I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section

Are you pressed for time and haven’t started working on your assignment yet? Would you like to buy an assignment? Use our custom writing services for better grades. Even if your deadline is approaching fast, our writers can handle your task right when you need it.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages

I have a certain point to follow

every 2 weeks I need a specific section

I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section

I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
15 2021 Volume 2, Issue 1: 15-24 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48185/tts.v2i1. 165 Analysis of Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns from English into Arabic among Yemeni University EFL Students Ebtissam Ezzy Alwan, Department of English, Dr. BAM University Aurangabad, India Corresponding author: Ebtissam Ezzy Alwan [[email protected] ] Received: 03/03/202 1 • Accepted: 23/03/2021 • Published: 31/03/2021 Abstract: The present study is devoted to the discussion on errors of English translation into Arabic with special reference to English compound nouns. The study is confined to the students of the Department of English, Faculty of education, Hodeidah University, Yem en as they face various difficulties and commit errors while translating English compound nouns into Arabic and vice versa. The researcher aims at examining multiple factors responsible for this state of affairs and make pedagogical suggestions to improve teaching and learning and thereby helping in the process of translation. For this study, the researcher has collected the data by conducting the test of 40 students of I to IV level, Department of English, Hodeidah University, Yemen. The test consists of one question having three items and each item has five words. In findings, the researcher concludes that the students face various difficulties and obstacles in the process of translating English compounds into Arabic. Moreover, they commit a number of mi stakes while translating English compounds. Keywords: English language translation; English as a foreign language; mother tongue or first language; second or foreign language; target language 1. Introduction The English Language has been gaining importance by leaps and bounds and it has been acknowledged by a large number of academics in the world. It is regarded as the first language even in countries where it is not used as a first language. Some Scholars opine that almost all the persons in every nook and c orner of the world more often than not use the English language (Al -Saggaf & Rusli, 2020) . While pointing out the importance of the English language, Warschauer et al. (2002) stated that in several countries, including Arab, English is used as the primary language in the class. It assists the students in learning their mother tongue. In this connection, what Crystal (2012) has said is worth noting. He asserts that there is no doubt to sta te that learning English has been gradually increasing in almost all the countries, and Yemen is not an exception to this. Similarly, Nunan (2003) opines that Yemen’s education has become significant due to English language courses in all academic institut ions. As a result, the educational system in Yemen has been rapidly developing. Although the Arabic language is the native tongue in Yemen, nonetheless, after the 1990s, the Ministry of Education has made English compulsory from the age of six. Al Nagi and Hamdan (2009) have gone to the extent of describing Yemen as a bilingual country. They believe that learning the English language is likely to provide better opportunities to the students in their future life. This view has been upheld by many who argue t hat in almost all the fields of the TESOL and Technology Studies https:// tts .sabapub.com Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns 16 country, the English language has been gaining ground. The examples of media, particularly social media, i.e., Facebook, education, technology, business, etc., well illustrate this. The significance of the study lies in the fact that it is likely to go a long way to provide the guidelines to the students and enable them to use English compound nouns without committing errors during the process of translation. Besides, it is expected to help the students enhance their know ledge about the use of English compound nouns and thereby avoid errors while translating English compound nouns with the help of designing remedial tasks. For this purpose, the study suggests that the teachers should play a vital role in bringing to the no tice of the students the errors which they commit in the process of translation. No doubt translating English into Arabic has become a moot point over the years. The advocates of this plead about the advantages of it. They hold that this is quite obvious f rom the merits of proper translation into the mother tongue in the classroom. On the other hand, the opponents of this argument about the disadvantages and how it adversely affects quality. However, while emphasizing the use of the mother tongue, teachers have been cautioned about its overuse as it is likely to create the feeling in the minds of learners that they are not able to understand the foreign language so long as it is not translated into their native language. Of course, no one can disregard quali ty. Notwithstanding, as far as translation is concerned, the quality is a matter of relativity as almost all the translations have more or fewer drawbacks. This is obvious from the fact that all the studies on this issue have the same lists of translation ideas and concepts without having any fresh insight or adequate empirical evidence. While translating English into Arabic, we must bear in mind that English consists of plenty of structural compound devices to communicate, whereas Arabic does not possess such devices. Apart from this, it is a herculean task to translate the languages which are culturally and structurally poles apart, and for this purpose, various techniques are used to obtain the equivalent words. Since translating English compound nouns i s a complex pattern, it poses a big challenge for translators to translate. Selkirk (1982) defined compound in English as a type of word structure made of two constituents, that each belongs to one of the categories of nouns, adjectives, verbs, or preposi tions. In this way, in English, there are a large number of compound words or just compounds. On the other hand, the Arabic linguistic system consists of a few such words. In other words, a repository of such lexical compounds is limited in Arabic and co nsisting of N+N. In addition to this, sometimes, the translators have no other alternative except to make some adjustments to obtain the same equivalent translation as the meaning of compound words is difficult to understand from its parts. On account of t heir semantic compactness, English compound constructions are not very often properly interpreted or translated. Arabic compounds are described as phrases with normal word ‐order, compressed into two or three lexical items. Arabic patterns of compounds are not productive in making new formations. Moreover, Arabic gives less importance to thought than the form. On the contrary, English giv es more importance to the idea than the way it is formulated. To have a clear understanding, it is essential to know the d ifference in the structure between Arabic and English syntactic analysis of the compounds. As far as Yemen is concerned, the teachers face various difficulties while teaching students if they only rely on the English language. Rababah (2003) finds fault w ith the large number of learners who rarely understand the English language. Hence, it is essential to use the mother tongue, particularly while teaching difficult portions of the language. He went to the extent of saying that for both teachers and learner s teaching and learning English as a foreign language would not see the light of the day so long as the mother tongue is not used in the classroom. TESOL and Technology Studies 17 Being a lecturer in the Department of English, Faculty of Education, Hodeidah University, the researcher is well -aware of the situation in this university and to some extent in other universities in Yemen. The researcher has no hesitation to state that despite the importance of translation in practical life and obtaining command over the language, the English la nguage programme either undervalues or turns a blind eye towards it. At the time of teaching English, a good deal of emphasis is given on structure and not on communication. While teaching translation subjects, English compounds are not paid much heed. Co nsequently, the students lack the knowledge of the English compound translation process and are unable to correctly translate English compounds. All these constitute the crux of the problem in translating English compounds into Arabic. Therefore, the rese archer has focused her attention on the difficulties faced by the students while translating English compounds into Arabic. Keeping all these in view, the researcher has made a humble attempt to dive deep into the factors which cause difficulties for both the teachers as well as the students while using the English language in different settings. Needless to say that English and Arabic are two separate languages and as such, they have different uses and rules. It is these differences that are mainly respons ible for this state of affairs. Moreover, the confusion regarding the grammatical rules of both classic and colloquial Arabic has compounded these difficulties. The researcher has attempted to highlight the pros and cons of using the mother tongue and at t he same time caution about the overuse of it. What distinguishes this study from that of the earlier is that it has focused on examining the difficulties which Arab learners come across while dealing with compounds in the process of translation? The earlie r studies have dealt with other aspects of difficulties while translating. The researcher believes that the students of English at the Faculty of Education, Hodeidah University face various difficulties while translating English compounds into Arabic. Henc e, the researcher has undertaken the survey and conducted -test to find out the answer to the following questions: a. What are the types of mistakes committed by Yemeni university EFL students while translating compound nouns from English into Arabic? 2. Literature Review The present paper is devoted to the discussion on the arguments made by both those in favor of and against this issue. It is important to note that acquiring a new language has raised two contrasting views. The advocates of developing a n ew language argue that using translation into the mother tongue is likely to help in learning and dealing with a new language for teachers and students. On the other hand, the opponents of this view plead that using translation into the mother tongue is li kely to create obstacles in the path of the students who intend to learn different languages. To substantiate these arguments, some of the researches conducted on this issue have been cited. (Rababah, 2005) has pointed out that in the process of teaching; the foreign language plays a vital role. Having discussed the EFL learning situation in Yemen, he illustrates how teachers resort to mother tongue while explaining new word s and literature of English. Although the CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) approach emphasizes teaching vocabulary items in context; however, vocabulary is still taught in isolation. There is a difference of opinion about the use of the mother tongue . Some authors argue that it should not be used randomly and caution the teachers that its maximum use in the ELT classroom is likely to have an adverse impact. Whereas, others hold that teaching English bilingually and using L1 at an appropriate time is e xpected to make a positive contribution to English learning. Apart from this, some Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns 18 others assert that the limited use of the mother tongue would facilitate the learning of a foreign language and not obstruct it. The research on bilingualism conducted by Hamers and Blanc (2 000) clearly shows different cognitive functions in both languages. The essence of each language involves the linguistic system, morphology, semantics, phonology, syntax. Pragmatic as well as bilingualism requires a command over all these. At the same t ime, if needed, cognitively, we must be in a position to separate the languages. Besides, to make use of the information interchangeably, searching for the memory store is essential. For instance, Swain and Lapkin (2000) are of the opinion that as far as both linguistically and cognitively complex functions are concerned, disregarding the use of L1 amounts to setting aside the use of a vital cognitive tool. It is quite apparent that no precise or clear criterion can be used for a common definition of the compound noun in English. Quirk (1973) defined compounding as the process of adding two bases together to constitute a new lexical item. While undertaking a review of literature it becomes quite clear that by and large, most of the writers hold the view that there is adequate scope for researching compounding. For example, Gagne (2002) , Downing (1977) , Baue r (1983) , Spencer (1991) , Sandra (1990) , Warren (1978) , Sag et al. (2002) , Kim and Baldwin (2008) , and Libben (1998) opined that there is a lot of debate on literature produced by research on compounding. The debate is focused on multiword expressions, complex word -formation, compound nouns, and the internal structure of compounds. Amer (2020) pointed out that th ere are various nuances in meaning and scale of variations in the range of arguments as well as the empirical data. Nonetheless, there is a consensus on the view that a compound is a lexical unit having two or more elements. The purpose of combining two or more words is to transmit a clear meaning which cannot be done by a single separate word. By and large, compound words can be categorized as either hyphenated or written open (separate words), or written solid (closed). Mustafa (2020) while referring to Onysko (2014) , Benczes (2005) , Vorobeva (2016) , Yang and Li (2018) , and Zibin, and Altakhaineh (2018) stated that in the past, there has been a lot of discussion on theoretical and empirical research papers on compound nouns regarding a cognitive semantic approach. Notwithstanding, it has been entirely focused on conceptual blending theory applying conceptual metaphor and metonymy theory. Hamawand (2011) in his book points out how to apply the theory of categorization on compound nouns of English in terms of prototype and periphery. Brinton and Brinton (2010) , Katamba (2015) asserted that two free morphemes or lexical substructures, i.e., a head and a modifier constitute English compound nouns. What is important to note here is that as far as English compounds are con cerned, the noun is always a head, however, the modifier may be a noun, adjective, or verb. While making a distinction between English and Arabic, Sag et al. (2002) argued that English compounding is highly creative and innovative, more often than not it is used as a means of introducing new phrases or coining new words in to the lexicon. On the other hand, Arabic is not very much resourceful. It does not have the same multiword expressions as an important part of the linguistic mechanism. What Amer (2004) said is also worth noting. He has stated that several compound nouns of English have been recognized either by original nouns whic h Arabic already has in its stock. For example, sun -in –law /sihr/, goat /tays/, or by one -word nouns (or adjectives/participles functioning as nouns). The present paper with the help of the empirical method aims at examining the errors committed by the st udents of Hodeidah University, Yemen while using English compound nouns. This area has hardly been covered by any researcher. Here lies the significance of this paper. TESOL and Technology Studies 19 3. Materials and Methods 3.1. Research Design The present study has used a quantitative des ign. Creswell (2014) describes this design as the roadmap which guides the research to select the tools appropriate to attain the purpose of the study based on the questions of the research. It guides the researcher to focus on the topic under investigatio n with the help of the collection of data, instruments, and data analysis. There are various research designs and the present study has resorted to quantitative design. It assists the researcher to collect data from the responses of forty participants rega rding the analysis of errors while using English compound nouns. Hence, it can be said that quantitative design is the most useful for obtaining the goals of the research. The findings of the study would not only apply to the students of Hodeidah Universit y but also those of other universities in Yemen. 3.2. Participants The research is based on descriptive, analytical, and empirical methods. That is to say, the researcher has undertaken a random survey of 40 students from level I to level IV, Dept. of English, Hodeidah University, Yemen. She has conducted a test and asked the students to give their responses on the issues of English compounds such as open compounds, closed compounds, and hyphenated compounds. It must be borne in mind that hyphenated compounds consist of two words joined by a hyphen and sometimes, more than two words. The students have been asked one question having three items. Each item consists of five words. The study pertains to the academic year 2020/2021. The researcher has used the statistical method to a random sample. In this way, the researcher ha s attempted to find out the errors of the students while using English compound nouns in the process of translating English into Arabic and the factors responsible for this state of affairs. 3.3. Instrument Having reviewed the literature on this issue, t he researcher has used this design. She has conducted the test keeping in view the level of the students in Hodeidah University, Yemen, and the objectives of the research. To ensure the validity of the results of the research, the opinions of three experts have been sought and their suggestions have been incorporated. 4. Results The purpose of the study is to find out whether a large number of students commit mistakes while using English compound nouns in the process of translation. To substantiate the argume nts, the researcher has tested 40 students of Dept. of English, Hodediah University, Yemen, to find out the mistakes they commit regarding English Compounds. The findings of the survey are as follows: Table1. Description of the mistakes of English compound nouns while translating into Arabic English Compounds Number of Correct and Incorrect Answers Percentage of Correct and Incorrect Answers Open Compounds Correct Answers Incorrect Answer Correct Answers Incorrect Answers Ice cream 19 21 47% 53% High school 0 40 0% 100% Living room 8 32 20% 80% First aid 3 37 7% 93% Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns 20 Web page 10 30 25% 75% Total 40 160 20% 80% Closed Compounds Snowball 12 28 30% 70% Mailbox 12 28 30% 70% Grandmother 15 25 37% 63% Sometimes 2 38 5% 95% Inside 23 17 57% 43% Total 64 136 32% 68% Hyphenated Compounds Long -term 6 34 15% 85% Mother -in-law 7 33 17% 83% Check -in 4 36 10% 90% Up -to-date 3 37 7% 93% Ill-treat 30 10 75% 25% Total 50 150 25% 75% Total of All Answers 154 446 26% 74% The above table indicates that the students have faced many difficulties while translating English Compounds into Arabic. As far as the first question is concerned, it becomes obvious that the students face difficulties while translating English compounds into Arabi c. In the table mentioned above, the number of students who have made an incorrect translation is (446), i.e., (74%). This number is more than that of the students who have made a correct translation, i.e., (154), which comes to (26%). Hence, it can be sai d without any doubt that the students have difficulties while translating English compounds into Arabic. This might be due to that students are ill -equipped and lack the reading and writing skills, inadequate vocabulary and background knowledge of translat ion strategies, translating words without taking into consideration the sentences, doing literal translation, the meaning of some English words is difficult to comprehend even from its parts, i.e., “ill -treat” and “first aid”; non -availability of proper terms in Arabic dictionary, i.e., “long -term”; and ignorance of the functions of the English compounds. For the Yemeni students, English is a foreign language that has a number of compounds while Arabic has a limited number of compounds. 5. Discussion Several studies so far have been undertaken on this issue have focused on the use of English compound nouns. The findings of the previous studies have pointed out the great significance of the use of English compound nouns and how it is beneficial for both students and teachers. (Rababah, 2005) has expressed his views on teaching foreign language in Yemen and pointed out how teachers use their mother tongue in the process of explaining new words of English. Besides, instead of teaching vocabulary items in context, they are taught in isolation. Most of the writers are of the opinion that a good deal of research can be undertaken on compounding nouns in English. The literature p roduced by research in this regard has given rise to a lot of discussions which has focused mainly on multiword expressions, complex words formation and compound nouns, and the internal structure of compounds TESOL and Technology Studies 21 The writings of Gagne (2002) , Downing (1977) , Bauer (1983) , Spencer (1991) , Sandra (1990) , Warren (1978) , et al. (2002) , Kim and Baldwin (2008) , and Libben (1998) can be cited to substantiate this argument. The study conducted by Hamawand (2011) has focused on the theory of categorization of English compound nouns in terms of prototype and periphery. Mustafa (2020) has devoted to the discussion on conceptual blending the ory. Amer (2004) has pointed out that the number of English compound nouns have been recognized either by original nouns which are already found in Arabic stock. Amer (2020) asserted that a compound is a lexical unit having two or more elements and for conveying a clear meaning, combination of two or more words is essential. The findings of the present study have shown that number of scholars have been paying a great attention to the use of the mother tongue as it is regarded a tool to facilitate teaching English in the class and analyze the errors as well as mi stakes committed by the students in the Universities in Yemen. The analysis of errors and mistakes of English compound nouns is essential and indispensable for teaching and learning the English language. Without doing this, our cherished goal of teaching and learning correct and meaningful English compound nouns would remain a distant dream. However, we must bear in mind the factors which obstruct the process of translating English into Arabic. One of the main reasons for committing serious Interlingual er rors is the difference in morphology in constructing compounds in the two languages. In addition to this, students’ literal translation from Arabic to English and vice versa, failure of the teachers to translate correct patterns or concepts, etc. aggravate s the situation. Consequently, the students fail to make out such concepts. While constructing English sentences, the factors like false application or ignorance of compound words and deducing false rules from what they observe as similar patterns and over generalization cannot be set aside. The arguments made in this paper are likely to go a long way in helping the teachers and students to teach and learn correct English compound nouns at the universities and schools in Yemen. 6. Conclusion and Implications Based on the findings of the present study, certain recommendations have been made to help the teachers and students of English to improve the situation. To obtain mastery over compounds, it is indispensable that teachers should teach verbs, nouns, or adjec tives which form compounds. They should pay sufficient attention to all three types of English compound nouns and teach the meaning and uses in the light of contextual situations. They should encourage the students to undertake heavy exercises and suggest recording any useful compound word which they notice. The teachers must examine the causes of errors committed by the students while using compounds. Every English compound word does not have an exact Arabic equivalent and vice versa. As such, literal tran slation into Arabic is likely to create more confusion leading to commit mistakes. The teachers are required to use the language log activity and adopt various methods and techniques while correcting errors. They need to design materials based on authentic resources such as newspaper clips, radio interviews, journal articles, TV programs, etc. They have to bring to the notice of the students the source of the errors, so the students to enable students to learn to differentiate between all forms of compound nouns. To conclude, it can be said that a number of scholars have expressed their views on teaching English, and it has become a matter of great debate, particularly when it is taught as a target language in the class. On the one hand, some scholars hold the view that the use of English should be only confined to the class for improving the skills of the students. On the other hand, other scholars are of the opinion that Arabic should be used in the class for teaching the students and the best possible met hods be adopted regarding English grammar, exercises, comprehension texts, speaking as well as writing skills. Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns 22 What is important to note here is that our primary focus should be on the student as he/she is the recipient. It is necessary to set a target for achieving our goal while teaching English in the class and find out the best ways to teach. The teacher is likely to grip in the dark if he teaches without making any preparation. To my mind, resorting to Arabic while teaching English in the class is like ly to help the students to learn and comprehend the language in a better way. However, it should be borne in mind that depending thoroughly on the mother tongue is likely to defeat our purpose of teaching English. The best way would be to use both English and Arabic side by side. We cannot turn a blind eye towards our main goal of enabling the students to obtain maximum knowledge of English and make the best use of that for improving their language. To sum up, it can be said that in recent times using the m other tongue has drawn the attention of many scholars because it is regarded as a tool that facilitates teaching English in the class. The present study aims at finding out the errors of English compound nouns committed by the students of Educational inst itutions in Yemen. It is based mainly on a random survey of the students, Dept. of English, College of Education, Hodeidah University, Yemen. It consists of forty students. The study pertains to the academic year 2020/2021. The study lays a great emphasis on the factors responsible for the various errors which students commit while translating English compound nouns into Arabic. It would be worthwhile to provide the facilities regarding the use of modern technologies to the students which would help them to learn English easily. However, from the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that students face various difficulties while translating English into Arabic. The universities are required to appoint teaching staff having mastery over both lang uages English as well as Arabic. They should be trained in translating English into Arabic. To attract competent teachers, the university has to pay high salaries to them. The present study is confined to the English Department, Hodeidah University regar ding the errors of English compound nouns committed by the students. It is a micro -level study. It would be better to undertake a macro -level study to find out the errors which students very often commit while using English compound nouns in the process of translating English into Arabic. References Al -Saggaf, M. A. & Rusli , Z. A. N. (2020). Investigating the Types of Motivation of TESL Students in A Higher Education Institute in Malaysia. TESOL and Technology Studies, 1(1), 55 -69. Amer, W. (2004). Futurity in English and Arabic. Alqsa University Journal . Amer, W. M., & Menacere, K. (2020). The challenges of Translating English Compounds into Arabic – For Better or for Worse. Al Jinan , 11 (1) , 19 -42. Bauer, L. (1983). English word – formation . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Benczes, R. (2005). Metaphor -and metonymy -based compounds in English: a cognitive linguistic approach. Acta Linguistica Hungarica , 52 (2-3), 173 -198. Brinton, L. J., & Brinton, D. (2010). The linguistic structure of modern English . John Benjamins Publishing. Crystal, D. (2012). Spell it out: the singular story of English spelling . Profile Books. Downing, P. (1977). On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language , 810 -842. TESOL and Technology Studies 23 Al Nagi, E., & Hamdan, M. (2009). Computerization and e -Government implementation in Jordan: Challenges, obstacles and successes. Government Information Quarterly, 26 (4), 577 -583. Gagné, C. L. (2002). Lexical and relational influe nces on the processing of novel compounds. Brain and Language , 81 (1-3), 723 -735. Hamawand, Z. (2011). Morphology in English: Word formation in cognitive grammar . London: New York: Continuum. Hamers, J. F., & Blanc, M. (2000). Bilinguality and Bilingualism . Cambridge University Press. Katamba, F. (2005). English words: Structure, history, usage . Psychology Press. Kim, S. N., & Baldwin, T. (2008). Benchmarking noun compound interpretation. In Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Volume -I. Libben, G. (1998). Semantic transparency in the processing of compounds: Consequences for representation, processing, and impairment. Brain and language , 61 (1), 30 -44. Mustafa, S. K. (2020). CATEGORIZATION OF COMPOUND NOUNS IN KURDISH AND ENGLISH. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Teaching , 23 (1), 104 -115. Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia‐Pacific Region. TESOL quarterly , 37 (4), 589 -613. Onysko, A. (2014). Figurative processes in meaning interpretation: A case study of novel English compounds. Yearbook of the German Cognitive Linguistics Association, 2 (1), 69. Quirk, R. (1973). A University Grammar of English . London: Longman. Rab abah, G. (2005). Communication problems facing Arab learners of English. Journal of Language and Learning , 3(1), 180 –197. Sag, I. A., Baldwin, T., Bond, F., Copestake, A., & Flickinger, D. (2002, February). Multiword expressions: A pain in the neck for NLP . In International conference on intelligent text processing and computational linguistics (pp. 1 -15). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Sandra, D. (1990). On the representation and processing of compound words: Automatic access to constituent morphemes does n ot occur. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology , 42A , 529 –567. Selkirk, E. O. (1982). The syntax of words. Linguistic Inquiry Monographs Cambridge, Mass, (7). Spencer, A. (1991). Morophological theory . Cambridge: MA: Blackwell Publisher. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2000). Task -Based Second Language Learning: The Uses of the First Language. Language Teaching Research , 4(3), 251 –274. Vorobeva, Y. (2016). Cognitive -pragmatic approach to the meaning of new compound nouns in English. International Journa l of Humanities and Social Science , 6(4), 117 -124. Translation Mistakes of Compound Nouns 24 Warren, B. (1978). Semantic patterns of noun – noun compounds . Goteborg: Acta University Gothoburgensis. Warschauer, M., Said, G. R. E., & Zohry, A. G. (2002). Language choice online: Globalization and iden tity in Egypt. Journal of Computer -Mediated Communication , 7(4), JCMC744. Yang, R., & Li, D. (2018, July). Differences between Translation of Chinese Compound Nouns into English Compound Constructions ‘Deverbal Noun -Noun’and ‘V. -ing -Noun’. In 3rd Internati onal Conference on Contemporary Education, Social Sciences and Humanities (ICCESSH 2018) (pp. 806 -811). Atlantis Press. Zibin, A., & Altakhaineh, A. R. M. S. (2018). An analysis of Arabic metaphorical and/or metonymical compounds: A cognitive linguistic ap proach. Metaphor and the Social World , 8(1), 100 -133.
