policy Implications. Nursing Science Quarterly, 32(1), 73-77.

Running head: The Future of Nursing in Leadership 1

The Future of Nursing in Leadership

The Future of Nursing in Leadership

Phase 1 Planning

Student’s name: Yusleiby Castillo

Professor’s name: Nora Hernandez-Pupo

Date: May 26, 2022

Transitional Nursing

At all stages of their engagement, nurse-patient communication is critical. It is crucial in the initial stages of nurse-patient interaction because it establishes the context for why a patient has come to seek medical or health support. A nurse gets to hear from a patient about what led them to the medical center and what is wrong with them at the introduction stage. This is also the time when nurses may reassure their patients that they will provide all possible aid. Ethical considerations are crucial in the medical field.

During patient-nurse interactions, nurses have the opportunity to enlighten patients on their ethical obligations when it comes to the provision of medical services. Nurses and other health personnel also request agreement from patients at this point in order to perform specific operations or tests, as these procedures would not be possible without it (Jensen, 2015).

It is critical that nurses communicate with patients in a variety of ways. Nurses work with patients of all ages, genders, and cultures, as well as patients suffering from various illnesses. It is critical for a nurse to understand how to interact successfully with these patients in order to provide the best and most suitable nursing care. Nurses may choose to develop personal ties with their patients in order to better interact with them in certain situations, such as chronic diseases or while dealing with elderly patients. Kindness and compassion characterize personal interactions (Neese, 2015). The sort of communication that a nurse uses is determined by the patient’s age and condition. The type of communication utilized with young patients differs from that used with adult patients. Patient-nurse communication is critical because it affects how a patient is treated.

The future of nursing in leadership

Nurses in the healthcare field are frequently undervalued as leaders. In comparison to their counterparts, such as doctors, health officials, and businesspeople, they do not have an equal say. Mentorship and participation in policymaking and engagement can help with this. Leadership programs should also be established to provide training and opportunities for nurses to grow as leaders. Nurses must also shift their perspective and perceive themselves as leaders.

To strengthen the healthcare system, nurses should have a say in questions of leadership, policy, and health systems (Richardson & Storr, 2010). Nursing research must develop new and improved policies to assist nurses in influencing the healthcare system. They may be able to function as equal partners in the workplace. They must see themselves as people who can establish policies rather than simply carrying out orders.

Nurses can become leaders if the healthcare system is structured in such a manner that nurses and other healthcare counterparts play interdependent roles, allowing each party to contribute to the solution of a problem rather than one party teaching the others. Professionals will respect them as a result of this. To become leaders, they must be excellent communicators, speaking out and sharing ideas, research, volunteer and mentor, and advocate for the well-being of patients, among other things. To avoid feeling inadequate, nurses should be highly compensated.

Experienced nurses can mentor new nurses on how to become the finest nurses and have a say in leadership. Some nurses have also become entrepreneurs to enhance the healthcare system, such as Ruth Lubic, who started a birth center in New York City in 1975 that provided care to the community. Nursing students should be prepared with the essential information and practice while still in school so that they may become leaders once they begin their careers. (Grossman and Valiga (2016) explore the phenomenon of leadership as well as the future of nursing in leadership roles in the health care industry. Leadership and how nurses can be guided into making big decisions and having a say in decision-making with their health counterparts has been discussed by (nursing made easy, 2016).

Transactional and transformational leadership have certain similarities.

Transformational leadership is a type of management that encourages nurses to go above and beyond their normal responsibilities. It requires visionary leaders that encourage their nurses to search out fresh innovative ideas while remaining mindful of their specific abilities. Transactional leadership is action-oriented, and it entails leaders motivating their nurses to achieve short-term objectives (Hamstra, Van Yperen, Wisse & Sassenberg, 2014). They are mostly driven by rewards, and those who do not accomplish their goals are punished in some way. Nurses are supposed to obey established norms and regulations and are also observed. They are, however, free to make their own project decisions.

Similarities include;

• Both leadership approaches entail leaders and nurses working toward a common objective and achieving mutual gain.

• They are both motivational leadership styles.

• They strive toward a definite objective that must be met.

Transformational leadership can be used in my workplace, where we are encouraged to come up with innovative ideas to help the company achieve its objectives. We can contribute ideas for new ways to improve customer service, handle customer complaints, improve the company’s products, and come up with new product ideas, among other things. This will allow nurses to work in a variety of industries, allowing them to put their abilities and skills to good use and so boost the company’s productivity. Nurses are also kept engaged by this form of leadership because they have a sense of belonging to a project.

The University of Ghana Business School’s (Kwasi Dartey –Baah, 2015) highlights the similarities between transformational and transactional leadership theories in terms of achieving desired outcomes. He also conducts a literature study of the two hypotheses and demonstrates their connection.

(Martin, 2015) discusses how leadership has influenced their nurses’ attitudes toward their workplace. He goes on to argue that when followers are motivated, they work more, which is crucial to the company’s success. He compares and contrasts transformational and transactional leadership styles.

It is possible to advocate for advanced practicing nurses using existing and nursing practice policies as an advocate. It is possible to use the rules and policies that govern how and when nurses can work independently to advocate for nurse autonomy. Nurses with sufficient education and supervision hours are capable of offering sophisticated and dependable patient-centered care. For the reasons stated above, such nurses should be given the ability to prescribe medication and perform particular activities and procedures related to health care delivery. There are numerous stakeholders who can assist in bettering APRN advocacy. 


Tappen, R. M., Davis, F. A., & Tradewell, G. T. (1995). Nursing Leadership and Management: Concepts and Practice. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development11(5), 280.

Tomey, A. M. (2009). Nursing management and leadership. USA: Mosby Elsevier.

Richardson, A., & Storr, J. (2010). Patient safety: a literative review on the impact of nursing empowerment, leadership and collaboration. International nursing review57(1), 12-21.

Nursing made easy. (2016).Leadership in Nursing. Retrieved from

Jolanki, F., & Månsson, M. Transformational and Transactional Leadership.

Hamstra, M. R., Van Yperen, N. W., Wisse, B., & Sassenberg, K. (2014). Transformational and transactional leadership and followers’ achievement goals. Journal of Business and Psychology29(3), 413-425.

Kwasi Dartey-Baah, (2015) “Resilient leadership: a transformational-transactional leadership mix”, Journal of Global Responsibility, Vol. 6 Issue: 1, pp.99-112,

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