I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
20 Studies in Literature and LanguageVol. 17, No. 2, 2018, pp. 20-24 DOI:10.3968/10603 Difficulties in Translating Compound Nouns From English Into Arabic Case Study: Jordan University /Aqaba Branch Mheel AL-Smaihyeen [a],* ; Ibrahem Bani Abdo [b]; Khalaf Al-Amer [c] [a]Lecturer. English Language and Literature, University of Jordan, Jordan. [b]Assistant Professor. English Language and Literature, University of Jordan, Jordan. [c]English Language and Literature, University of Jordan, Jordan.*Corresponding author. Received 20 June 2018; accepted 29 August 2018 Published online 26 October 2018 Abstract The aim of this study is to explore difficulties in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic at the University of Jordan /Aqaba Branch. This qualitative research included 15 Jordanian 4 th year students in the department of English, Faculty of Languages, the University of Jordan /Aqaba Branch. The findings reveal that cultural differences between both Arabic and English languages are some of the obstacles that face students to translate compound nouns from English to Arabic. Also, the findings reveal that the students are unfamiliar with this kind of compound nouns in Arabic, especially when they give different meaning. Key words: Compound noun; Cultural differences Mheel AL-Smaihyeen, Ibrahem Bani Abdo & Khalaf Al-Amer. (2018). Difficulties in Translating Compound Nouns from English into Arabic Case study: Jordan University /Aqaba Branch. Studies in Literature and Language , 17 (2), 20-24. Available from: http://www.cscanada.net/index.php/sll/article/view/10603 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968/10603 INTRODUCTION New words in English are invented almost daily, and a great part of these new words tend to be compounds. Compounds normally have two parts. First part usually tells about what kind of object or person is it, or what its purpose is. The second part indentifies the object or person in question. For instance, a friend zone is compound noun consists of two parts “friend’ and “zone”. Compound nouns often have a different meaning when they combined together. Compound nouns are usually written as one word, with or without a hyphen and also can be written closed (Jakobsen, 1992, p.33). They are usually (noun + noun), (verb + noun), (adjective +noun), (noun+ verb), (verb+ preposition), (noun+ prepositional phrase) (preposition + noun) or (noun + adjective). This creates some intriguing issues when it comes to translation as the more complicated compound nouns will typically require some kind of change when they are translated. Even though long compound nouns can simply be made with a string of separate words in English. Therefore, the current study attempts to investigate the problems of translating compound nouns among students in Jordan University /Aqaba branch. One of the main problem faces Arab students is translating compound nouns from English into Arabic. Compound nouns often have a different meaning when they combined. For example, “pineapple” is a compound word consist of two words pine and apple, when pine and apple combined together, they give a different meaning not related with pine and apple. Arabic students face problems in translating this kind of compound nouns. For example: Pineapple Or Pineapple Or Pineapple Beginner’s Arabic students could translate it literally, or translate first or second part of the word. Whereas students who know English well will translate it as “ “ Generally, the meaning of a compound noun is a specialization of the meaning of its head. The modifier limits the meaning of the head. This is most obvious in descriptive compounds, also known as endocentric compounds, in which the modifier is used in an attributive Copyright Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture ISSN 1923-1555[Print] ISSN 1923-1563[Online] www.cscanada.netwww.cscanada.org 21 Mheel AL-Smaihyeen; Ibrahem Bani Abdo (2018). Studies in Literature and Language, 17 (2), 20-24 or appositional manner. A whitefish is a particular kind of fish which is white, for instance. In determinative compounds, however, the relationship is not attributive. For example, a footstool is not a particular type of stool that is like a foot. Rather, it is a stool for one’s foot or feet. (It can be used for sitting on, but that is not its primary purpose.) In a similar manner, the office manager is the manager of an office, an armchair is a chair with arms, and a raincoat is a coat against the rain. These relationships, which are expressed by prepositions in English, would be expressed by grammatical case in other languages. Compounds of this type are also known as exocentric compounds. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW Translation had been used since the beginning of life following descendants of Noah, after the huge flood. Since then people began to use and develop meaning and conceptions of translation. For a formal definition, Dubois et al (1973, p.22) says “translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another source, language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences”. But it has already been suggested by many translation scholars such as Baker (1992) and Newmark (1988, p.91) that the notion of equivalence is problematic in the study of translation, and to overcome this problem, various translation strategies have been suggested by various authors within the field of translation.When it comes to the compounds, In English compounding is highly creative and innovative, and often used as a means of introducing new phrases or coining new words into the lexicon. In contrast, Arabic is less resourceful. Arabic does not possess similar multiword expressions as an integral linguistic mechanism that merges language items to form a unit of language that can be broken down into single words and display idiosyncratic features. (Sag et al., 2002). Amer (2004) pointed out many English compound nouns are rendered either by original nouns that Arabic already has in its stock as: sun-in –law /sihr/, he- goat /tays/, or by one –word nouns (or adjectives / participles functioning as nouns). Traditional grammarians believe that such Arabic compounds are derived from the trilateral verb form or from one of its derived forms, e.g. goldsmith / sa?igh/ (from the verb /sagha/), onlooker /mutafarrij/ from the verb /tafarraja/ (b) Some are rendered in Arabic by the structure N+Adj (+Adj ) ( the normal order in Arabic ),e.g. The Red Sea /al bahr al-ahmar / Although there is no one criterion to be used for a general definition of compounds in English as Quirk (1973, p.444) puts it, compounding can be defined as the process of adding two bases together to form a new lexical item. For example, when adding the bases “road” , “warning” , and “child” to bases “Lock”, “light” , and “like” , we can have new elements: road lock, child like, warning light. Dressler (2005) echoes and supports the view that compounding is widespread and common across linguistic processes and novel compounds can easily be constructed. Dressler (2005) classifies compounds into two types, based on the semantic properties of the head, as exocentric and endocentric compounds. Endocentric compounds have their heads within the compound itself, such as ‘Bluetooth’, while the heads of exocentric compounds must be inferred e.g. ‘hard headed. On the other hand, Jerema’s (2005) study is particularly pertinent to this present paper as it stresses the need for a multilingual approach to achieve a full understanding of compounds. Jerema (2005) indicates that compound information processing is best achieved through analyzing and finding out how compounds operate across a variety of languages. 2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Influence of the mother tongue and linguistic differences are considered the most difficulties that they face during the translation process. Translators must be aware of the SL and the TL. They encounter obstacles in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic because compounding does not play such an important part in Arabic. Consequently, this research is concerned with investigating the difficulties facing students in Jordan University. 3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE This research attempts to achieve the following research objectives: i. To investigate problems in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic. ii. To analyze the causes behind the problems of translating compound nouns from English into Arabic. 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study addresses the following research questions: i. What are difficulties in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic? ii. What are the causes behind the difficulties in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic? 5. METHODS OF THE STUDY In this study, the researcher followed the qualitative Copyright Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture 22 descriptive method. The population of this study consists of 15 fourth year BA English language and Literature students at Jordan University/ Aqaba branch for the academic year 2016-2017. The sample of the study is selected randomly that included 15 informants both males and females. This made about 80% of the overall population of the study. The researcher designed a test to collect data about the difficulties facing students in translating compound nouns. It is used to state two significant goals; the first is to make certain that the students make mistakes in translating compound nouns. The second is to determine the reasons behind these mistakes that are based on analyzing the answers of the students. The students were requested to translate 11 compound nouns into Arabic. They were also requested to mention the reasons for being able and unable to translate each compound noun. The results of the test were analyzed and studied to detect the reasons that stand behind difficulties in translating compound nouns. The researcher analyzed the test by using (SPSS) program in addition to textual analysis which discusses the results and mentions the factors that affect them. 6. DISCUSSIONS AND FINDINGS Having discussed the literature review and past studies on translation of compound words, this section discusses the analysis of the elicited data. The analysis of the data views the participants’ performance in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic. The data were analyzed based on different criteria as followings: i) translating first part, ii) translating first and second part literally, iii) translating second part, iv) irrelevant translation which contains unrelated translation, and no translation to the provided compound nouns. Table (1) displays the frequencies and percentages of translated compound nouns based on the four criteria. Figure 1 The Performance of the Translators in Translating Compound Nouns from English into Arabic. As shown in figure (1), the participants were provided with a number of compound nouns and they asked to translate them into Arabic. Figure (1) shows that 15% of the participants provided irrelevant and no translation to the given compound nouns, 21% provided translation for the first part of compound nouns, 36 % translated of the first and second part literary, and 28% provided translation for second part of the compound nouns. The next section provides a discussion on the translation of the idioms separately shown in frequencies and percentages for the translation of each idiom in English language as discussed below: Compound Noun 1: Small Talk This compound noun is formed by adjective “small” and noun “talk”. It means a conversation about things that are not important. 10 students (50%) translated it as conversation about things that are not important, often between people who do not know each other wellconversation about things that are not important, often between people who do not know each other well “ they translated the first and second part literally. 5 students (25%) translated the second part such as “ conversation about things that are not important , often between people who do not know each other well . 3 students (15%) translated first part “ ”. 2 students (10%) provided unrelated translation such as “ ” Compound Noun 2: Bellboy This compound noun used to refer a person whose job is to carry people’s cases to their rooms in a hotel. 12 students (60%) provided a literal translation for the first Copyright Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture Difficulties in Translating Compound Nouns from English into Arabic Case study: Jordan University /Aqaba Branch 23 Mheel AL-Smaihyeen; Ibrahem Bani Abdo (2018). Studies in Literature and Language, 17 (2), 20-24 and second part of the compound noun as which is meaningless. 4 students (20%) provided translation for the first part “ because they think a bellboy is a kind of bell. 2 students (10%) translated the second part “ ” when they asked about the reason of translating second part, they answered a bell is one of the personal characters. Only 2 students (10%) did not translation this compound noun. Compound Noun 3: Seashore 16 students (80%) translated first and second part literally” . 2 students (10%) translated the second part “ ” .Only 2 students (10 %) provided unrelated translation such as “ ”. Because this compound noun means exactly what they say, most of the students translated it correctly. Compound Noun 4: Deadline It means a point in time by which something must be done. 10 students (50%) translated it “ ”, when they asked about the reason for this translation, they replied that they are familiar with this translation. 4 students (20%) translated the first and second part literally “ . 2 students (10%) provided unrelated translation such as “ ” .Only 4 students (20%) did not provide any translation for this compound noun. Compound Noun 5: Butterfly It is used to refer a flying insect with a long thin body and four large. None of the students translated it correctly because it has meanings that have nothing to do with the meanings of the individual words involved. 6 students (30%) translated it “ , they thought it could be kind of butter, they translated just the first part. 7 students (35%) translated the second part as “ ”. Compound Noun 6: Toothpaste This compound noun means a paste for cleaning the teeth. Many students translated it correctly as“ ”. 14 students (70%) translated it correctly. When they asked about the correct translation, they said we are familiar with this compound noun and we learnt in many compound nouns, the first word usually describes or modifies the second word, giving us insight into what kind of thing an item is, or providing us with clues about the item’s purpose. The second word usually identifies the item. Two students (10%) translated the first part “ ” . Three students (15 %) translated it as “ ”. Only one student provided no translation. Compound Noun 7: Deadlock Compound nouns could be written one word as “deadlock” or close words. It means a complete failure to reach agreement or settle an argument. 6 students (30%) translated the first part such as “ ”. 5 students (25%) translated the second part only as “ ” 3 students(15%) translated the first and second part literally “ ” 3 students (15%) provide unrelated translation like “ ” 3 students (15 %) did not provide any translation. None of the students translate it correctly because they are unfamiliar with it, and this compound noun has meaning that has nothing to do with the meanings of the individual words involved. Compound Noun 8: Mother-in-Law A compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words. Each word makes up part of the meaning of the noun. Mother-in-law is a compound word composed of three words. It means the mother of one’s spouse. 6 students (30%) translated every word such as “ ” .3 students (15%) translated first part only “ ”. 5 students (25%) translated it correctly “ ”. 4 students (20%) provide unrelated translation, for example, “ ”, “ ”,and “ ”. Only two students (10%) provided no translation. Compound Noun 9: Garden Rocket It means a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests. 13 students (65%) translated first and second part literally. For example, “ ”. 3 students (15%) translated first part “ ”. 2 students (10%) translated second part only “ ” 2 students (10%) provide unrelated translation. None of the students provide correct translation. Compound Noun 10: Hanger – on A person who remains in a place or attaches himself or herself to a group, another person, etc. Hanger –on is composed of a noun and a preposition. It is translated into Arabic in different ways. 12 students (60%) translated the noun hanger, such as “ ”, “ ” . 7 students (35%) translated it correctly “ ” . Only one student (5%) provided unrelated translation. Compound Noun 11: Bookworm Bookworm is a person who likes reading very much. Because the students learned the first word usually describes or modifies the second word and the second word usually identifies the item, 13 students (65%) translated it as “ ”3 students (15%) translated the second part only “ ”. 2 students (10%) provided unrelated translation. 2 students (10%) did not provide any translation. CONCLUSION By way of concluding, it can be said that there are several difficulties face Arab students in translating compound nouns from English into Arabic. Linguistic differences is one of the main difficulties in translating process Copyright Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture 24 because students translate compound nouns literally and do not know when they combined together they give different meanings sometimes. Most of English students at the University of Jordan / Aqaba when they asked to translate compound nouns from English to Arabic, they did not translate correctly because cultural and linguistic differences. REFERENCES Amer, W. (2004). Futurity in English and Arabic. Alqsa University Journal . Baker, M. (1992). In other words: A course book on translation. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.1515/cllt-2013-0018 Dressler, W. U., & Ladanyi, M. (2000). Productivity in word formation: A morphological approach. Acta Linguistica Hurzgarica, 47(1-4), 103-144. Dubois , M. J. (1999). Literature review and theoretical framework. New York: Academic Press. Jakobsen, A. L. (1992). Oversættelse af komposita i fagsproglige tekster (Eng-da/da-eng). Journal of Linguistics, 5(8), 29-42. Libben, G., & Jarema, G. (Eds.). (2005). The representation and processing of compound words. Oxford University Press Newmark, P. (1988). “A text book of translation”. Prentice Hall New York London Toronto Sydney Tokyo. Quirk, R. (1973). A university Grammar of English. London: Longman. Sag, I., Baldwin, T., Bond, F., Copestake, A., & Flickinger, D. (2002). Multiword expressions: A pain in the neck for NLP. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing., CICLing ’02., London, UK. Springer-Verlag, 1-15. Copyright Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture Difficulties in Translating Compound Nouns from English into Arabic Case study: Jordan University /Aqaba Branch
I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
216 Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 Pp. 216 -231 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa : A Contrastive Analysis Mohammad Bin Naser Department of English Language and Literature Kuwait University , Kuwait Abstract The present study investigates the hurdles of deciphering the figurative meaning of English compounds and Arabic constr uct phrases, known as id ̣āfa when they are under the detailed scrutiny of translation. For this purpose, a contrastive linguistic analysis of both multi -word items was conducted in order to show any syntactic and semantic similarity in their behaviour. Thi s analysis was also supported by the conceptual examination of their translation. The findings have shown that compounds and id ̣āfa , in terms of figurative sense, are semantically similar, but are syntactically different. In terms of translation, results s how that they pose a metaphorical and cultural threat to the Arab translator, who might be tempted to translate them literally in case s/he fails to understand the hidden meaning. Producing accurate translation equivalents for these items cannot be achieve d without knowing their metaphorical senses and the ability to provide natural and acceptable equivalents in the target language. Keywords: Exocentric Compounds, id ̣āfa , Metaphor, Metonomy, Translation Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 217 Introduction One of the most noticeable prob lems of translation, in English and Arabic, is the non -literal lexical words that cannot be rendered word for word. These lexical items are ready -made and must be understood metaphorically in order to produce an accurate translation in the target language. However, the Arab translator might not be aware of the hidden non -literal, and sometimes cultural, meaning that affects his/her translation. The paper examines specific lexical items that capture this problem in Arabic and English phraseology, which are t he English compounds and Arabic id ̣āfa . It dedicates a section on their linguistic behaviour in terms of their semantic and syntactic structures then focuses on the difficulties of their translation in the two languages. 1. English Compounds Compoundin g, as Plag (2003, p. 132) argues, is “the most productive type of word – formation process in English, >and ذ … is perhaps also the most controversial one in terms of its linguistic analysis.”. He basically defines compounds as a “combination of two words to f orm a new word” (2003, p. 133) and then elaborates more precisely by noting that a compound is “a word that consists of two elements, the first of which is either a root, a word or a phrase, the second of which is either a root or a word.” (Plag, 2003, p. 135). Regarding the structure of compounds, Ball (1939, p. 68) points out that compounds are either hyphenated like cold -blooded or is a solid compound, like bridesmaid . Plag states that the left -hand member modifies the right -hand member in English comp ounds. For instance, the compound film society can be interpreted as a kind of a society that is concerned with films. Other examples include knee -deep and parks commissioner where the former refers to the deepness of water, while the latter is interpreted as a commissioner occupied with parks. The structure these compounds exhibit is called a modifier -head structure, which means that the head in these compounds is modified by the other member of the compound. (2003, p. 135). In addition, Plag elaborates on compound heads by pointing out the right -hand head rule, which explains how compounds function. The rule basically states that most of the syntactic and semantic information the compound inherits are from the head. Thus, a compound is a verb if the head is a verb like in deep -fry , a compound is a noun if the head is a noun like beer bottle or a compound has a feminine gender if the head has a feminine gender like head waitress (2003, p. 135). Plag also states that if the compound is pluralised then the h ead is pluralised and not the non -head. For example, park commissioners is the plural of park commissioner and not parks commissioner . Moreover, Plag states that there are different compounding patterns in English and it is the same in many languages, but he solidly emphasises the fact that words from all word classes do not combine freely to form compounds. According to Plag, compounding patterns can be established according to the nature of their heads, which means that compounds may have nominal heads, verbal heads, and adjectival heads. Still, Plag claims that there are occasions where classifying compounds based on the syntactic category of their heads may not be as clear as it should be because there are several words in English which belong to more t han one category. For example, walk can be a verb and a noun; blind can be an adjective, a verb and a noun. Plag (2003, p. 142) then categorises compounds into four major categories: Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 218 1-Nominal compounds (N): e.g. N. film society e.g. V. pickpocket e.g. Adj . greenhouse e.g. Prep. afterbirth. 2-Verbal compounds (V) e.g. N. brainwash e.g. V. stir -fry e.g. Adj. blackmail e.g. Prep. downgrade 3-Adjectival compounds (A) e.g. N. knee -deep e.g. V ࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿ e.g. Adj. light -green e.g. Prep. inbuilt 4-Prepositional compounds (P) e.g. N. ࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿ e.g. V. breakdown e.g. Adj. ࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿࣿ e.g. Prep. Into Munat notes that that compounds belong to a word class and can be identified by their head constituent, while nominal compounds are ‘part of the word class known as nouns, serving to identify objects, people, or concepts’ (2002, p. 148). These nominal compounds, as Plag points out, fall into three subclasses and are: nominal compounds involving a noun as a non – head, nominal compounds involving a verb as a verb -head and nominal compounds involving an adjective as a non -head. In English, nominal compounds are the most common type of compounds and most are right -headed. Still, nominal compounds, as Plag (2003, p. 145) maintains are not easy to analyse, e.g. laser printer, letterhead, bookcover, redneck , loudmouth, greybeard, pickpocket, cut -throat, and spoilsport. The compounds laser printer , letterhead , and bookcover are examples of nominal compounds denoting a subclass of the referents of the head: a laser printer is a kind of printer, a bookcover is a kind of a cover and a letterhead is the head or top of the letter. Plag states that “the semantic head of these compounds is inside the compound, which is the r eason why these compounds are called endocentric compounds.” (2003, p. 145). On the other hand, the compounds redneck , loudmouth , greyhound , pickpocket , cut -throat , and spoilsport are not endocentric compounds but rather exocentric compounds, which, accord ing to Plag, mean that their semantic head is outside the literal meaning of the compound. These compounds refer to persons since redneck is a kind of a person and not a kind of neck. Similarly, loudmouth and spoilsport denote types of persons and not a ki nd of a mouth or sport, as the former refers to a kind of person and the latter to a person who spoils other people’s good time. The adjectival type of compound, as Plag (2003, p. 152) notes, can have nouns or adjectives as non -heads. The non -heads in adjectival compounds can function as a modifier or as an argument for the head. Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 219 Plag argues that compounds such as blood -red , dog -lean , and knee -deep can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the semantics of the members of the compound and on the relationship between them. Blood -red means red like blood, dog -lean means lean as a dog and knee -deep means deep to the height of the knees. The interpretation here involves a comparison and quite often the first element functions as an intensifier in t hese compounds. (2003, p. 152). On the other hand, the first element in compounds like sugar -free , structure -dependent , and girl -crazy functions as an argument position for the adjective and appears next to a preposition when interpreted by the reader. Fo r instance, there is free of sugar , dependent on structure and crazy for girls . In the case of the verbal compounds, the following sets illustrate the three types of verbal compounds: 1-Noun as non -head e.g. proof -read, chain -smoke, ghost -write 2-Adje ctive as non -head e.g. deep -fry , shortcut, blindfold 3-Verb as non -head e.g. stir -fry, dry -clean , freeze -dry Plag argues that the best way to analyse verbal compounds is through back -formation or conversion process. Therefore, the compounds in (1) a re back -formations from nominal compounds such as proof -reading or ghost -writer . On the other hand, the compounds in (2) are involved with conversion as in to take a shortcut or to blindfold . However, Plag also argues that the compounds in (3) are the pro duct of neither back -formation nor conversion since they refer to events that involve two events joined together. For example stir -fry means to stir and fry simultaneously. Even though Plag demonstrates the nature of compounds and the various types of co mpounds, he does not elaborate on the relationship between the two (or three) elements of the compound. On the other hand, Warren’s study (1978) sheds light on this relationship and determines the nature of the semantic relationship of the two components o f the compound. Warren’s study does focus only on noun -noun compounds. 1.2. Warren’s Semantic Patterns of Noun -Noun Compounds Warren points out that there are four types of semantic classes for these compounds. The first type expresses the constitution a nd resemblance class, the second class expresses belonging to, the third class displays location and the fourth class expresses purpose and activity as follows. 1.2.1. Constitution and Resemblance In this type, Warren (1978: 82) includes two classes of c ompounds. The first includes the Source -Result compounds, which Warren defines as “compounds in which what is indicated by one member is that which wholly constitutes what is indicated by the other member.” (1978, p. 82). Also, Warren subdivides source -res ult compounds into the Material -Artefact, Matter -Shape, Parts -Whole and Non -Material Substance -Whole. Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 220 The second class of compounds in the constitution and resemblance is the Copula compound. They are defined as compounds “in which both members can be said to be two alternative “names” for the same referent.” (Warren, 1978, p. 82). Similarly, this class of compounds is subdivided into the Attributive, Subsumptive and Adjective -Like Modifier. 1-Source -Result compounds The first subdivision of the Source -Re sults compounds is Material Artefact. Warren points out that the source noun indicates that the source “must have the feature + Material for a compound to fit in this group.” (1978, p. 82). Examples of this compound category are paper sack , leather belt , silver bowl and tin cup . In addition, the result noun must have “the feature + Man -made and + Concrete.” (Warren, 1978, p. 83). For example, there are rubber boots , cornbread , steel roof and brick wall . These compounds permit a prepositional paraphrase whic h involves of, for instance, bowl of silver and door of metal . Further, Warren argues that the Material -Artefact compounds are not problematic since it is possible to describe their semantic nature. The second subdivision of Source -Result compounds is Ma tter -Shape compounds. The result noun here suggests the shape or form of the substance which is indicated by the source – noun. The result noun may be the result of main activity such as gold leaf , land site or land plot , or the shape is natural for the sou rce -noun to occur like raindrop , airwave or silicone fluid . (Warren, 1978, p. 85). Next subdivision is the Parts -Whole compounds. In this type of compound, A represents the parts or the whole of B. The source -noun, as Warren states, is necessarily countab le like student group , two -storey mansion , 34 -hour week or National Symphony Orchestra League . Moreover, the result -noun is a noun that indicates a plural quantity like class , group or team . The result -noun may also indicate a whole of the subcomponent as indicated by the source -noun like two -part bridge or four -lane freeway . (1978, p. 88) The fourth subdivision is the Non -Material Substances -Whole compounds. Warren states that the Source -noun and the Result -noun in this kind of compound indicate an abstra ct entity with an abstract connection between them like tax -exemption , divorce case or family -community . In addition, Warren divides the Non -Material Substances -Whole into two subgroups; the Tennis – Match compounds and the Subject Matter -Whole compounds. R egarding the Tennis -Match compounds, Warren points out that “A and B are combined in these combinations to express an abstract Source -Result relation, A representing the non -material Substance, sometimes implying Cause which constitutes B, the Whole or the Outcome.” (1978, p. 92). Examples of this compound are tennis match , sandwich snacks and base -ball game . Regarding Subject -Matter – Whole compounds, in this compound, A implies information about B which is the Whole of A. For example, drainage problem impli es that drainage constitutes a problem. A similar example is language problem which implies that people do not understand other languages which of course is a problem. (1978, p. 93). 2-Copula compounds According to Warren, these compounds “consist of noun s that are alternative names for the same referent.” (1978, p. 98), and she divides them into Attributive, Subsumptive and Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 221 Adjective -like Comment -Noun. Regarding Attributive Copula compounds, Warren states that if A indicates status, age, sex, or race of B , then B is animate as in baby brother , veteran salesman , free -lance investigator or Baptist teetotaler . However, if A indicates the function or sometimes the kind of B, then B is inanimate like nursery school , market place , or ransom money or gala concert . In the case of Subsumptive Copula compounds, Warren argues that compounds with an animate B like hound dog , codfish or bossman are few. Compounds with an inanimate B are greater where which A represents B’s function such as study room or hotel building or the subspecies of B like guerilla war or maple trees (1978, p. 101). As for Adjective -like Comment compounds, as the name says, Warren points out that adjectives are part of these compounds. The Comment -Noun here “suggests properties rather than entities , which is shown by the fact that synonyms of the comment -noun are often adjectives and not nouns.” (1978, p. 101). For example, there are chief store , fellow student , key issue and favourite painting . 1.2.2. Belonging To In this second type of Warren’s compound classes, three divisions occur: Whole -Part, Part -Whole and Size -Whole. 1-Whole -Part In this type of compound A indicates the whole of B which is the part of A, which is illustrated in four subdivisions. The first subdivision is Object -Part comp ounds. A here is concrete and so is B, however A is inanimate. There are examples of this compound where A is a building, room, plant, area or a body and B is a part of a body like prison door , hotel porch , garlic clove , lobby floor or eyelid or ghetto wal l. (Warren, 1978, p. 126). The second subdivision is Group -Member compounds. A here is a group of people, organisation, or community and B is a member of this group like family man or union member . In addition, B may have a function as a member of a subuni t like school board . The third subdivision is Object -Geometrical Outline compounds. B here may be the top or base of A like roof top , cigarette butts , or may be the width or height of A like heart girth or water level , or the centre of A like nerve cent re, or may be the front or side of A like pool -side or water front , or may be the corner of A like street corner or loophole . (1978, p. 131). The fourth subdivision is the Residual Cases. B here is not part of A in the same sense as in the previous divisio ns. However, it is linked or is belonging to A like bank customers or TV audience where B is animate. It may also be inanimate in examples like telephone number or household chore . (1978, p. 133). 2-Part -Whole This second class of belonging to compounds h as three subtypes of compounds under it. The first type is the OBJ -Place where B indicates the place or container of the occurring entities like flower garden or featherbed . B may also indicate the time of A in OBJ -Time type compounds like golf season or springtime . (1978, p. 146). The third type of the Part -Whole is the Part -OBJ where it is the reverse of Whole -Part compounds. B here may indicate the feature of A as in high -speed buses or top -quality hand -gun , or it may be the possessor and defined by the possession like gunman or horseman . (1987, p. 148). Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 222 3-Size -Whole The third type of belonging to compounds has five subtypes of compounds under it. A may refer to the physical size of B like 19 -foot female or half -mile track . It may also indicate the duration of B as in 4-year contract , a ten -hour day or a full -time student (1978, p. 153). Warren also states that it may indicate a currency as in $200 dinner or it may indicate the power size as in 20 -megaton bomb . Finally it may indicate the position on a value scale like low -class crook . (1978, p. 155). 1.2.3 Location This is the third type of Warren’s compound classes and it has four classes: Goal -Object, Place -Object, Time -Object and Origin -Object. In Goal -Object, A indicates the place the aim of B is directed toward, which represents its goal. For example, moon rocket or downhill trend . (1978, p. 163). The second compound class is the Place -Object where A represents the place of B and may indicate a concrete place -concrete, inanimate entity like ghet to street , home offices and island base . It may indicate a concrete place -animate entity like farm people , hospital nurse and classmate and may also indicate a concrete place -abstract entity like school dance and workshop session . In addition, A may repres ent an abstract -place -concrete entity like school friend and World Series hero . Finally, A may represent an abstract place -abstract entity like law degree and showbiz career . (1978, p. 174). The third compound class is Time -Object where A represents a pe riod or a point of time. A here may indicate a time -animate entity like weekend guests and afternoon clerk , and it may represent a time -concrete, inanimate entity like night club , Sunday paper and Friday mail . (1978, p. 179). B may, just like A, represent a time or an event resulting from a human activity like Thursday evening or summer music festival . The fourth compound class in the Location compounds is Origin -Object, which includes two main groups; one is the Place of Origin -Object, and the other is the Causer Result group. The former group may indicate a place of origin with an animate entity where B is animate and A is the background like Harlem boy and Hollywood girls . A also may represent the place of origin of an inanimate entity which is B as in hospital bill , welfare check and government funds . (1978, p. 184). The second group of Origin -Object is the Causer Result compound. A here is not the place of origin, but rather the causer of B. A may be inanimate like bullet hole , hay fever and poll fig ures or animate like student newspaper , Nobel prize and Christian Dior shoes . (1978, p. 186). 1.2.4 Purpose and Activity The fourth and last type of Warren’s compound classes expresses purpose and activity whereas in purpose -class B as Warren points o ut it “may be an object, an event or an animate being, is defined by the indication of its purpose.” (1978, p. 197). Warren uses the two linguistic terms Goal and Instrumental in this class to deal with the semantic roles. B as an instrument may be a conta iner for the goal of containing A as in mail box , beer bottle, and salad plates . B may also be a place for fixing or putting A like drink tray and flag -stick . In addition, B may be a vehicle for transporting A as in sewer pipe and laundry truck . (1978, p. 201). Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 223 Furthermore, B may be defined by A in which A indicates the intended place for B as in tablecloth , bedside table, or table spoon . Also, A may be used to indicate the event or social activity of B like sports car , evening gown or emergency telephone . However, other compounds in this class have A as the Goal or event to define B which is the time of the event as in dinnertime and labour day . (1978, p. 204). Moreover, A may be the Goal that is achieved by the Instrumental/Causer, which is B as in car ke y and teaspoon . Finally, B may be an object intended for use by a body part, which is the Causer A, such as football, hand grenade and mouthpiece . (1978, p. 208). In the activity class, B may refer to a single animate being, a group of people or an organ isation. In the case of a single human being, it may refer to one with a specific reference like probation officer , Foreign Secretary, or Mortgage banker . In the case of a group of people reference, we may have compounds like Bible Society and Foreign Rela tions committee , while in the case of organisational reference, we may have compounds like fire department , power company and personnel office . (1978, p. 212). The above classes demonstrate that the constituents of the compound have a semantic relationshi p that then affects the compound. However, Warren’s pattern of nominal compounding has not been without criticism. Benczes (2006, p. 34) argues that this pattern covers the endocentric compounds and does not pay attention to the metaphorical exocentric one s. According to Benczes, the only way to interpret and understand these compounds is by analysing conceptual metaphor and metonomy. She states that metaphor is “based upon two entities that resemble one another.” (2006, p. 48), while metonomy is when “we a re using one entity or thing to provide mental access to another thing that is related to it in some way.” (2006, p. 51). Moreover, Benczes points out that conceptual metaphor and metonomy act upon compounds on either one or both of the compound constitu ents (modifier and profile determinant). For example, the compound heartland is an example of a metaphor -based modifier, which means the central part of a land or country, where heart is a metaphor for the central location of the land. Thus, the modifier s pecifies the location of land . (2006, p. 91). In addition, Benczes includes jailbird , which means a person serving a prison sentence, as an example of a metaphor -based profile determinant. Benczes argues that in order to interpret this compound we have t o understand the concept of the two inputs involved: the source domain ‘imprisoned person’ and the target domain ‘caged bird’. The compound here illustrates the imprisoned person as an image of a caged bird, and, therefore, links the two domains yielding a blend of the two concepts manifested in the compound. (2006, p. 97). Furthermore, Benczes shows that there are occasions where both the modifier and the profile determinant are metaphorical. For example flame sandwich, which means a note consisting of a negative comment between two positive comments, is an example of compounds with three concepts. The first is a ‘sandwich’ domain, the second is a ‘line of comment’ domain, and the third is ‘argument/fire’ domain. Benczes indicates that the negative comment is situated between the positive ones which are metaphorically similar to the filling of a sandwich situated between two slices of bread. The second domain is illustrated by the following: the slices of bread are the positive ones while the sandwich filli ng is the negative one and the third domain is Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 224 understood by linking argument to flame metaphorically. The reason for choosing flame instead of fire is because, as Benczes logically argues, there is an element of suddenness with in flame and it is not as b ig as fire which is followed by a positive comment (2006, p. 105). In addition, Benczes argues that metonomy also plays a part in yielding creative compounding. For example, phone neck , mouse wrist and Nintendo thumb are compounds with metonomy in both co nstituents. These examples denote the pain caused by using the aforementioned gadgets; therefore, phone neck is metonymical for the pain felt in the neck caused by the holding of the phone for a long period of time. The same interpretation applies to the o ther compounds (2006, p. 156). Indeed, the creative compounds that Benczes demonstrates are metaphorical and metonymical, which means that the only way to interpret them is that we have to understand the source and the target domains involved along with their conceptual blending. Therefore, any text that includes these compounds will puzzle translators since they carry non -literal meanings. The two studies of Warren and Benczes focused on the semantic content of compounds. Warren’s study focused on the semantic classes of nominal compounds based on the purpose, location, constitution, and belonging and provided examples for all types. This study is one of the most important studies in compounding because of the detailed classification of nominal compound s and the semantic relationship between the components. However, Warren’s semantic focus was on endocentric compounds, which can be understood by interpreting the literal meaning of the components of the compound. Indeed, all the examples provided by Warre n were understood by rendering the compound word for word. Yet, Warren did not cover the exocentric compounds, the ones that cannot be understood by interpreting the components of the compound. On the other hand, the study of Benczes shows that the literal interpretation of compounds is not always applicable because of the metaphorical meaning of the exocentric compounds. In fact, the analysis of the conceptual metaphor and metonomy is the only way to interpret the meaning of the exocentric compounds, as sh own in her examples. Both studies are significant because they refer to the semantic content of compounds, with each study focusing on a type of compounds (endocentric/exocentric) and indicate the meaning they have. The difference between the two studies i s that Warren’s study refers to the endocentric compounds only, whereas both the endocentric and exocentric compounds are included in Benczes’s study. Foreign language learners can benefit from both studies, but relying on the classification of Warren is n ot enough for the understanding of the English compounds. 2. Arabic Id ̣āfa Like English, Arabic includes a two item combination in its linguistic repertoire. Emery (1988, p. 34) states that the components of this item in Arabic are referred to as words ঝ੶ধملك or as a root. However, Emery also argues that roots in Arabic cannot form compounds since they cannot occur independently. Likewise, Ryding (2005, p. 205) notes that “in Arabic, two nouns may be linked together in a relationship where the second nou n determines the first by identifying, limiting, or defining it; thus the two nouns function as one phrase or syntactic unit”. Ryding states that this Arabic linguistic item is ণةঝ੶ৎখ id ̣āfa whereas in English, the item is referred to as a ‘genitive constru ct’, ‘construct phrase’ or ‘annexation structure’. Emery notes that Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 225 id ̣āfa in Arabic also has a head ঝ੶৏م modifier ੶هيখ ঝ੶৏م type and can be divided in endocentric and exocentric id ̣āfa , which are similar to the English ones. Ryding (2005, p. 205), on th e other hand, elaborates by pointing out that the first noun ঝ੶৏ميজ has “neither the definite article nor nunation because it is in an ”annexed” state, as determined by the second noun” while the second noun ੶੶هيখ ঝ੶੶৏ميজ is “marked either for definiteness or indefiniteness, and is always in the genitive case.” (2005, p. 205). Emery points out that the construct ণةঝ੶ৎখ id ̣āfa is “a typically Arabic construction. The “idafa [sic] is primarily a structure in which two nouns or nominals are linked together in a head/modifier relation” (1988, p. 36). Moreover, Hassan (1975, III, p. 3 -29, cited in Emery) divides id ̣āfa into two types: namely, pure ণ੶৏঳م and not pure ণ੶৏঳م ঽ੶هغ , and points out that the head in the former is an inanimate underived noun and is not separ ated from the modifier, while the first element in the latter is animate and is a derived or deverbal noun and is separated from the modifier by a pronoun. This point is echoed by Al -Khateeb and Mosluh (2002, p. 95), who elaborate by pointing out that the reason pure id ̣āfa s are termed ‘real’ id ̣āfa is because the function of the modifier is to define or specify the head and link relation between them. Likewise, Ryding (2005, p. 221) maintains that ‘unreal’, ‘false’ or ‘unpure’ compounds are called ‘adjective’ id ̣āfa because the adjective serves as the first term where it acts as the modifier of the noun. Ryding elaborates by stating that this adjective ”may take the definite article if the phrase modifies a definite noun”, which then violates the general rule of gen itive structure. This ‘adjective’ id ̣āfa , as Ryding (2005, p. 222) asserts, is frequent in Modern Standard Arabic because of its use to express newly coined, ‘long -range’ terms. Also, Ryding stresses that the first term of the adjective id ̣āfa does not have the definite article when modi fying an indefinite noun, e.g. They are called evergreen trees ণ੶مচজস জ়ঝয੶৆঒ م੶ৃদ ঢঽ੶৏ষيজ (the adjective id ̣āfa as a predicate of an equational sentence modifying an indefinite noun). Moreover, the first term of the adjective id ̣āfa , according to Ryding (2 005, p. 223), does not have the definite article when serving as the predicate of an equational sentence, in which it agrees with the noun it refers to in case, number and gender, e.g. The Earth is circular in shape ل৫েيজ ণله৓ধৃم ৌ়ਆজ . In addition, Eid (2005, p. 438) argues that pure id ̣āfa can have the meaning of the preposition ੶ة (in, at, on). For example, ়জহ੶يজ হهد੶৆ ঝ੶مফع means ‘uthmān the martyr in the house’. The pure id ̣āfa can also have the meaning of the preposition ੶م ‘min’ (of, from). For i nstance, ট੶ه঺ مদঝশ is ‘a ring of gold’, or could be a definite article م੶يজ as in ণ੶مਆজ ঢ়ঝ੶৏ল meaning ‘the nations’ civilisation’. Furthermore, Ryding (2005, p. 206) states that there are different types of id ̣āfa. She provides examples with each type as follows: 1-Identity relationship In this type, the second noun defines or explains the ‘particular identity’ of the first noun. For example: Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 226 e.g. Starfish ঽ঳ডيজ ণمযن e.g. A police officer ৑ঠঝৎيজ ণ৐ঽে 2-Possessive relationship The first noun in thi s type belongs to the second noun, e.g. The leaders of the tribes لচঝডقيজ ࣾঝمعা 3-Partitive relationship Ryding states that in a partitive relationship “the annexed term (the first term) serves as a determiner to describe a part or quantity of the annexi ng term” (2005, p. 206). Ryding also notes that this should include a quantifier noun, such as ‘some’, ‘all’ or ‘most’, numbers and superlative constructions. e.g. Most of the seats হعঝقميজ مظعم (definite) e.g. A quarter of a Riyal ريال عঠ় (indefinite) 4-Agent relationship The second term, as Ryding notes, is the agent of the action, while the first term is the name of the action, e.g. The squeaking of the door ঞঝডيজ ঽيঽ৊ . 5-Object relationship Ryding (2005, p. 208) points out that the second term in this type of structure is the object of an action and the first term is “either the name of the action, or an active participle that refers to the doer of the action” (2005, p. 208). The following examples illustrate that the first term is a verbal noun t hat then refers to the action. e.g. The solution of the problems لكঝেميজ لল (definite) e.g. Opening fire ়ঝنيজ ৤م৐খ (indefinite) On the other hand, the following examples show that the active participle, which is the first term, denotes the doer of the action, e.g. The decision -makers ়জঽقيজ وعنঝ৊ (definite) 6-Compositional relationship Ryding (2005, p. 209) also states that the second noun in this type of strucutre expresses the nature of the first noun, e.g. Bouquets of flowers ়وهা তঝقঝঠ and A chain of mountains ৬ঝডম ণلৃلূ . 7-Measurement relationship Ry ding maintains that in this type of structure, the first noun expresses “the nature of the measurement and the second (and third) the extent or the measurement itself” (2005: 209), e.g. A stone’s throw ঽয঳يজ مঽم and a kilo of bananas ولهكيজ াوم . 8-Conte nts relationship In this type, Ryding simply states that the first noun denotes a container while the second noun denotes its contents, e.g. Boxes of gold টه঻يজ قيসঝن৊ . 9-Purpose relationship Here, the particular purpose or use of the first term is explained or defined by the second term, e.g. A rescue plane ঺ঝقنਈজ ঢঽচঝ৐ and Greeting cards ণছندধيজ তঝقঝ৓ঠ . Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 227 10 -Quotations or Title relationship Ryding (2005, p. 210) indicates that in this type the second term is a quotation or a title where “the w ords of the title or quotation in quotation marks are considered to be set off from the case – marking requirements of the second term of the id ̣āfa , and are inflected independently, not necessarily in the genitive” (Ryding, 2005, p. 210), e.g. The book The Thousand and One Nights ণلهيو ণلهي في঒ ঞঝধك and A lecture entitled ”The Middle East and its Challenges” জونعঠ ঢঽৎঝ঳م ” দঝيহ঳দو ৑ূوਆজ ৤ঽেيজ” . As for Emery (1988, p. 37), he classifies Arabic noun and adjective id ̣āfa according to the various types of meaning relationships as follows: 1-Endocentric id ̣āfa : a. Noun Head + Noun Modifier i-‘Head that is a modifier’, e.g. ঽধঠو৫هله ঢঽচঝ৐ ‘helicopter’ ī-‘Head that belongs to/comes from the modifier’, e.g. مدৃيজ ী঒় ‘arrowhead’ īi-‘Head contains/is made up of a modifier’, e.g. عচঝ৏ডيজ ণنهৣূ ‘cargo ship’. iv-‘Head is verb -ed by modifier’, e.g. ণي়ঝষঠ ণنهৣূ ‘steamship’ v-‘Head that is like the modifier’, e.g. ণهচঝ৐ ঢঽ৓ৃم ‘T-square’ b. Deverbal / Noun Head + Deverbal / Noun Modifier 1-‘Head of the modifier (modifier being the goal), e.g. ণي঻লਆজ عنঝ৊ ‘shoemaker’ ī-‘Head + modifier’ (modifier being location, time), e.g. ণ੶ظقهيজ م੶لল ‘daydream’ or ণ੶ع়িميজ ل੶مঝع ‘farm worker’ īi-‘Head that is a modifier+s), e.g. ণدমজوميজ ৬وস ‘confrontati on states’ iv-‘Head that is Modifier+ed), e.g. مেيজ রمم঒ ‘smelling salts’ v-‘Head at / on / where something is modifier -ed’, e.g. عডেধيজ ণ৓قن ‘saturation point’ 2-Exocentric id ̣āfa Emery argues that exocentric id ̣āfa are not ”apparently produ ctive in MSA” (1988, p. 38). He uses a couple of examples from Classical Arabic, such as وঐ ੶ঠখ ‘jackal’ and ীজঽ੶মਆজ তজ঺ ‘rattlesnake’. Most importantly, Arabic id ̣āfa have their own contexts as al -Hagawi (2005, p. 172) argues. Al -Hagawi demonstrates that the modifier of the Arabic id ̣āfa appears after an adverb of time or place. For instance, there is ঽ੶دظيজ ل੶ডق ‘before noon’, রঝড੶োيজ ঻੶نم ‘since morning’, يঽ੶োقيজ ه੶ঠ ‘between the two castles’, or ঝ੶مধমਈজ ৬م੶শ ‘during the meeting’. In all these examp les, the modifier comes after the adverbs of time and place. Thus, the modifiers are ঽ੶دظيজ , রঝড੶োيজ , يঽ੶োقيজ , and ঝ੶مধমਈজ . Also, the modifiers come after numbers such as ঽد੶৆঒ ণধ੶ূ ‘six months’, হ੶نম ف੶ي঒ ‘a thousand soldiers’, িমو੶م ঩੶يঝপ ‘third news(flash )’ or ়روস و੶هلم ‘million dollars’. Another context is after the superlative adjectives as in ‘the smallest creature’, ‘best case/condition’ or ‘the greatest explorer’. Clearly, the modifier in these id ̣āfa is ৤و੶لষم ঽر੶৊঒ ‘the smallest creature’, ৬ঝ੶ল ل੶৏ة঒ ‘best condition’ and هৣ੶েধ৫ميজ م੶ظع঒ ‘the greatest explorer’. Finally, modifiers may come after dependent words, as in জঽ੶৐ਆজ ع੶همম ‘all parties’, ه੶োষেيজ م੶ك ‘both persons’ or ীঝ੶نيজ ل੶ك ‘all the people’. As shown in these examples, the modifiers are ঽ৐ਆজ জ , ীঝنيজ and هোষেيজ . 3. Translating English Compounds and Arabic Id ̣āfa Based on the above discussion, compounds and id ̣āfa are some of the most creative linguistic entities in English and in Arabic. They make languages economical since two words or Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 228 con cepts can be introduced as one linguistic item. Compounds and id ̣āfa share certain characteristics, such as having a head and a modifier as components of their compounds and having endocentric and exocentric types. Most Arabic endocentric id ̣āfa can be tra nslated into English with ease. For instance, রঝডোيজ ়ঝ৓ق has a literal meaning and is translated ‘morning train’. Other similar examples are ণ੶ূ়হميজ ࣾঝ੶نة ‘school yard’ and ণ੶ূ়হميজ و੶ملعم ‘school teachers’. The same concept applies when translating Englis h endocentric compounds into Arabic. For example, TV audience and bank customers are translated as াঝৣلধيজ জوহهঝেم , and ‘ كنডيজ ࣾممع ‘, respectively. However, translating compounds that do have an idiomatic meaning can be difficult for translators. For ex amples, translating exocentric compounds like jailbird can be quite puzzling since the word has no literal meaning and the intended meaning is complex due to the blending of two concepts. (Benczes, 2006, p. 97). This compound is an example of a metaphor -ba sed profile determinant and means ‘either a person serving a prison sentence or is an ex -convict ‘ and can only be understood by the two concepts involved (see above). The Arab translator cannot understand this compound unless s/he blends the two concepts successfully to produce the equivalent وয੶ৃم و঒ وয੶ূ ভيঽ੶শ . Another puzzling example is the compound flame sandwich which is ‘a note consisting of a negative comment between two positive ones’. Benczes (2006, p. 105) suggests that this compound has three do mains (see above). When an Arab translator encounters this compound in a text s/he will not be able to translate it mainly because of the metaphorical element involved in its meaning. The translator needs to understand that the negative comment lies in bet ween the two positive ones. Other examples that support the difficulty of rendering exocentric compounds are chain – smoker and couch -doctor . The former compound refers to an excessive smoker, who indulges in smoking one cigarette after another ( ঽ੶৆ आ শহم ). Translating such figurative compound will puzzle the Arab translator, who might not be aware of the concept of linking smoking cigarettes non – stop to a metal chain. The conceptual similarity lies in the image of connected metal rings that form a chain and the act of smoking a cigarette immediately after finishing with the previous one. Hence, back -to-back smoking draws a similar image of a chain that is linked by metal rings. Only a knowledgeable translator can link the two mental concepts in or der to provide the translation equivalent. On the other hand, couch -doctor may not harbor a deep mental conceptual framework like chain -smoker , but pose a similar threat to the Arab translator. This is because couch in couch -doctor might not, on the lexica l surface, show the meaning of the compound, which is a ‘psychiatrist’ ( نঝ੶ৃৣن ট੶هড৐ ). However, if the translator is able to link between this compound and the image of a psychiatrist, which involves him/her sitting in a couch and listening to a patient, th en s/he will be able to yield a valid translation. Other compounds might not pose a translation threat from a conceptual framework, but they tend to be challenging because of the culture -bound meaning that is attached to them. Such examples of culture -bo und compounds are dime -dropper , double -decker , and moonshine . The unified difficulty of these three compounds is their cultural input. Dime -dropper means either a snitch or an informant for the police in English and ੶৆জو و঒ ঽ੶ূ ঽ੶ডষم in Arabic . The dropping of ‘dime’ revolves around the image of a snitch who heads to the public pay phone and inserts a dime to call the police and informs them about an illegal activity that is taking place nearby. This is attached to the culture of crime informants, ex -convicts, who work for the police as the only Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 229 way to avoid going to jail. Therefore, the compound is used to refer to someone who snitches on others. Regarding double -decker , ambiguity is achieved here since this compound refers to either to a two -level bus ( هقঠঝ੶৐ و঺ ৈঝ੶ঠ ), as seen in London and Tokyo, or a two -layer sandwich ( ঢঽه৓੶৆ م੶੶঳ليজو ড੶੶যيজ ੶੶م ণ੶੶قড৐ ੶੶م ঽফكও੶੶ঠ ঢو੶੶ে঳م ). Only a translator who has an encyclopedic and cultural knowledge can render this culture -laden compound effectively. A translator who is not a ware of the ambiguity here might provide one of the two senses in an invalid context. As for moonshine , two senses are contained here; it either means ‘nonsense’ ( ل੶চঝ৐ ر م੶ك نم ), or ‘an illegally distilled alcohol ’ ( ৉आ শঽ੶م ঽ੶هغو ঽ৓قধৃم ঽمশ ). The second meaning is used in the southern states of the United States of America, such as, Texas, Alabama, Louisiana, etc. which adds cultural value to the compound. This specific cultural meaning does not conjure up a universal meaning that the Arab translator hope s to find or is aware of, which will either forces him/her to use the first sense ‘nonsense’ or opts for a literal translation. Both options will damage the intended meaning of moonshine and affects the translation of its context. Thus, cultural knowledge is a must for the translator who comes across such culture -bound compounds. Similarly, Arabic has several id ̣āfa that can be difficult to translate into English. For instance the id ̣āfa همমঽ੶ধميজ ঵ه੶৆ literally means ‘sheikh of the translators’, whic h does not make sense to non – native speakers, as this id ̣āfa is culture -specific. This id ̣āfa means that a person is knowledgeable and has a high status in translation. The reason the word ‘sheikh’ is chosen for this id ̣āfa is because ‘sheikh’ in Arab cult ure denotes a person of high rank or stature, and it is also honorific for people versed in religious ways or even village elders. Thus, blending the concepts of ‘sheikh’ and ‘translator’ produces this unique id ̣āfa that emphasises both high status and kno wledge in the field of translation. Other id ̣āfa that might cause some difficulty in rendering them to English are ‘ জঽ੶ল ੶ঠজ ‘ and ‘ ৬م੶ল ੶ঠজ ‘. Both are used as adjectives; however, the former has a literal meaning along with the figurative one. The former l iterally means ‘a bastard son/love child’, but when used figuratively, it may mean something like ‘cheater’, ‘deceiver’ or ‘disloyal’, depending on the context. Therefore, this id ̣āfa is definitely used when degrading a person. On the other hand, ‘ ੶ঠজ ৬م੶ল ‘ is used to praise a person and may mean something like ‘trustworthy’, ‘helpful’ or ‘kind’ , again, depending on the context. Other exocentric id ̣āfa cases that could pose a threat to the translator are ণع৏ডيজ হهম , ৐وঽষم ণ੶ه঳ليজ and ৬ঝড੶ৃيজ مه੶ছي . The first example when translated literally mean ‘of good fleshy meat’, but the intended exocentric meaning is ‘of massive girth’ or simply ‘a big man’. Such id ̣āfa might not lose most of the intended meaning when rendered literally, but it is not natural in Englis h. Still, this literal translation is not far from the figurative meaning, which might indicate the unpacked meaning to the translator. Thus, s/he can modify the translation equivalent to suit the metaphorical intention and achieve naturalness in the targe t language. In the second example, ণ੶ه঳ليজ ৐وঽ੶ষم , a literal translation of this id ̣āfa will not provide any hints to refer to the intended meaning, since the literal translation would end up as ‘a coned beard’. This equivalent sounds unnatural in English, which disqualifies the impact of the translation in context. Interestingly enough, the proper translation is ‘a lengthy and thin pointy beard’. This metaphor -based id ̣āfa can only be understood if the translator is aware of the feature Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 230 of the ‘ ৐وঽ੶ষم ‘, which is cone -shaped in a sense that it is pointy and lacks the ‘bushy’ feature of a typical beard. As for ৬ঝড੶ৃيজ مه੶ছي , it creates more problems than the other two exocentric id ̣āfa . This can be attributed to the choice of words used in the head and modifier. مه੶ছي conjures up the concepts of a ‘mean’ , ‘vile’ or ‘wicked’ person, and ৬ঝড੶ৃيজ means ‘the hair of the moustache’. A translator who confronts such id ̣āfa will render it as ‘a vile hair of the moustache’, which is erroneous because it cannot be translated word for word. The metaphorical -lad en sense adds a layer of difficulty for the translator who is oblivious to the intended meaning, which is ‘a contemptible or despicable person’. One might consider this id ̣āfa as culture -specific due to the fact that insults towards facial hair are a sign of a status of a person in certain parts of the Arab world. An opposite expression that denotes a positive image of a person is ণ੶منঝغ ণ੶ه঳ي (a blessed person). However, the latter is an idiom rather than a compound in Arabic, which literally means ‘a winnin g beard’. The pattern here is that adjectives used for facial hair either denotes a positive or a negative image in the Arab world. Conclusion The present study discussed English compounds and Arabic id ̣āfa in terms of their contrastive analysis in orde r to provide a solid linguistic background on these two phraseological entities . The study also paid attention to their literal (endocentric) and figurative (exocentric) semantic senses for translational purposes. The examples show that exocentric English compounds and Arabic id ̣āfa are not easy to render due to their metaphor and metonymy -based meanings. In addition, cultural attachment to the intended meaning of these multi -word items adds another degree of translation difficulty to the Arab translator. Therefore, successful translation of compounds and id ̣āfa should be supported by both cultural knowledge and competence and performance in English and Arabic. About the Author: Dr. Mohammad Bin Naser is a Lecturer in the Department of English Language and Literature, Kuwait University. He obtained his MA in Translation Studies from the University of Birmingham, England in 2005 and his Ph.D. in Translation Studies (Arabic/English) from Durham University, England in 2010. His teaching and research interests are in the area of translation studies, phraseology, and lexicography. References English references Ball, A. (1939) Compounding in the English Language . New York: The H. W. Wilson Company. Benczes, R. (2006) Creative Compounding in English: the Semantics of Metaphorical and Metonymical Noun -Noun Combinations . Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publications. Emery, P. (1988) “Compound Words in Modern Standard Arabic”, Zeitschrift fur Arabische Linguistik , 19, 32 -43. Gou ws, R. (1988) ”Compounds in Dictionaries: A Semantic Perspective” in Snell -Hornby, M. (ed) Zurelix ’86 Proceedings: Papers Read at the EURALEX International Congress, University of Zurich, 9 -14 September 1986 . Tubingen, 91 -98. Munat, J. (2002) “In Search of the Nominal Compound” in Nuccorini, S. (ed) Phrases and Phraseology -Data and Descriptions . Bern: Peter Lang, 145 -161. Ar ab World English Journal (AWEJ )Special Issue on Translation No.5 May, 2016 The Hurdle of Translating Compounds and Id ̣āfa Bin Naser Arab World English Journal www.awej.org ISSN: 2229 -9327 231 Plag, I. (2003) Word -Formation in English . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Radik, M. (1996) ”The Treatment of Compound Words in a Langauge Planning Dictionary” in Gellerstram, Martin, et al (eds.) EURALEX ’96 Proceedings I -II: Papers Submitted to the Seventh EURALEX International Congress on Lexicography in Goteborg, Sweden. Part II. Goteborg: Goteborg University, 451 -456. Rydi ng, K. (2005) A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Warren, B. (1978) Semantic Patterns of a Noun -Noun Compounds . Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. Arabic references ( . ়ঝع ࣻ وঝয঳يজ 2005 .) ঠঽعيজ ণرليজ হعজوقণه .ঽেنلي ৤وঽেيজ়জস : ঝ आ مع . ( .ীঝডع ࣻ ৃল 1975 .) ةজويজ و঳نيজ . ়ঝعميজ ়জস :ঢঽهঝقيজ .
I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literature Vol. 8, No. 2, 2016 , pp 157 -175 JJ MLL Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code Mohammed Farghal and Fatima Al -Mu’min Dept. of English, Kuwait University , Kuwait. Received on: 7-1-2016 Accepted on: 17-5-2016 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to explore the translation procedures that could be employed when trans lating hyphenated English compound adjectives into Arabic. To achieve this, the study uses a body of textual data consisting of 100 hyphenated compounds extracted from Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code which is set against its counterpart body of data drawn from the Arabic translation titled ﻲﺸﻨﯿﻓ اد ةﺮﻔﯿﺷ by Sama AbdRabu. The findings show that th e translator falls back on a variety of translation procedures including in terms of frequency: form al markers (prepositions and وذ-related forms ), explicitation (relativization, generic words, and lexical comparisons), bare compounds, simple adjectives, p assives/passive participles, and numeric compounds. These translation procedures, which interchange in some cases, may also involve certain semantic constraints. The study concludes that translators need to be aware of the whole spectrum of these tran slati on procedures in order to be able to deal effectively with this morpho -lexical asymmetry between the two languages. Keywords: English, Arabic, Translation, Hyphenated compounds, Translation procedures. 1. Introduction “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source – language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style” (Nida and Taber 1974 , 12 ). Just as the quote above implies, translation means transferring the meaning of the source text (ST) into the target text (TT) with the aim of maintaining the message of the ST in the first place and its style in the second place. Unfortunately, this is not always possible since grammatical structure varies a mong languages and a literal t ranslation would therefore not always result in idiomatically and grammatically correct expressions in the TL (Vinay and Darbelnet 1958/1995 , 31 ). However, because almost everything that is expressed in one language may be expressed in another as well, the re are always ways and means to capture structural mismatches by employing textualizations that differ in structure but are simil ar in function. According to many theorists (Newmark 1988 , 5, for example), while it is of great importance to maintain the st ructure of the original text when translating, the fact remains that it is just as important to convey the message in the most idiomatic and correct way in the TL (see also Larson 1983/1983 ; Hatim and Mason 1990 ; Baker 1992 ). This paper deals with English hyphenated compound adjectives, viewed as a potentially problematic area when translating into Arabic because of the typological differences between the two languages. Pierini (2015 , 17) states “In English, they [hyphenated compounds] are quantitatively nu merous, show a wide range of morphological patterns and a high degree of productivity”. In Arabic, by contrast, they do not exist in a hyphenated form , but rather they assume other forms. In fact, Arabic and English are morphologically asymmetrical: “The f ormer is Semitic and the latter is Endo -European language. Thus, they are expected to be morphologically divergent” Amer (2010 , 2). However, since there are so many Farghal and Al -Mu’min 158 different ways of expressing oneself in both spoken and written language, there are always several possible translations of any grammatical or textual feature, and hyphenated compound adjectives are no exception in this case. However, the translator always needs to take the contextual and co -textual factors into account, and in order to attain a n idiomatically and grammatically correct translation, various translation strategies can be applied (Milikic 2010 , 7). An English compound adjective is a modifier of a noun, consisting of two or more words of which the left -hand component limits or change s the modification of the right -hand one, as in “the dark -green dress”: dark limits the green that modifies dress (Amer 2010 , see also Crystal 2004 ; Leech and Svartvik 1992 for a general discussion of adjectives). There are some well -established permanent compound adjectives that have become solid over a longer period, especially in American usage: earsplitting , roundabout, eyecatching , and downtown . However, in British usage, these, apart from downtown and roundabout, are more likely written with a hyphen: ear -splitting, eye -catching. According to Pierini (2015 , 18), the notion of ‘compound adjective’ is problematic because it covers a wide range of morphological patterns and the classification offered by scholars varies, either including or exclud ing certain formations. Among these productive patterns, we find: Adj + Adj (grey -green), N + Adj (age – old), Adv + Adj (fiercely -competitive), Numeral + N + Adj (ten -year -old), Adj + V -ing (good -looking), N + V -ing (animal -loving), Adj + Past Participle (British -born), etc. The Writing Library Technology Center at the University of Saint -Paul defines compound adjectives as “two or more words that together modify another word. In most cases, the two or more words are linked together with a hyphen. Hyphenated compound adjectives are used before nouns. When they come after nouns, they are not hyphenated, unless they are a hyphenated compound word anyway”. For e xample, ‘This is a well -written essay’ vs. ‘This essay is well written’ and ‘ This is a ten -year -old boy’ vs. ‘This boy is ten years old’. Arabic attributive adjectives, whether simple or compound, always follow head nouns, unlike English where they must p recede head nouns, for example, al-bintu -l-jamiilatu ‘*the girl the beautiful’ vs. the beautiful girl and al-bintu ðaatu -l-‛uyuun -iz-zarqaa’ ‘the girl with blue eyes’ vs. ‘the blue -eyed girl’. As can be seen, like Arabic, English has post -head modification (e.g. ‘the girl with blue eyes’ and ‘the girl who has blue eyes’). By contrast, unlike Arabic, English has the pre -head hyphenated compound modification (the blue -eyed girl), which is categorically absent in Arabic. In a contrastive study, Amer (2010 ) suggests some procedures that may be followed when rendering compound adjectives, viz. simple Arabic adjectives, e.g. ħadii ө [recent] for up -to-date , Adj + Adj, e.g. ’azaraq γaamiq [blue da rk] for dark – blue, simile, e.g. ’aħmar ka-d-dam [red like -the -blood] for blood -red , ma rking by a preposition, e.g. muta ‛atti š li -d-dimaa’ [thirsty for -the -blood], and the ’idhaafa /genitive construction, e.g. daa’im -il- xuḍrah [continuous greenness] for ever -green (for more on the translation of compounds in general, see Amer and Menacere 2013 ). Examining Modern Literary Arabic, Cowan (1958 , 44 -45) discusses Arabic compound adjectives, showing that Arabic is very rich in such compounds. In particular, he cites compounds featuring intensifiers plus nouns which post -modify head nouns such as rajulun ka өiru -l-maali [a man lots -the – money] ‘a very rich man’ and adjectives plus nouns to post -modify head nouns such as rajulun ṭawiilu -l- Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 159 lisaani [a man long -the -tongue ] ‘a harsh -tongued man’. He also cites Arabic compounds featuring two nouns such as rajulun ṣaa ħibub ‛ilmin [a man owner of science] ‘a man of letters’ and rajulun ðuu badiihatin [a man of intuition] ‘an intuitive man’. Note that ṣaa ħibu and ðuu are formal possessive markers and may interchange generally. The above studies, Amer (2010 ), Amer and Menacere (2013 ), and Cowan (1958 ), do provide us with important information about the nature of compounding in English and Arabic from a contrastive analysis persp ective and offer us useful guidelines regarding out -of-context and intuition -based translation equivalents, mainly the employment of the marker ﺐﺣﺎﺻ/وذ , simple adjectives, similes, and ‘iḍaafah /genitive construction. However, they fall short of providing us with actual translational data to see how translators in practice handle the packaging of information in hyphenated pre -head modification, which is the focus of this study. From here arises the need to investigate this morpho -lexical feature from a translational perspective, based on authentic textual data rather than on merely concocted contras tive analysis examples. The textual data will reveal some translation procedures that contrastive a nalysis cannot unravel such as prepositions as forma l markers, explicitation via re lativization and generic words, passivization/passive participles, etc. (see Table and discussion below). This will definitely provide student/professional translators as we ll as researchers with a fuller picture of and better insights into what procedurally happens when encountering pre -modifying hyphenated compounds in English -into -Arabic translation. 2. Objectives of Study This study attempts to address the following research questions: 1. What translation procedures are employed to render hyphenated English compounds into Arabic? 2. How successful are the renditions of such compounds into Arabic? 3. Are there any semantic constraints governing the choice of one procedure rathe r than another? 3. Method and Material This study is both a quantitative and qualitative case study of authent ic textual data extracted from the English bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown (2003 ) and its Arabic translation (2004 ) titled Shiifrat Da Vinci (Code (of) Da Vinci ) by Sama AbdRabu. Apart from the fact that the Arabic translation is published by the leading Beirut -based Arab Scientific Publishers, the selection of The Da Vinci Code is mainly motivated by the large number of hyphe nated compound adjectives it contains. The sample consists of 100 hyphenated English compounds and their Arabic renderings. The analysis starts with categorizing the Arabic data in terms of type and frequency of translation procedure. Then, a critical/qual itative discussion/assessment of each procedure is furnished to see whether there are any subtleties involved or any semantic constraints governing the adoption of one procedure over another. Farghal and Al -Mu’min 160 4. Data Analysis and Discussion The following Table shows the distribution and percentages of the translation procedures employed when rendering hyphenated English compounds into Arabic in the study sample. Each procedure is exemplified and discussed separately in the sections below. Table : Distribution of translati on procedures of hyphenated compound adjectives No. Translation Procedure Percentage 1 Formal Markers a. Prepositions 19 % b. Possessive وذ ðuu and its derivatives 15 % 34 % 2 Explicitation a. Relativization 15 % b. Generic words 7 % c. Lexical comparisons 3 % 25 % 3 Bare compounds 15 % 4 Simple adjectives 10 % 5 Passive/Passive participles 8 % 6 Numeric compounds 3 % 7 Omission 5 % 8 Total 100 % 4.1 Formal Markers Formal markers emerge as the most frequent procedure accounting for 34% of the examples in the sample when rendering hyphenated compound adjectives. This clearly indicates that the attempt to cal l up an Arabic formal marker is a basic option when encounter ing such compounds in translating from English into Arabic. There are two main categories of these markers: prepositions and possessive وذ ðuu and its derivatives. 4.1.1 Prepositions As formal markers of Arabic renditions, prepositions claim 19% of th e da ta, of which 13% go for the preposition ب bi-, which is employed to indicate height, size, area, clothing, etc. Following are some illustrative examples: 1. a thousand -foot phallus (p. 33) ﺐﻴﻀﻗﺑﺎ عﺎﻔﺗر مﺪﻗ ﻒﻟأ ) ص 26( 2. 70,000 -square -foot lobby (p. 40 ) ﺔﻫدر ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻤﺑ 70.000 ﺔﻌﺑﺮﻣ مﺪﻗ ) ص 32( 3. two -inch -thick pane (p. 164 ) حﻮﻟ ﺔﻛﺎﻤﺴﺑ ﻦﻴﺸﻧإ ) ص 134( 4. blue -robed virgin Mary (p. 191 ) ﻟا ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ءارﺬﻌ ﺎﻬﺑﻮﺜﺑ قرزﻷا ) ص 156( As can be seen, the hyphenated English compound adjectives in (1) – (4) above are rendered by employing the Arabic preposition ب to indicate height, area, thickness and clothing, respectively. The generic word designating the domain (e.g. height) can be implicit in English, but it must be rendered Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 161 explicit in Arabic (1 and 2) above and consequently the formal marker attach to them, viz. عﺎﻔﺗرﺎﺑ and ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻤﺑ . Otherwise, the explicit generic or specific word functions as the host o f the preposition, ﺔﻛﺎﻤﺴﺑ and ﺎﻬﺑﻮﺜﺑ . Notably, the possessive وذ and its derivatives (section 2 below) cannot be used to designate height, area, or thickness, e.g. the rendering ﺐﻴﻀﻗوذ مﺪﻗ ﻒﻟأ عﺎﻔﺗرا is ill -formed, whereas they can replace the preposition ب in the domain of clothing, e.g. ءارﺬﻌﻟا ﻢﻳﺮﻣ تاذ قرزﻷا بﻮﺜﻟا is as well -formed as the rendition in (4) above. The other prepositions ﻦﻣ, ﻲﻓ and ل accounting for 6% indicate constitution, location, and distance respectively, as can be illustrated in (5), (6) and (7) below: 5. A three -digit code (p. 163 ) اﺰﻣرﻦﻣ مﺎﻗرأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ) ص 132( 6. Right -hand wall (p. 141 ) ﻂﺋﺎﺤﻟاﻲﻓ ﻰﻨﻤﻴﻟا ﺔﻬﺠﻟا ) ص 117( 7. the long, two -storey climb (p. 43 ) ﻞﻳﻮﻄﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا دﻮﻌﺻ ﺔﻓﺎﺴﻤﻟ ﻦﻴﻘﺑﺎﻃ ) ص 34( Notably, what is implicit in (7), i.e. distance, is made explicit in the Arabic rendition. However, it can be suppressed the way constitution and location are suppressed in (5) and (6) above. An d what is implicit in (5) and (6) can be made explicit as well. Consider (5)- (7), which are rephrased accordingly: 8. مﺎﻗرأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻦﻣ ًﺎﻧﻮﻜﻣ ًاﺰﻣر 9. ﻰﻨﻤﻴﻟا ﺔﻬﺠﻟا ﻲﻓ دﻮﺟﻮﻤﻟا ﻂﺋﺎﺤﻟا 10 . ﻦﻴﻘﺑﺎﻄﻟ ﻞﻳﻮﻄﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا دﻮﻌﺻ In (8) and (9), in addition to being marked by prepositions, constitution and location are indicated lexically by ًﺎﻧﻮﻜﻣ and دﻮﺟﻮﻤﻟا , whereas distance is marked only by the preposition in (10 ). There is one rendition in this category where the translator confuses the constitution marker ﻦﻣ with the location marker ﻲﻓ, as can be shown in (11 ): 11 . Right -hand counterparts (p. 174 ) ﻢﻫؤاﺮﻈﻧﻦﻣ ﻦﻤﻳﻷا ﺐﻧﺎﺠﻟا ) ص 143( Following is the compound (boldfaced) in (11 ) in its context: In France and Italy, the words for ‘left’ – gauc he and sinistra – came to have deeply negative overtones, while their right -hand counterparts rang of righteousness, dexterity, and correctness. نﺎﻛ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ ،ًاﺮﻴﻄﺧ ًﺎﻴﺒﻠﺳ ﻰﻨﻌﻣ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﺔﻤﻠﻛ تﺬﺨﺗا ﺎﻴﻟﺎﻄﻳإو ﺎﺴﻧﺮﻓ ﻲﻔﻓ ﻦﻤﻳﻷا ﺐﻧﺎﺠﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻢﻫؤاﺮﻈﻧ او ﺔﻣﺎﻘﺘﺳﻼﻟ ًﻻﺎﺜﻣ قﻮﻔﺘﻟ .باﻮﺼﻟاو Farghal and Al -Mu’min 162 4.2 Possessive وذ and its derivatives The second formal marker وذ and its derivatives, whose form depends on number and gender agreement with the head noun, e.g. وذ modifies a singular, masculine head noun while تاذ modifies a singular, feminine head noun, have a wide -ranging semantic scope and can modify both animate and inanimate head nouns. Interestingly, however, they are used only to modify inanimate head nouns in t he data, as can be noted in the following examp les: 12 . Alcohol -based fluorescent ink (p. 64 ) ﺎﺌﻴﻀﻣ اﺮﺒﺣوذ ﻲﻟﻮﺤﻛ سﺎﺳأ ) ص 50( 13 . Glass -roofed train terminal (p. 203 ) رﺎﻄﻘﻟا ﺔﻄﺤﻣ تاذ ﻲﺟﺎﺟﺰﻟا ﻒﻘﺴﻟا ) ص 165( 14 . High -tech world (p. 244 ) ﺚﻳﺪﺤﻟا ﻢﻟﺎﻌﻟاوذ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﻴﻨﻘﺘﻟا ) ص 200( 15 . Cave -ridden hills (p. 232 ) ﺔﻳﺮﺨﺼﻟا بﺎﻀﻬﻟا تاذ فﻮﻬﻜﻟا ) ص 189( It should be noted that, while the preposition ب cannot be replaced with the possessive وذ when marking height, area an d thickness in (1) – (3) above, the possessive وذ and تاذ can be replaced with the preposition ب in (12 ) – (15) above. Apparently, this constraint applies only to certain semantic domains. By way of illustration, (12 ) and (13 ) are given below using the preposition ب: 16 . ( ﺎﺌﻴﻀﻣ اﺮﺒﺣﺄﺑ سﺎﺳ ﻲﻟﻮﺤﻛ ) ص 50 17 . ( رﺎﻄﻘﻟا ﺔﻄﺤﻣﺎﺑ ﻒﻘﺴﻟ ﻲﺟﺎﺟﺰﻟا ) ص 165 In addition, while the translator in (15 ) succeeds in employing تاذ correctly, she fails to capture the totality of the meaning in the hyph enated compound, that is, the meaning of the second item of the compound (ridden) is not relayed in the translation. To do this, (15 ) can be relayed in several ways as follows: 18 . لﻼﺘﻟا تاذ ةﺮﺸﺘﻨﻤﻟا فﻮﻬﻜﻟا ‘the hills with spreading caves’ 19 . لﻼﺘﻟا فﻮﻬﻜﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻠﻘﺜﻤﻟا ‘the hills ridden with caves’ 20 . لﻼﺘﻟا ﻲﺘﻟا فﻮﻬﻜﻟا ﺎﻬﻠﻘﺜﺗ ‘the hills which are ridden with caves’ 21 . لﻼﺘﻟا ﺎﻬﻓﻮﻬﻜﺑ ةﺮﺸﺘﻨﻤﻟا ‘the hills with their spreading caves’ The different versions in (18 )-(21 ) employ four different procedures: the possessive تاذ , the unmarked compound (see below), relativization (see below), and the preposition ب. Below is the compound in (15 ) in its context: Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 163 Some claimed the mountainous backdrop in Madonna of the Rocks matc hed the topography of a series of cave -ridden hills in Scotland. ﻦﻣ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﺔﻴﻓاﺮﻏﻮﺒﻃ ﻖﺑﺎﻄﺗ “رﻮﺨﺼﻟا ةﺪﻴﺳ” ﺲﻛور اذ فوأ ﺎﻧودﺎﻣ ﺔﺣﻮﻟ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻳﺮﺨﺼﻟا ﺔﻴﻔﻠﺨﻟا نأ ﻲﻋﺪﻳ ﻢﻬﻨﻣ ﺾﻌﺒ ﻟا ﺔﻳﺮﺨﺼﻟا بﺎﻀﻬﻟا فﻮﻬﻜﻟا تاذ .ةﺪﻧﻼﺗﻮﻜﺳ ﻲﻓ 4.3 Explicitation Explicitation is the second most frequent procedure in rendering hyphenated compound adjectives in the data accounting for 25% . It mainly involves rephrasing the hyphenated compound in the form of a relative clause post -modifying the head noun (15% ), the employment of Arabic generic words (7% ) that are implicit in English, and drawing lexically explicit comparisons to render –like hyphenated compounds (3% ). 4.3.1 Relativization Relativization, which accounts for 15% of the data, is employed as an explicitation procedure whereby the meaning of a hyphenated compound is unpacked in the form of an adjective clause post – modifying the head noun. Following are some illustrative examples: 22 . the 133.000 -square -foot tower (p. 49 ) ص) 39( جﺮﺒﻟا يﺬﻟا ﻪﺘﺣﺎﺴﻣ ﻎﻠﺒﺗ 133.000 ﺔﻌﺑﺮﻣ مﺪﻗ 23 . the orb -filled tomb (p. 527 ) ﺢﻳﺮﻀﻟا يﺬﻟا ﻪﻴﻓ تاﺮﻜﻟا ﺞﻌﺗ ) ص 442( 24 . the eighteenth -century English writer (p. 499 ) يﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻻا ﺐﺗﺎﻜﻟا يﺬﻟا ﺮﺸﻋ ﻦﻣﺎﺜﻟا نﺮﻘﻟا ﻰﻟإ دﻮﻌﻳ ) ص 418( While relativization is the only option available for capturing the meaning of the hyphenated compounds in (22 ) and (24) because the English underlying verb is intransitive, (23 ), having an overt transitive verb (fill), might be rendered using the passive participle procedure (see below), viz. ﺢﻳﺮﻀﻟا تاﺮﻜﻟﺎﺑ ﺊﻠﺘﻤﻤﻟا . Interestingly, the Arabic renderings in (22)-(24 ) roughly correspond to the English parap hrases of (22 )-(24 ), as can be shown below respectively: 25 . the tower whose area is 133.000 square foot 26 . the tomb which is filled with orbs. 27 . the English writer who belongs to the eighteenth century. 4.3.2 Generic words The use of generic words (7% ) is necessitated in Arabic to explicitate implicit generic predicates in some English hyphenated compounds, as can be illustrated in the following examples: 28 . his 14 -carat gold bishop’s ring (p. 49 ) ﺐﻫﺬﻟا ﻦﻣ عﻮﻨﺼﻤﻟا ﻲﻔﻘﺳﻷا ﻪﻤﺗﺎﺧ رﺎﻴﻋ 14 طاﺮﻴﻗ ص) 39( 29 . this forty -something academic (p. 24 ) ﻲﻤﻳدﺎﻛﻷا اﺬﻫ ﻎﻟﺎﺒﻟا ﻦﻴﻌﺑرأ ﺮﻤﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﻒﻴﻧو ص) 19 ( Farghal and Al -Mu’min 164 30 . as the plane completed its 180 -degree turn… (p. 439 ) ةﺮﺋﺎﻄﻟا تراد ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋو ﺔﻳواﺰﺑ 180 …ﺔﺟرد ) ص 369( 31 . all -night café (p. 211 ) ﻰﻬﻘﻣ ﺢﺘﻔﻳ ﻞﻴﻠﻟا لاﻮﻃ ) ص 171( As can be seen in (28 ) – (31 ), the bold -face items in the Arabic renderings explicitate what is implicit in English. Without them, the Arabic renderings will not be acceptable, as can be illustrated below: 32 .* ( ﺐﻫﺬﻟا ﻦﻣ عﻮﻨﺼﻤﻟا ﻲﻔﻘﺳﻷا ﻪﻤﺗﺎﺧ 14 طاﺮﻴﻗ ) 39 33 . * ﻲﻤﻳدﺎﻛﻷا اﺬﻫ ﻦﻴﻌﺑرأ ﺮﻤﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻒﻴﻧو ) ص 19( 34 . * ةﺮﺋﺎﻄﻟا تراد ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋو 180 …ﺔﺟرد ) ص 369( 35 . * ﻞﻴﻠﻟا لاﻮﻃ ﻰﻬﻘﻣ ) ص 171( Apparently, the translator has done well here by explicitating the hyphenated compounds because it is the most appropriate proce dure. 4.3.3 Lexical Comparisons Drawing lexical comparisons (3% ) is followed when translating English –like hyphenated compounds. Following are two illustrative examples: 36 . maze -like series of dividers (p. 97 ) ﻞﺻاﻮﻓ ﻪﺒﺷأ تﺎﻫﺎﺘﻤﺑ ) ص 79( 37 . the dream -like quality of the evening (p.37 ) …ءﺎﺴﻤﻟا ﻢﻠﺤﻟا ﻰﻟإ نﻮﻜﻳ ﺎﻣ بﺮﻗأ ) ص 29( As can be noted, English similes in the form of hyphenated compounds call for some sort of comparison in Arabic translation, which is expressed lexically in (36 ) and (37 ) a bove. One can imagine, however, working out Arabic similes using the formal marker ك, as can be observed in (38) below, which rephrases (36 ) above: 38 . ﻞﺻاﻮﻓ تﺎﻫﺎﺘﻤﻛ 4.4 . Bare Compounds Arabic bare compounds (15% ) emerge as an effective translation procedure for many English hyphenated compounds. One should note that in many cases they can be replaced with the possessive وذ procedure and to a lesser degree with the procedure of preposition ب as a formal marker. Following are some illustrative examples: 39 . a muscle -bound man (p. 167 ) ﻞﺟر تﻼﻀﻌﻟا لﻮﺘﻔﻣ ) ص 136( 40 . a double -breasted suit (p. 37 ) ةﺮﺘﺳ رﺪﺼﻟا ﺔﻨﻄﺒﻣ ) ص 30( 41 . the five -petal rose (p. 260 ) ةدرﻮﻟا تﻼﺘﺒﻟا ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻤﺧ ) ص 213( 42 . blood -red slashes (p. 178 ) حوﺮﺟ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻗ ءاﺮﻤﺣ ) ص 145( Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 165 43 . Chinese -born American architect (p. 35 ) ( ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷا سﺪﻨﻬﻤﻟا ﺪﻟﻮﻤﻟا ﻲﻨﻴﺼﻟا ص) 28 The Arabic bare compounds in (39)- (41 ) post -modify head nouns and can be readily replaced with the وذ and ب procedures, as can be illustrated in (44)-(46 ) below: 44 a. ﺔﻟﻮﺘﻔﻣ تﻼﻀﻋ وذ ﻞﺟر b. ﺔﻟﻮﺘﻔﻣ تﻼﻀﻌﺑ ﻞﺟر 45 a. تاذ ةﺮﺘﺳ ﻦﻄﺒﻣ رﺪﺻ b. ﻦﻄﺒﻣ رﺪﺼﺑ ةﺮﺘﺳ 46 a.ﺔﺴﻤﺨﻟا تﻼﺘﺒﻟا تاذ ةدرﻮﻟا b. ﺔﺴﻤﺨﻟا تﻼﺘﺒﻟﺎﺑ ةدرﻮﻟا The bare compound procedure is, therefore, an Arabic compounding resource that compresses the meaning of the hyphenated compound by transposition, i.e. by swap ping the two items, thus doing away with the formal marker. By contrast, (42 ) and (43 ) do not lend themselves to the afore -mentioned procedures for different reasons. The hyphenated compound in (42 ) employs an implicit figurative comparison, i.e. blood -red to modify the head noun. Instead of using an explicit comparison as is expected, the translator uses a familiar Arabic collocation نﺎﻗ ﺮﻤﺣأ , which reflects the semantics of the hyphenated English compound. It is more appropriate, however, to maintain th e comparison in Arabic translation, viz. مﺪﻟا ةﺮﻤﺤﺑ حوﺮﺟ (slashes as red as blood), in which the preposition ب is a simile marker or ﺎﻬﺗﺮﻤﺣ ﻲﻓ/ةﺮﻤﺤﻟا ﻲﻓ مﺪﻟﺎﻛ حوﺮﺟ (slashes like blood in (their) redness), in which the simile marker ك is employed. Followin g is the compound in (42 ) above in its context: His broad, pale back was soaked with blood -red slashes. حوﺮﺠﺑ ﻰﻄﻐﻣ ﺐﺣﺎﺸﻟا ﻢﺨﻀﻟا هﺮﻬﻇ نﺎﻛ ﺪﻘﻓ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻗ ءاﺮﻤﺣ. For its turn, the hyphenated compound in (43) refers to a location (the birth place of the head noun), thus requiring a prepositional phrase to post -modify the head noun, viz. ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷا سﺪﻨﻬﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ دﻮﻟﻮﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺼﻟا .The prepositional phrase, in its turn, may undergo transposition and class shift to give us the bar e Arabic compou nd ﺪﻟﻮﻤﻟا ﻲﻨﻴﺼﻟا in (43 ). This bare compound, unlike the ones in (39 )-(41 ), cannot be rephrased using وذ and ب, viz. ﻲﻨﻴﺼﻟا ﺪﻟﻮﻤﻟا وذ ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷا سﺪﻨﻬﻤﻟا and ﻲﻨﻴﺼﻟا ﺪﻟﻮﻤﻟﺎﺑ ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻷا سﺪﻨﻬﻤﻟا as both are ill -formed in Arabic. 4.5 Simple Adjectives The use of A rabic simple adjectives in translating English hyphenated compounds can be justified if the Arabic adjective captures the totality of the meaning in the English compound. However, the Farghal and Al -Mu’min 166 translator may fall in the trap of under -translation when opting for thi s procedure. The data includes 10 cases (10% ) of using simple a djectives, which exemplify both successful attempts (5), under -translations (3), and 2 mistranslations. Following are some illustrative examples: 47 . the five -pointed star (p. 135 ) ﺔﻤﺠﻨﻟا ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻤﺨﻟا ) ص 112( 48 . mind -boggling aspect of PHI (p. 132 ) يﺎﻔﻟ ﻞﻫﺬﻤﻟا ﻪﺟﻮﻟا ) ص 109( 49 . a well -documented history (p. 125 ) ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ ﻖﺛﻮﻣ ) ص 103( 50 . large -format oils (p. 45 ) ﺔﻴﺘﻳﺰﻟا تﺎﺣﻮﻠﻟا ةﺮﻴﺒﻜﻟا ) ص 36( 51 . tree -lined diplomatic neighborhood (p. 192 ) ﻲﺳﺎﻣﻮﻠﺒﻳﺪﻟا ﻲﺤﻟا ﺮﺠﺸﻤﻟا ) ص 156 ( 52 . the open -air escalator (p. 43 ) ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا ﺔﺣﻮﺘﻔﻤﻟا ) ص 34( The renderings in (47 ) – (49) above represent a successful use of simple Arabic adjectives that reflect the totality of the meaning in the English compounds. By contrast, the Arabic renderings in (50 ) and (51 ) fail to do so, that is, they under -translate the English compounds. To explain, the hyphenated compound in (50) refers to the large frames in which the oils are formatted rather than the oils themselves, wherea s the Arabic translation refers to the size of the painti ngs. For its turn, the English compound in (51) refers to the trees lining the sidewalks in the neighborhood rather the neighborhood in general. Below are the compounds in (50 ) and (51 ) in their contexts, respectively: – all around, large -format oils began to materialize like photos developing before him in an enormous darkroom… ﺔﻴﺘﻳﺰﻟا تﺎﺣﻮﻠﻟا تأﺪﺑ ﻪﻟﻮﺣ نﺎﻜﻣ ﻞﻛ ﻲﻓو ةﺮﻴﺒﻜﻟا …ﺔﻤﺨﺿ ﺾﻴﻤﺤﺗ ﺔﻓﺮﻏ ﻲﻓ ﻪﻣﺎﻣأ ﺮﻈﺘﺗ ﺔﻴﻓاﺮﻏﻮﺗﻮﻓ رﻮﺼﻛ ﺪﺴﺠﺘﺗ – We’re going to make it , Sophie thought as she swung the SmartCar’ s wheel to the right, cutting sharply past the luxurious Hotel de Crillon into Paris’s tree -lined diplomatic neighborhood. ﺎﻤﺴﻟا دﻮﻘﻣ ﺮﻳﺪﺗ ﻲﻫو ﻲﻓﻮﺻ تﺮﻜﻓ ،ﻚﻟذ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻘﺛاو ﺎﻧأ ،مﻼﺴﺑ كﺎﻨﻫ ﻰﻟإ ﻞﺼﻨﺳر قﺪﻨﻓ ﺔﻋﺮﺴﺑ ةزوﺎﺠﺘﻣ ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻮﺤﻧ رﺎﻛ ت ﻲﺤﻟا ﻰﻠﻏ ًﻻﻮﺧد ﻢﺨﻔﻟا نﻮﻳﺮﻛ .ﺲﻳرﺎﺑ ﻲﻓ ﺮﺠﺸﻤﻟا ﻲﺳﺎﻣﻮﻠﺒﻳﺪﻟا To reflect the totality of the meaning in the two English compounds, the translator could have employed formal markers (section 4.1 above), as can be illustrated in (53) and (54 ) below, respectively: 53 a. ﺔﻴﺘﻳﺰﻟا تﺎﺣﻮﻠﻟا ﺔﻤﺨﻀﻟا ﺎﻬﺗارﺎﻃﺈﺑ b. ﺔﻤﺨﻀﻟا تارﺎﻃﻹا تاذ ﺔﻴﺘﻳﺰﻟا تﺎﺣﻮﻠﻟا 54 a. ةﺮﺠﺸﻤﻟا ﻪﺘﻔﺻرﺄﺑ ﻲﺳﺎﻣﻮﻠﺑﺪﻟا ﻲﺤﻟا b. ةﺮﺠﺸﻤﻟا ﺔﻔﺻرﻷا تاذ ﻲﺳﺎﻣﻮﻠﺑﺪﻟا ﻲﺤﻟا The Arabic rendering of the English compound in the last example (52 ) is, actually, a mistranslation. The English compound refers to an ‘outdoor’ escalator, which cannot be retrieved from the Arabic sim ple Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 167 adjective حﻮﺘﻔﻣ . Following is the sentence in which the compound occurs (55 ), along with its Arabic translation (56 ): 55. Langdon exhaled, turning a longing glance back up the open -air escalator. 56. …ﺔﺣﻮﺘﻔﻤﻟا ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا ﻮﺤﻧ ﺔﺒﻏﺮﺑ هﺮﻈﻧ ﻊﺟﺮﻳ ﻮﻫو نوﺪﻐﻧﻻ ﺪﻬﻨﺗ Apart from the quality of the translation, the meaning communicated by the English compound cannot be rec overed from the Arabic simple adjective (ﺔﺣﻮﺘﻔﻤﻟا ), because the English compound indicates the location of the escalator rather than assigns an attribute to the escalator the way the Arabic a djective does. Hence, the formal marker ﻲﻓ should be used, as in (57 ) below: 57 . ﻲﺋﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟا ﻢﻠﺴﻟا ﻮﺤﻧ هﺮﻈﻨﺑ ﻮﻧﺮﻳ ﻮﻫو نوﺪﻐﻧﻻ ﺪﻬﻨﺗ ﻲﻓ جرﺎﺨﻟا One should note that there exists a familiar Arabic compound relating to location, viz. ﻲﻓ ءاﻮﻬﻟا ﻖﻠﻄﻟا , but it does not fit here for stylistic/generic reasons. 4.6 Passive/Passive Participles Arabic passive and passive participles account for 8% of English hyphenated compounds renderings . They are the most appropriate when translating English passive participle compounds, as can be illustrated in (58) and (59 ) below: 58 . Star -filled November sky (p. 207 ) مﻮﺠﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻧادﺰﻤﻟا ﺮﺒﻤﻓﻮﻧ ءﺎﻤﺳ ) ص 168- 169( 59 . Laser -cut key (p. 200 ) حﺎﺘﻔﻣﺣ رﺰﻴﻠﻟا ﺔﻌﺷﺄﺑ ﺮﻔ ) ص 162( While the Arabic rendering in (58) employs the passive participle form ﺔﻧادﺰﻤﻟا , the rendering in (59 ) uses a passive form of the verb and explicitates the head noun, viz. رﺰﻴﻠﻟا ﺔﻌﺷﺄﺑ instead of رﺰﻴﻠﻟﺎﺑ , which makes the rendition more transparent. Sometimes, however, the Arabic passive participle is opted for in the absence of a passive counterpart element in the English compound. Consider (60 ) – (62 ) below: 60 . Grille -plate medallions (p. 205 ) ﻊﺑﺎﺼﻣ ﺔﺸﻛرﺰﻣ ةﺮﻓﺎﻧ تﺎﻨﻴﻳﺰﺘﺑ ) ص 167( 61 . A ten -digit account number (p. 251 ) بﺎﺴﺣ ﻢﻗر ﻒﻟﺆﻣ مﺎﻗرأ ةﺮﺸﻋ ﻦﻣ ) ص 206( 62 . a twin -bed eighteen wheeler (p. 122 ) ﺔﻨﺣﺎﺷ ةدوﺰﻣ ﺔﻠﺠﻋ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻤﺛو ﻦﻳﺮﻴﺒﻛ ﻦﻴﻗوﺪﻨﺼﺑ ) ص 101( As can be seen, all the Arabic renderings in (60 )-(62 ) employ a passive participle form despite the fact there are no such for ms in the English counterparts. This is a workable procedure in Arabic although these passive forms in these renderings are optional, unl ike the ones in (58 ) and (59 ). Below are the same examples employing the formal marker ب and ﻦﻣ (section 4.1 above) independently of the passive forms (The rendering in (65) is corrected in terms of accuracy and quality of translation): Farghal and Al -Mu’min 168 63 . تﺎﻨﻴﻳﺰﺘﺑ ﻊﺑﺎﺼﻣ ةﺮﻓﺎﻧ 64 . مﺎﻗرأ ةﺮﺸﻋ ﻦﻣ بﺎﺴﺣ ﻢﻗر 65 . ﺔﻠﺠﻋ ةﺮﺸﻋ ﻲﻧﺎﻤﺛو ﻦﻴﻠﺼّﺘﻣ ﻦﻴﻗوﺪﻨﺼﺑ ﺔﻨﺣﺎﺷ 4.7 Numeric Compounds There are three instances (3% ) in the data where the hyphenated number imme diately modifies the head noun. Such numeric compounds are readily translated into their counterpart Arabic numeric compounds and should present no difficulty to the translator. However, due to their rather intricate grammar, one may find professional translators making mistakes when using them in discourse. Following are two examp les: 66 . the game’s twenty -two cards (p.129 ) ﺐﻌﻠﻟا قاروأ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻋو ﻦﻴﻨﺛﻻا ) ص 107( 67 . fifty -seven feet beneath ground (p. 40 ) ﻖﻤﻌﺑ مﺪﻗ ﻦﻴﻌﺒﺳو ﺲﻤﺧ ) ص 32( Surprisingly, although the Arabic numeric compounds are readily accessed, the Arabic renderings in (66 ) and (67 ) are both ill -formed in terms of the grammar of numerals; they should read: 68 . ﺐﻌﻠﻟا قاروأ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻋو ﻦﻴﺘﻨﺛﻻا 69 . ﻖﻤﻌﺑ ًﺎﻣﺪﻗ ﻦﻴﻌﺒﺳو ﺔﺴﻤﺧ Needless to say, the Beirut -based Arab Scientific Publisher (ASP), the publisher of the translation under study, is supposed to be one of the leading publishers in the Arab World. The opening sentence in their website reads “Arab scientific Publishers (ASP) publishes award -winning books of excellent quality that respond to al l ages, levels, and interests”. In light of the above errors, I leave it to the reader to pass a judgment on their work. 4.8 Omission There are five cases in the data (5% ) where the translator has omitted the hyphenated compound from the translation altogether, as can be illustrated in (70 ) and (71) below: 70 . The close -up photo revealed the glowing message on the parquet floor. (p. 101 ) ﺔﻟﺎﺳﺮﻟا ةرﻮﺼﻟا ﺖﻔﺸﻛ ﺪﻘﻓ ﻴﺿرﻷا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺑﻮﺘﻜﻤﻟا ﺔﺌﻴﻀﻤﻟا .ﺔﻴﺒﺸﺨﻟا ﺔ ص) 82( 71 . ‘This manuscript claims what ?’ his editor had choked, se tting his wine glass and staring at Langdon across his half -eaten power lunch. (p. 224 ) يﺬﻟا ﻪﺑاﺮﺷ ﻊﺿﻮﻓ ،ﻪﻤﻓ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻤﻘﻠﻟاو ﻖﻨﺘﺨﻳ نأ رﺮﺤﻤﻟا دﺎﻛ “؟!بﺎﺘﻜﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻪﻟﻮﻘﻳ يﺬﻟا اذﺎﻣ” ﻲﻓ قﺪﺤﻳ ﺬﺧأو هﺪﻳ ﻲﻓ نﺎﻛ نوﺪﻐﻧﻻ مﺎﻌﻄﻟا ﻦﺤﺻ قﻮﻓ ﻦﻣ ) ص 183( As can be noted, the hyphenated compounds in (70 ) and (71 ) have been deleted. The first can be readily captured by a simple Arabic adjective (ةﺮﺒﻜﻤﻟا ةرﻮﺼﻟا ), while the latter is more challenging and needs to be explicitated via relativization, viz. ﻪﻟوﺎﻨﺘﻳ ﻢﻟ يﺬﻟا ﻞﻤﻌﻟا ءاﺪﻏ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻦﻣ قﺪﺤﻳ ﺬﺧأو ًﻼﻣﺎﻛ. Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 169 5. Conclusions The discussion in this paper has revealed many interesting facts about the translation of English hyphenated compound adjectives into Arabic. First and foremost, it has demonstrated through authenti c textual data that English pre -head hyphenated compounds require the employment of many translation procedures which account for dif ferent percentages, including formal markers (34% ), explicitation (25% ), bare compounds (15% ), simple adjectives (10% ), passive/passive participles (8% ), numeric compounds (3% ), and finally omission (5% ). All these procedures, except for omission where no translation takes place and numeric compounds which can appear pre -head, involve post -head rather than pre -head modification in Arabic due to a typological difference between the two languages. That is, while Eng lish enjoys the ability to encode modificati on both pre -head and post -head, Arabic has the latter option only. Within the translation procedures attested in this study, formal mar kers, which involve the use of prepositions (19% ) and وذ-related forms (15% ), emerge as the most familiar and flexible pr ocedure in rendering English hyphenated compounds. Apart from a semantic constraint relating to the domains of height, size, distance, constitution, and location modifying inanimate head nouns (e.g. ﺮﺘﻣ ﺔﺋﺎﻣ عﺎﻔﺗرﺎﺑ مﺮﻫ but not ﺮﺘﻣ ﺔﺋﺎﻣ عﺎﻔﺗرا وذ مﺮﻫ ), the preposition ب bi- can freely replace وذ-related forms (e.g. سأر وذ ﻞﺟر ﻢﺨﺿ and ﻢﺨﺿ سأﺮﺑ ﻞﺟر ). Formal markers can also replace procedures across categories such as relativization and bare compounds, viz. ﻢﺨﺿ ﻪﺳأر يﺬﻟا ﻞﺟﺮﻟا , سأﺮﻟا ﻢﺨﺿ ﻞﺟﺮﻟا and ﻟا وذ ﻞﺟﺮﻟا ﻢﺨﻀﻟا سأﺮ . This flexible nature of formal markers makes them an indispensable translation procedure to consider when encountering pre -head English hyphenated compounds. The second most frequent translation procedure involves explicitating the hyphenated co mpound through relativization (15% ), generic words (7% ), and lexical comparisons (3% ). Relativization, which is a familiar structure in both English and Arabic, simply restates the semantics of the pre -head English compound in the form of what is tradition ally called an adjective clause. It constitutes an important translation procedure and, in several cases, it presents itself as the only available option to rend er a hyphenated compound modifying a definite head noun, e.g. the hyphenated compound in ‘the 400 -meter tower’ can hardly be rendered by a translation procedure other than relativization. For its turn, explicitating by rendering implicit English generic words in the compound explicit in Arabic is sometimes necessitated in order to produce acceptable constructions in Arabic, e.g. ‘an all -night shop’ must be rendered as ﻞﻴﻠﻟا لاﻮﻃ ﺢﺘﻔﻳ ﺮﺠﺘﻣ rather than ﻞﻴﻠﻟا لاﻮﻃ ﺮﺠﺘﻣ , where explicitation has been followed. Finally, we have Arabic lexical comparisons which can be effectively used when rendering English -like hyphenated compounds. Arabic bare compounds (15% ) also present themselves as a highly effective procedure for rendering pre -head Engl ish compounds in many cases. By transposing the two items in the Arabic ren dition of an English compound, the output of formal markers in particular may be changed into bare Arabic compounds, e.g. the hyphenated compound in ‘the red -colored hat’ can be ren dered by the وذ-procedure Farghal and Al -Mu’min 170 as ﺮﻤﺣﻷا نﻮﻠﻟا تاذ ﺔﻌﺒﻘﻟا or the bare -compound procedure as نﻮﻠﻟا ءاﺮﻤﺣ ﺔﻌﺒﻘﻟا , thus dispensing with the formal marker through transposition. Some English hyphenated compounds may also lend themselves to translating into simple A rabic adjectives (10% ). This comes as a result of the fact that languages may lexicalize concepts differently. For example, while English customarily uses the hyphenated adjective compound ‘well -documented’ to modify head nouns, Ara bic employs a simple adj ective ﻖّﺛﻮﻣ in comparable instances. Translators, however, need to guard against falling in the trap of under -translation, or even mistranslation, when opting for this translation procedure. Passives/passive participles (8% ) figure in the data as a transl ation procedure required when rendering English hyphenated compounds deriving from passive constructions, e.g. ‘a star -studded sky’ should be rendered by employing an Arabic passive participle form into مﻮﺠﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻌﺻﺮﻣ ءﺎﻤﺳ . This procedure, however, may opti onally be used when rendering non -passive English compounds. In such a case, a passive participle’s main function is to explicitate, e.g. the hyphenated compound in ‘a two -engine plane’ may be rendered as ﻦﻴﻛﺮﺤﻤﺑ ةﺮﺋﺎﻃ or ﻦﻴﻛﺮﺤﻤﺑ ةدوﺰﻣ ةﺮﺋﺎﻃ . Pre -head num eric hyphenated compounds which immediately modify head nouns in English (3% in the data) are supposed to be the easiest category to translate into Arabic because they formally cor respond to pre -head and post -head Arabic numeric compounds, e.g. ‘twenty -one girls’ and ‘the twenty -one girls’ correspond to وﺮﺸﻋو ىﺪﺣإ ةﺎﺘﻓ ن and ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟاو ىﺪﺣﻹا تﺎﻴﺘﻔﻟا respectively. However, this study shows that the translator of the novel under study makes several grammatical mistakes when rendering most numer ic compounds, a fact which may reflect the quality of the translation in general. Finally, the data instantiates five cases where the English hyphenated compound is deleted altogethe r in the Arabic translation. It should be noted that such deletion seriously affects the q uality of the translation. Regardless of how challenging the English compound is, there usually exists a translati on procedure that would be capable of rendering its meaning. The present study has attested several translation procedures that translators ne ed to consider when dealing wi th pre -head hyphenated compound s. Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 171 ﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻰﻟإ ﺔﻟﻮﺻﻮﻤﻟا ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺖﻌﻨﻟا تﺎﺒﻛﺮﻣ ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﻲﺸﻨﻴﻓاد ةﺮﻔﻴﺷ نواﺮﺑ ناد ﺔﻳاور ﻲﻓ ﺔ ﺔﻤﻃﺎﻓو ﻞﻏﺮﻓ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ ﻦﻣﺆﻤﻟا ﻢﺴﻗ .ﺖﻳﻮﻜﻟا ،ﺖﻳﻮﻜﻟا ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ ،ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺔﻐﻠﻟا ﺺﺨﻠﻤﻟا ﻰــﻟإ ﺔــﺳارﺪﻟا هﺬــﻫ ﻰﻌــﺴﺗ ﺔــﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا ﺖــﻌﻨﻟا تﺎــﺒﻛﺮﻣ ﺔــﻤﺟﺮﺗ ﺪــﻨﻋ ﺎﻬﻣاﺪﺨﺘــﺳا ﻦــﻜﻤﻳ ﻲــﺘﻟا ﺔــﻴﻤﺟﺮﺘﻟا ﻖــﺋاﺮﻄﻟا ف ﺎــﺸﻜﺘﺳا ﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﻰﻟإ ﺔﻟﻮﺻﻮﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ لﻮﺻﻮﻣ ﺐﻛﺮﻣ ﺔﺋﺎﻣ ﻦﻣ نﻮﻜﺘﺗ ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻘﺣ تﺎﺗﺎﻴﺑ جاﺮﺨﺘﺳا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا هﺬﻫ ﺰﻜﺗﺮﺗ فﺪﻬﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻖﻴﻘﺤﺘﻟو .ﺔ تﺎﻧﺎﻴﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺎﻫﺮﻇﺎﻨﻳ ﺎﻤﺑ ﺎﻬﺘﻠﺑﺎﻘﻣو ﻲﺸﻨﻴﻓ اد ةﺮﻔﻴﺷ نواﺮﺑ ناد ﺔﻳاور ﺖﺟﺮﺨﺘـﺳا ـﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ﺔـﻤﺟﺮﺘﻟا ﻦـﻣ ﺪـﺒﻋ ﺔﻤـﺳ ﺎـﻬﺑ ﺖـﻣﺎﻗ ﻲـﺘﻟا ﺔ ﺔـﻳﻮﺤﻨﻟا تﺎـﻣﻼﻌﻟا ﻰـﻠﻋ ﺎـﻬﺘﻳراﺮﻜﺗ ءﻮـﺿ ﻲﻓ يﻮﺘﺤﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﻖﺋاﺮﻄﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟا ﻰﻟإ دﻮﻌﻳ ﻢﺟﺮﺘﻤﻟا نأ ﻰﻟإ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟا ﺮﻴﺸﺗو .ﻪﺑر ) ﻦـﻣ ﺬــﺑ ﺖــﻌﻨﻟا ﺔــﻣﻼﻋو ﺮــﺠﻟا فوﺮــﺣ لﻼــﺧي حﺎــﺼﻓﻹاو ،(ﺎﻬﺗﺎّﻘﺘــﺸﻣو ) ذ تﺎــﻤﻠﻜﻟاو ﺔﻟﻮــﺻﻮﻤﻟا ءﺎﻤــﺳﻷا لﻼــﺧ ﻦــﻣ ﺔــﻣﺎﻌﻟا ﺔــﻟﻻﺪﻟا تا هﺬـﻫ يﻮﻀﻨﺗ ﺪﻗو .ﺔﻳدﺪﻌﻟا تﺎﺒﻛﺮﻤﻟاو ،لﻮﻬﺠﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﻤﻟا ﻎﻴﺼﻟاو ،ﺔﻄﻴﺴﺒﻟا تﺎﻔﺼﻟاو ،ﺔﻓﺮﺼﻟا تﺎﺒﻛﺮﻤﻟاو ،(ﺔﻴﻤ ﺠﻌﻤﻟا تﺎﻧرﺎﻘﻤﻟاو أ ﻰـﻟإ ﺔـﺳارﺪﻟا هﺬﻫ ﺺﻠﺨﺗو .ﺔﻨﻴﻌﻣ ﺔﻴﻟﻻد تاﺪﻴﻘﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ،تﺎﻗﺎﻴﺴﻟا ﺾﻌﺑ ﻲﻓ راودﻷا لدﺎﺒﺘﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ،ﺔﻴﻤﺟﺮﺘﻟا ﻖ ﺋاﺮﻄﻟا ﻦﻴﻤﺟﺮـﺘﻤﻟا ن ﻟإ ﺔﺟﺎﺤﺑ ﻟﺎﺑ ﻲﻋﻮﻟا ﻰ ﻲﻓﺮﺼﻟا ﺮﻳﺎﻐﺘﻟا اﺬﻫ ﻊﻣ ﻞﻋﺎﻔﻟا ﻞﻣﺎﻌﺘﻟا ﻦﻣ اﻮﻨﻜﻤﺘﻳ ﻲﻛ ﻖﺋاﺮﻄﻟا هﺬﻬﻟ ﻞﻣﺎﻜﻟا ﻒﻴﻄ- .ﻦﻴﺘﻐﻠﻟا ﻦﻴﺑ ﻲﻤﺠﻌﻤﻟا :ﺔﻴﺣﺎﺘﻔﻤﻟا تﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟا .ﺔﻴﻤﺟﺮﺘﻟا ﻖﺋاﺮﻄﻟا ،ﺔﻟﻮﺻﻮﻤﻟا تﺎﺒﻛﺮﻤﻟا ،ﺔﻤﺟﺮﺘﻟا ،ﺔﻴﺑﺮﻌﻟا ،ﺔﻳﺰﻴﻠﺠﻧﻹا Farghal and Al -Mu’min 172 References AbdRabu, S imah . 2004 . shiifrat da vinshi . Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers. Amer, Walid. 2010 . Compounding in English and Arabic: A Contrastive Study . Islamic University Journal, Gaza Strip. (online pdf/site. iugaza.edu.ps/wamer/files/ ) Amer, Walid. and Menacere, Karim. 2013 . The Challenges of Translating English Compounds into Arabic – for Better or for Worse . Babel 59 (2): 224 -243 (20 ). Baker, M ona .1992 . In Other Words : A Course Book on Translation. London: Routledge. Brown, D an. 2003 . The Da Vinci Code . London: Corgi Books. Cowan, D avid .1958 . An Introduction to Modern Literary Arabic . London: Cambridge University Press. Crystal, D avid . 2004 . Rediscover Grammar . Harlow: Pearson Education. Hatim, B asil. and Mason, Ian. 1990 . Discourse and the Translator . London and New York: Longman. Larson, M ildred . 1983/1998 . Meaning -based Translation: A Guide to Cross -Language Equivalence . Larham: University of Press America. Leech, G eoffrey . and Svartvik , Jan. 1994 . A Communicative Grammar of English . London and New York: Longman. Milikic, B iljana . 2010 . A Translation Study Focusing on the Translation of Adjectives and Constructions with of (Master’s T hesis, Linnaeus University, Sweden) . Retrieved from: http://www.diva – portal.org/smash/get/diva 2:332239 /fulltext 01 Newmark, P eter .1988 . A Textbook of Translation . London: Prentice Hall. Nida, Eugene and Taber , Charles. 1974 . The Theory and Practice of Translation. Netherlands: United Bible Societies. Pierini, Patrizia . 2015 . Translating English Compound A djectives into Italian: Problems and Strategies . Translation & Interpreting 7 (2): 17 -29 . The Writing Library Center (University of Saint -Paul) at: http://info.csp.edu/globalassets/academic – resources/writing -center/docs/compound -adjectives -and -hyphenation.pdf Vinay, J ean -Paul. and Darbelnet, Jean. J. 1958/1995 . Comparative Stylisti cs of French and English: A Methodology for T ranslation. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 173 Appendix …he saw a plush Renaissance bedroom with Louis XVI furniture, hand -frescoed walls… (p. 21 ) ﺮﺼﻋ زاﺮﻄﺑ ةﺮﺧﺎﻓ ﺔﻓﺮﻏ ﻲﻓ ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ﺪﺠﻴﻟ ﻪﻟﻮﺣ ﺮﻈﻧ ﺎﻬﻧارﺪﺟو ﺮﺸﻋ سدﺎﺴﻟا ﺲﻳﻮﻟ رﻮﻜﻳﺪﺑ ﺔﺷوﺮﻔﻣ ﺔﻀﻬﻨﻟا …ًﺎﻳوﺪﻳ ﺖﻤﺳر ﺔﻴﺼﺟ ﺔﺣﻮﻠﺑ ﺔﻨﻳﺰﻣ ) ص 17( Full -length mirror (p. 22) ةآﺮﻤﻟا ) ص 18( Self -important historians (p. 22 ) ﻦﻳروﺮﻐﻤﻟا ﻦﻴﺧرﺆﻤﻟا ) ص 18( This Forty -something academic (p.24 ) ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﻴﻌﺑرأ ﺮﻤﻌﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻎﻟﺎﺒﻟا ) ص 19 ( Dressed in an official -looking blue uniform (p.25 ) ﺎﻴﻤﺳر ﺎﻳز ﺲﺒﻠﻳأ قرز ) ص 20 ( Late -night lovers (p.31 ) ناﺮﻬﺴﻳ ﻦﻴﺒﻴﺒﺣ ) ص 25 ( Its dissonant two -tone siren… (p.32 ) تﻮﺻ يوﺪﻤﻟا ﺎﻬﺗرﺎﻔﺻ ) ص 25 ( A thousand -foot phallus (p.33 ) مﺪﻗ ﻒﻟأ عﺎﻔﺗرﺎﺑ ﺐﻴﻀﻗ ) ص 26 ( Rapid -fire French (p. 35 ) ﺔﻴﺴﻧﺮﻔﺑ ﺔﻌﻳﺮﺳ ) ص 28( Chinese -born American architect (p.35 ) ﺪﻟﻮﻤﻟا ﻲﻨﻴﺼﻟا ﻲﻜﻳﺮﻣﻻا سﺪﻨﻬﻤﻟا) ص 28( Seventy -one -foot -tall … pyramid (p.35 ) ﺎﻣﺪﻗ ﻦﻴﻌﺒﺳو ﺪﺣاو ﻪﻟﻮﻃ ﻎﻠﺒﻳ ) ص 28 ( Dream -like quality of the evening… (p.37) ﻢﻠﺤﻟا ﻰﻟإ نﻮﻜﻳ ﺎﻣ بﺮﻗأ …ءﺎﺴﻤﻟا ) ص 29 ( Double -breasted suit (p. 37) رﺪﺼﻟا ﺔﻨﻄﺒﻣ ةﺮﺘﺳ ) ص 30 ( His dark hair was slicked back with oil, accentuating an arrow -like widow’s peak that divided his jutting brow. (p. 39 ) ﻢﻬﺳ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺮﻌﺷ ﺔﻠﺼﺧ سأﺮﻟا ﺔﻣﺪﻘﻣ ﻦﻣ تزﺮﺑ ﺪﻗ و …،ﻦﻴﺜﻜﻟا ﻪﻴﺒﺟﺎﺣ ﻢﺴﻘﻳ) ص 31 ( Fifty -seven feet beneath ground (p. 40) مﺪﻗ ﻦﻴﻌﺒﺳو ﺲﻤﺧ ﻖﻤﻌﺑ ) ص 32( 70,000 –square -foot lobby (p. 40 ) ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻤﺑ …ﺔﻫدر 70.000 ﺔﻌﺑﺮﻣ مﺪﻗ ) ص 32( Crypt -like atmosphere (p.40 ) رﻮﺒﻘﻟا ﺔﻤﻠﻇو ةدوﺮﺒﻟﺎﺑ…نﺎﻜﻤﻟا ﻮﺟ ﺔﻐﺑﺎﺻ… ) ص 32( Lesser -known pyramid (p. 41 ) مﺮﻬﻟا ةﺮﻬﺷ ﻞﻗﻷا ) ص 32( …but during his twenty -year tenure as curator (p.42 ) ﻢﻴﻘﻟا ﺐﺼﻨﻣ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻞﻐﺷ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟا لﻼﺧ ) ص 34( The three -hundred page draft (p.43 ) ﺔﺤﻔﺻ ﺔﺋﺎﻤﺛﻼﺛ ﺎﻬﺗﺎﺤﻔﺻ دﺪﻋ ﻎﻠﺑ ﻲﺘﻟا ةدﻮﺴﻤﻟا ) ص 34( Two -storey climb (p.43) ﻞﻳﻮﻄﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا دﻮﻌﺻ ﻦﻴﻘﺑﺎﻃ ﺔﻓﺎﺴﻤﻟ ) ص 34( Open -air escalator (p.43 ) ﺔﺣﻮﺘﻔﻤﻟا ﺔﻴﺋﺎﺑﺮﻬﻜﻟا ﻢﻟﻼﺴﻟا ) ص 34( Flat -white light (p. 45 ) ءﺎﻀﻴﺒﻟا ﺔﻳدﺎﻴﺘﻋﻻا ءاﻮﺿﻷا ) ص 35 ( Large -format oils (p. 45 ) ةﺮﻴﺒﻜﻟا ﺔﻴﺘﻳﺰﻟا تﺎﺣﻮﻠﻟا ) ص 36( Coal -filter dehumidifiers (p.45) ﻞﻤﻌﺗ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺻ ةﺰﻬﺟأ ﻢﺤﻔﻟا ﻦﻣ ﺮﺗﻼﻓ تاذ ﺔﺑﻮﻃﺮﻟا ﺔﻟازﻹ ) ص 36( The 133.000 -square -foot tower (p.49) ﻪﺘﺣﺎﺴﻣ ﻎﻠﺒﺗ يﺬﻟا جﺮﺒﻟا 133.000 ﺔﻌﺑﺮﻣ مﺪﻗ ) ص 39( His 14 -carat gold bishop’s ring (p.49) رﺎﻴﻋ ﺐﻫﺬﻟا ﻦﻣ عﻮﻨﺼﻤﻟا ﻲﻔﻘﺳﻷا ﻪﻤﺗﺎﺧ 14 ) ص 39( His ankle -length, hooded robe (p. 54 ) ﻪﺑﻮﺛ ﻪﻠﺣﺎﻛ ﻰﻟإ ﻪﻟﻮﻃ ﻞﺼﻳ يﺬﻟا ةﻮﺴﻨﻠﻘﻟا وذ ) ص 42( Farghal and Al -Mu’min 174 Her eight -year cycle (p. 61) ﻊﺑرﻷا تاﻮﻨﺴﻟا تاذ ﺎﻬﺗرود ) ص 48 ( Alcohol -based fluorescent ink (p.64 ) ﻲﻟﻮﺤﻛ سﺎﺳأ وذ ﺎﺌﻴﻀﻣ اﺮﺒﺣ ) ص 50 ( Sixty -year -old body (p. 68 ) ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﻦﻴﺘﺳ هﺮﻤﻋ يﺬﻟا ﺎﻫﺪﺴﺟ ) ص 53 ( Life -sized replica (p. 71 ) يﺮﺸﺒﻟا ﻢﺠﺤﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﻄﻣ ﺔﺨﺴﻧ ) ص 57 ( Her eyes were olive -green… (p. 79) ﻲﻧﻮﺘﻳﺰﻟا ﺮﻀﺧﻻا ﺎﻤﻬﻧﻮﻠﺑ …ﺎﻬﻴﻨﻴﻋ ) ص 63( international stick -figure symbols (p. 97 ) ﺔﻴﻤﻟﺎﻌﻟا ﺔﻣﻼﻌﻟا ) ص 79( Maze -like series of dividers (p.97 ) تﺎﻫﺎﺘﻤﺑ ﻪﺒﺷأ ﻞﺻاﻮﻓ ) ص 79 ( Close -up photo (p. 101 ) ةرﻮﺼﻟا … ) ص 82 ( Thirteen -round Heckler (p. 108 ) ﻞﻳدﻮﻣ ﻦﻣ زاﺮﻃ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻘﻠﻃ ﻦﻴﺛﻼﺜﻟا وذ سﺪﺴﻤﻟا ﻚﻟذ ﺮﻠﻜﻴﻫ ) ص 88( Second -stor ey window (p. 119 ) ﻲﻧﺎﺜﻟا ﻖﺑﺎﻄﻟا ﻲﻓ ةﺬﻓﺎﻧ ) ص 97 ( The truck’s open -air bed was covered with a vinyl tarp… (p. 121 ) شﺎﻤﻘﺑ ﻰﻄﻐﻣو حﻮﺘﻔﻣ قوﺪﻨﺼﺑ ةدوﺰﻣ ﺔﻨﺣﺎﺸﻟا ﺖﻧﺎﻛ …ﻞﻴﻨﻴﻔﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻊﻤﺸﻣ ) ص 100 ( The plate -glass window (p. 122 ) ﺔﻴﺟﺎﺟﺰﻟا ﺔﺤﻴﻔﺼﻟا تاذ ةﺬﻓﺎﻨﻟا ) ص 101 ( Twin -bed eighteen wheeler (p. 122 ) ﺔﻠﺠﻋ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻤﺛو ﻦﻳﺮﻴﺒﻛ ﻦﻴﻗوﺪﻨﺼﺑ ةدوﺰﻣ…ﺔﻨﺣﺎﺷ ) ص 101( The eighteen wheeler idling (p. 123 ) ﺔﻠﺠﻋ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻤﺜﻟا تﻼﺠﻌﻟا تاذ ةﺮﻴﺒﻜﻟا ﺔﻨﺣﺎﺸﻟا ) ص 101 ( Well -documented history (p. 125 ) ﻖﺛﻮﻣ ﺦﻳرﺎﺗ ) ص 103( The game’s twenty -two cards (p.129 ) ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻋو ﻦﻴﻨﺛﻻا ﺐﻌﻠﻟا قاروأ ) ص 107 ( A long -legged maths major (p. 131 ) ﻛ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻣﺎﻘﻟا ﻞﻳﻮﻃ ﺐﻟﺎﻃﻠ تﺎﻴﺿﺎﻳﺮﻟا ﺔﻴ ) ص 108 ( Mind -boggling aspect of PHI (p. 132 ) يﺎﻔﻟ ﻞﻫﺬﻤﻟا ﻪﺟﻮﻟا ) ص 109 ( The five -pointed star (p. 135 ) ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻤﺨﻟا ﺔﻤﺠﻨﻟا ) ص 112 ( Leonardo was a well -documented devotee of the ancient ways of the goddess. (p.135 ) نﺎﻛ ﻪﺴﻔﻧ رﺬﻧ ﺪﻗ ﺔﻴﺨﻳرﺎﺘﻟا ﻖﺋﺎﺛﻮﻟا ﺔﻓﺎﻛ ﺐﺴﺣ ﻲﺸﻨﻓاد .ﻰﺜﻧﻷا ﺔﻬﻟﻸﻟ ﺔﻤﻳﺪﻘﻟا ةدﺎﺒﻌﻠﻟ ) ص 112( Right -hand wall (p. 141 ) ﻰﻨﻤﻴﻟا ﺔﻬﺠﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻂﺋﺎﺤﻟا ) ص 117( Fifteen -foot Botticelli (p. 151 ) مﺪﻗ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺔﺴﻤﺧ لﻮﻄﺑ ﻲﻠﻠﻴﺸﻴﺗﻮﺒﻟ …ﺔﺣﻮﻟ ) ص 124 ( Well -lit crime scene (p. 152 ) ﺔﻔﺷﺎﻛ ءاﻮﺿﺄﺑ ارﺎﻨﻣ نﺎﻛ يﺬﻟا ﺔﻤﻳﺮﺠﻟا حﺮﺴﻣ ) ص 124 ( The three -acre -compound (p. 162 ) تاﺮﻜﻳإ ثﻼﺛ ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻣ ﻲﻄﻐﻳ يﺬﻟا ﻊﻤﺠﻤﻟا ) ص 132( A three -digit code (p. 163 ) ﺰﻣر مﺎﻗرأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﻦﻣ ًا ) ص 132( Two -inch -thick pane (p. 164 ) ﻦﻴﺸﻧإ ﺔﻛﺎﻤﺴﺑ حﻮﻟ ) ص 134( Muscle -bound man (p. 167 ) تﻼﻀﻌﻟا لﻮﺘﻔﻣ ﻞﺟر ) ص 136 ( Feminine -worshipping religion (p. 173 ) ﻰﺜﻧﻷا ﺲﻳﺪﻘﺗ ﻰﻠﻋ مﻮﻘﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻨﺛﻮﻟا نﺎﻳدﻷا ) ص 142( Right -hand counterparts (p. 174 ) ﻦﻤﻳﻷا ﺐﻧﺎﺠﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻢﻫؤاﺮﻈﻧ ) ص 143( Rough -hewn stone slab (p. 177 ) لﻮﻘﺼﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ ﻦﺸﺧ يﺮﺠﺣ حﻮﻟ ) ص 144 ( His alabaster -white flesh (p. 178 ) ﺮﻣﺮﻤﻟا نﻮﻠﺑ ﺾﻴﺑﻷا هﺪﺴﺟ ) ص 145( Hyphenated English Compound Adjectives in Arabic Translation: The Case of Dan Brown’s : The Da Vinci Code 175 Blood -red slashes (p. 178 ) ﺔﻴﻧﺎﻗ ءاﺮﻤﺣ حوﺮﺟ ) ص 145 ( The usual Jesus -blessing -john scenario (p. 191 ) ﺎﻨﺣﻮﻳ ﺎﻛرﺎﺒﻣ ﺢﻴﺴﻤﻟا ﻪﻴﻓ نﻮﻜﻳ يﺬﻟا فوﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﻊﺿﻮﻟا ) ص 156( Watered -down version (p. 191 ) …ﺔﺨﺴﻧ ) ص 156( Blue -robed virgin Mary (p. 191 ) قرزﻷا ﺎﻬﺑﻮﺜﺑ ءارﺬﻌﻟا ﻢﻳﺮﻣ ) ص 156( Tree -lined diplomatic neighborhood (p.192 ) ﺮﺠﺸﻤﻟا ﻲﺳﺎﻣﻮﻠﺑﺪﻟا ﻲﺤﻟا ) ص 156 ( Laser -tooled varying matrix (p. 192 ) رﺰﻴﻠﻟﺎﺑ ةرﻮﻔﺤﻣ ) ص 156 ( … The deserted moon -swept hills (p. 193 ) ﺮﻤﻘﻟا ءﻮﺿ ﺎﻫﺮﻴﻨﻳ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺨﻟا بﺎﻀﻬﻟا ) ص 157 ( A composed three -point turn (p. 198 ) ﻞﺣاﺮﻣ ثﻼﺛ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺒﻛﺮﻣ ﺔﻓﺎﻔﺘﻟﺎﺑ ﺖﻣﺎﻗ ) ص 161 ( Laser -cut key (p. 200 ) رﺰﻴﻠﻟا ﺔﻌﺷﺄﺑ ﺮﻔﺣ حﺎﺘﻔﻣ ) ص 162 ( Its high -tech tooling (p. 200 ) ﻪﺘﻴﻌﻨﺼﻣ ﺔﻴﻨﻘﺘﻟا ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻋ ) ص 163 ( Long -stemmed Christian cross (p.200 ) ﺔﻠﻳﻮﻄﻟا قﺎﺴﻟا وذ ﻲﺤﻴﺴﻤﻟا ﺐﻴﻠﺼﻟا ) ص 163 ( 164 -foot -tall tribute (p. 202 ) ﺎﻣﺪﻗ ﻦﻴﺘﺳو ﻊﺑرأو ﺔﺋﺎﻣ عﺎﻔﺗرﺎﺑ …يرﺎﻛﺬﺗ ﺐﺼﻧ ) ص 164( Glass -roofed train terminal (p. 203 ) ﻲﺟﺎﺟﺰﻟا ﻒﻘﺴﻟا تاذ رﺎﻄﻘﻟا ﺔﻄﺤﻣ ) ص 165( A full -fledged evacuation (p. 204 ) ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻛ ءﻼﺟ ﺔﻴﻠﻤﻋ ) ص 166( Grille -plate medallions (p. 205 ) ةﺮﻓﺎﻧ تﺎﻨﻴﻳﺰﺘﺑ ﺔﺸﻛرﺰﻣ ﻊﺑﺎﺼﻣ ) ص 167( Star -filled November sky (p. 207 ) مﻮﺠﻨﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻧادﺰﻤﻟا ﺮﺒﻤﻓﻮﻧ ءﺎﻤﺳ ) ص 168 – 169( A gaping indoor -outdoor cavern (p. 210 ) ﻳﻮﺠﺗ ﻦﻋ ةرﺎﺒﻋ ﻲﻬﻓ لﻮﺧﺪﻠﻟ تاﺮﻤﻣ وذ ﻲﻔﻬﻛ ﻒ جوﺮﺨﻟاو ) ص 171 ( All -night café (p. 211 ) ﻞﻴﻠﻟا لاﻮﻃ ﺢﺘﻔﻳ ﻰﻬﻘﻣ ) ص 171 ( It’s alcohol -based (p. 212 ) ﻲﻟﻮﺤﻛ سﺎﺳأ وذ ءﻲﺷ ﺔﺤﺋار ﺎﻬﻧإ ) ص 173 ( Half -eaten power lunch (p. 224 ) مﺎﻌﻄﻟا ﻦﺤﺻ ) ص 183 ( Equal -armed cruciform (p. 230 ) ﻦﻴﻋارﺬﻟا يوﺎﺴﺘﻤﻟا ﺐﻴﻠﺼﻟا ) ص 188( Cave -ridden hills (p. 232 ) فﻮﻬﻜﻟا تاذ ﺔﻳﺮﺨﺼﻟا بﺎﻀﻬﻟا ) ص 189 ( The peaceful, equal -armed cross (p. 235 ) ﺐﻴﻠﺼﻟا ﻢﻟﺎﺴﻤﻟا عرذﻷا يوﺎﺴﺘﻤﻟا ) ص 192( The Depository Bank of Zurich was a twenty -four -hour Geldschrank Bank … (p. 240 ) ﻰﻠﻋ ﺮﻓﻮﺘﻣ ﺐﻫﺬﻠﻟ ﺔﻨﻳﺰﺧ ﺪﻌﻳ ﻊﺋادﻮﻠﻟ خرﻮﻳز ﻚﻨﺑ نﺎﻛ …ﺔﻋﺎﺳ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻋو ﻊﺑرﻷا راﺪﻣ ) ص 197(
I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
A The Republic of Iraq Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research Mosul University / College of Arts Adab Al -Rafidayn Journal A refereed quarterly scientific journal Issue d by the College of Arts – University of Mosul Vol . Eighty – five / year Fifty – one Shawwal – 144 2 AH / June 1/6/202 1 AD The journal’s deposit number in the National Library in Baghdad: 14 of 1992 ISSN 0378 – 2867 E ISSN 2664 -2506 Adab Al – Rafidayn Journal B A refereed journal concerned with the publishing of scientific researches in the field of arts and humanities both in Arabic and English Vol . Eighty – five / year Fifty – one / Shawwal – 144 2 AH / June 202 1 AD Editor -in-Chief: Professor Dr. Ammar Abd Al -Latif Abd Al -Ali (Information and Libraries) , College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq managing editor : Asst.Prof . Dr. Shaiban Adeeb Ramadan Al -Shaibani (Arabic Language) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Editorial Board Members : Prof. Dr. Hareth Hazem Ayoub (Sociology) College of Arts / University of Mos ul / Iraq Prof. Dr. Hamid Kurdi Al -Falahi (Sociology) College of Arts / Anbar University / Iraq Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahman Ahmed Abdul Rahman (translation) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Prof. Dr. Alaa Al -Din Ahmad Al -Gharaibeh (Arabic Language) College of Arts / Al -Zaytoonah University / Jordan Prof. Dr. Qais Hatem Hani (History) College of Education / University of Babylon / Iraq Prof. Dr. Claude Vincents (French Language and Literature) University of Chernobyl Alps / France Prof. Dr. Mustafa Ali Al -Dowidar (History) College of Arts and Sciences / Taibah University / Saudi Arabia Prof. Dr. Nayef Muhammad Shabib (History) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Prof. Dr. Suzan Youssef Ahmed (media) Faculty of Arts / Ain Shams University / Egyp t Prof. Dr. Aisha Kul Jalaboglu (Turkish Language and Literature) College of Education / University of Hajet Tabah / Turkey Prof. Dr. Ghada Abdel -Moneim Mohamed Moussa (Information and Libraries) Faculty of Arts / University of Alexandria Prof. Dr. Wafa Ab dul Latif Abdul Aali (English Language) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Ass t .Prof. Dr. Arthur James Rose (English Literature) University of Durham / UK Asst.Prof. Dr. Asmaa Saud Edham (Arabic Language) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Lest. Dr. Hijran Abdulelah Ahmad (Philosophy) College of Arts / University of Mosul / Iraq Linguistic Revision and Follow -up : Linguistic Revision : Prof. Dr. Luqman A. Nasser – English Reviser Asst.Prof. Dr. Asmaa Saud Edham – Arabic Reviser Follow -up: Translator Iman Gerges Amin – Follow -up . Translator Naglaa Ahmed Hussein – Follow -up . Adab Al – Rafidayn Journal C Pub lishing instructions rules 1. A researcher who wants to publish in Adab Al -Rafidayn journal should enter the platform of the journal and register by an official or personal activated email via the following link: https://radab.mosuljournals.com/contacts?_action=signup 2. After registration, the platform will send to your mail that you registered on the site and a password will be sent for use in entering the journal by writing your email with the password on the following link: https://radab.mosuljournals.com/contacts?_action=login 3- The platform (the site) will grant the status of the researcher to those who register ed to be able in this capacity to submit their research with a set of steps that begin by filling out data related to them and their research and the y can view it when downloading their research . 4-File formats for submission to peer review are as follo ws : • Fonts : a “standard” type size is as follows : (Title: at 16point / content : at 14point / Margins: at 10 point ), and the number of lines per page: (27) lines under the page heading line with the title, writer name, journal name, number and year o f publishing, in that the number of pages does not exceed 25 in the latest edition in the journal free of illustrations, maps, tables, translation work, and text verification, and (30) pages for research containing the things referred to .  Margins are arr anged in numbers for each page. The source and reference are defined in the margin glossary at the first mentioned word. List of references is canceled, and only the reference is mentioned in the first mentioning place, in case the source is repeated us e (ibid.) • The research is referred to the test of similarity report to determine the percentage of originality then if it pass the test it is referred to two referees who nominate it for publication after checking its scientific sobriety, and confirming its safety from plagiarism , and if the two experts disagree –it is referred to a D third referee for the last peer review and to decide on the acceptance or rejection of the research . 5- The researcher (author) is committed to provide the following i nformation about the research : •The research submitted for evaluation to the journal must not include the name of the researcher, i.e. sent without a name . • A clear and complete title for the research in Arabic and English should be installed on the bod y of the research, with a brief title for the research in both languages: Arabic and English . •The full address of the researcher must be confirmed in two languages: Arabic and English, indicating: (the scientific department / college or institute / unive rsity / country) with the inclusion of an effective email of the researcher . • The researcher must formulate two scientific abstracts for the research in two languages: Arabic and English, not less than (150) and not more than (250) words. •presenting a t least three key words that are more likely to be repeated and differentiated in the research . 6-The researcher must observe the following scientific conditions in writing his research, as it is the basis for evaluation, otherwise the referees will hold h im responsible. The scientific conditions are shown in the following : •There should be a clear definition of the research problem in a special paragraph entitled: (research problem) or (problem of research). • The researcher must take into account the for mulation of research questions or hypotheses that express the problem of research and work to achieve and solve or scientifically refute it in the body of the research . • The researcher works to determine the importance of his research and the goals that h e seeks to achieve, and to determine the purpose of its application. •There must be a clear definition of the limits of the research and its population that the researcher is working on in his research . E • The researcher must consider choosing the correct methodology that is appropriate to the subject of his research, and must also consider the data collection tools that are appropriate for his research and the approach followed in it .  Consideration should be given to the design of the research, its final o utput, and the logical sequence of its ideas and paragraphs . • The researcher should take into consideration the choice of references or sources of information on which the research depends, and choose what is appropriate for his research taking into accou nt the modernity in it, and the accuracy in documenting , quoting form these sources . •The researcher should consider taking note of the results that the researcher reached, and make sure of their topics and their rate of correlation with research questio ns or hypotheses that the researcher has put in his research . 7- The researcher should be aware that the judgment on the research will be according to a peer review form that includes the above details, then it will be sent to the referee and on the basis of which the research will be judged and weights will be given to its paragraphs and according to what is decided by those weights the research will be accepted or rejected. Therefore; the researcher must take that into account in preparing his research. Editor -in -chief F CONTENTS Title Page A Postcolonial Reading of Wole Soyinka’s The Lion and the Jewel Asst.prof. Dr.Sanaa Lazim Al Gharib Talal Saleh Al Dhiab 1 – 22 The Methodology of Imam Al -Buhkārī in his Ṣaḥīḥ: Definition, Indications, and Impact on Hadith Asst. Prof. Dr.Salah Ali Al -Zayat 23 – 48 Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpreting Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab 49 – 78 ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpreting Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab  ت خيرأ ميدقتلا: 42/ 11/ 4242 خيرأت لوبقلا: 42/ 14/ 4242 Abstract This study investigates the meaning perception of compound nouns and noun phrase s according to their stress placement in consecutive interpreting. This is achieved by showing the procedures whereby their meanings are rendered into Arabic. Consecutive interpreting means the interpreter receives successive messages from the speaker and the intended meaning has to be reformulated instantly. Stress is among the most problematic areas for non -native speakers. Thus, students should pay attention to stress patterns of compound nouns and noun phrases. Inadequate knowledge of such stress patter ns in English may cause misunderstanding leading to incapability of rendering them appropriately in the target language which may result in inappropriate spoken discourse . It is hypothesized that stress patterns of compound nouns and noun phrases are perce ived improperly and cannot be distinguished and rendered into target language appropriately. It is hoped that this study will enhance the students’ awareness of compound nouns and nouns phrases stress. The study shows that most students’ translations of c ompound nouns and noun phrases are inappropriate, due to their inability to make a distinction between them. They adopt different procedures in an attempt to transfer their meanings into Arabic. Keywords: compound nouns, noun phrases, stress, interpreting. Stress in English Stress is one of the most important suprasegmentally features of speech that mark different kinds of meanings, especially the speaker’s attitudes and indicates how one utterance relates to another (Ogden, ). Word stress in many la nguages is predictable. For example in Czech , it is always on the first syllable of a word, which is the most prominent but stress in English is Dept. of Translation / College of Arts / University of Mosul . Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab variable because the stress of a multisyllabic word may be on the first syllable ( Ꞌyesterday ) , the second (baꞋnana) , and the third (afterꞋnoon) . Stress is defined also as a linguistic property of words in English. Each word has just one syllable with primary stress and it varies from one word to another. Lexical stress is the key to understanding spoken Eng lish (Arciuli & Cupples, ). Stress can be studied from two closely related points of view: production and perception. Jones ( : ) defines stress in terms of production as a strong force of utterance that means an energetic action of all artic ulatory organs. From a perceptual point of view, Gimson ( : ) explains that all stressed syllables have prominence, which makes syllables more prominent. To understand stress, it is important to explain what is meant by a prominent syllable. Roach ( ) shows that the syllable must contain a vowel, which is called the center and sounds loudly. There might be or might not be consonants after and before this vowel. Trask ( ) states that stress is a specific kind of prominence. There are four components used to produce prominence: Loudness is the sound that has been produced with more energy and generally with an open tract and voicing, pitch is the rate of vibration of the vocal folds, length means the duration in the production of a sound, and the vowel quality. Only one or two of them may make a syllable prominent (Roach, ). The output that is intended to be transferred by the speaker must correspond with what the listener has in mind. The improper use of word stress can change th e meaning and confuse the listener (Reed & Levis, ). For example , stress placement plays a main role in English pairs of two syllable words in showing not only their syntactic category but their meaning too, such as the great difference between ( Ꞌaddress) [the name of place ] and (addꞋress) [ the direct speech to someone] . ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Compound Noun Structure Compounds are the fixed combination of two free forms that have an independent presence. These items, though clearly composed of two elements, ha ve the identifying characteristics of a single word (Adams, ). Jesperson ( : ) considers that merit of compounds lies in their conciseness as compared with the paraphrase following the usual syntactic rules. Compounds express an arrangement between two objects, but have nothing with the way in which the relation is to be understood. Finin ( : ) explains that one of the characteristic features of compou nds in English is their semantic compactness, i.e. the covert nature of the relation linking the head (the one which is modified and often occupies the right most position in the nominal sequence) and the non -head (the modifier). There are three writing forms for compounds: they are open or spaced (tennis shoe), hyphenated (six – pack) or closed (bedroom) (Tryon, ). Concerning the compound structure, Plag ( : ) explains that the majority of compounds have a modifier head structure meaning that the left –hand element modifies, to a certain degree, the right hand element (e.g. , in knee – deep water, the word knee – deep informs us about the depth of the water ) . The head is the most important constituent from which the compound inherits the majority of its semantic and syntactic information. English compounds are very special in terms of having head exclusively on the right – hand side (i.e. if the head is a ver b, then the whole compound will be a verb). Noun phrase structure Howard ( ) states that a noun phrase is a noun with its associated specification which may be viewed as having premodification and /or postmodification. Quirk et al. ( – ) state that the simplest noun phrase consists of an article and a head. The head can be modified in two ways – it can be premodified and/ or postmodified. A noun phrase may have different functions in a sentence, the typical being the subject and object. P remodification may be most expressed by an adjective (some expensive furniture) , but there are common selections also , e.g. a participle ( a very interesting mind , a retired Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab teacher ) , a noun(his life story ) , genitive ( his fisherman’s cottage) , an adverb or adverb phrase (round – the – clock service). Postmodification may consist of a prepositional phrase (the car outside the station ), a non – finite clause (the dog barking next door , a report written by my colleague , the ability of using his ha nd , the ability to use his hand ), a finite clause – a relative clause ( the news that appeared in the papers this morning). Some minor possibilities of postmodification are an adverb phrase (the road back), or an adjective (something different). Determin ers are a very important parts of a noun phrase. In brief, the premodification and postmodification possibilities may consist of the following parts: The girl The blonde girl The blonde girl in blue jeans The blonde girl wearing blue jeans The blonde gi rl who is wearing blue jeans She is my sister. Main Differences between compound Nouns and Noun phrases Scholars differ in the number of criteria they give to make a distinction between compound words and noun phrase. The criteria to recognize compound s can be classified into three types by many authors. – Phonological criterion It is believed that this perceptual ability of the role of stress pattern discriminating between compound nouns and noun phrases is one of the best criteria to identify compo und nouns and distinguish them from noun phrase. Stageberg ( ) states that stress contributes somehow to the transference of its meaning in that the first element should have stress and qualifies the second. Chomsky & Halle ( : ) argue that the difference between them can be captured in a systemic way under the so – called compound stress rule (stress is on the left – hand member of a compound). For instance, BLACK board is a compound (a board to write on) vs. a black BOARD is a phrase (a board that is a black). Generally, Roach ( ) explains that compound nouns have a primary stress on the first element but with a secondary stress on the ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH second one: EARTH quake, WAITING room, LIFT boat, FIRE – extinguisher. Contrasting the compound nouns wit h the corresponding noun phrases, such minimal pairs can be found in: BLACK bird [compound] vs. black BIRD [N. phrase], GREEN fly [compound] vs. green FLY [N. phrase], BLACK board [compound] vs. Black BOARD [N. Phrase]. He adds that when the compound is used attributively in a noun phrase, the stress usually shifts from the second to the first element. This is similar to the stress placement that occurs in co mpounds like LIGHT house – Keeper vs. light House Keeper. Thus, a compound word can be part of a phrase and a compound word can be part of a bigger compound. According to Ladefoged & Johns on ( ) one of the main stress functions is to differentiate between compounds and phrases. Therefore, stress is very significant to analyzing the speech stream particularly the obscure minimal pairs. To sum up, it can be said that the described syn tactic, semantic, and in particular phonological characteristics work together and give a powerful binding force to a compound and make it different from a phrase . – Syntactic criterion The compounds must be isolated from a parallel syntactic group mor phologically. A compound is part of an utterance while a sentence must be a complete grammatical utterance. An adjective cannot be modified syntactically by a preceding substance; e.g. , *grass green (Marchand, ). In the same vein, Adams ( ) explains that if a noun is premodified by another noun, participle, adjective or a nominalization, the result can be either a free phrase or a compound in which the premodifying element has lost its independence. In certain cases, it is useful to resolve whether the sequence is a compound noun or a noun phrase, e.g. small talk and wet day. It is possible to say a very wet day but very small talk cannot be used. Thus, a test can be applied to learn whether the first element can be separated from the head a nd the significant thing is to know whether the adjective can be modified by an adverb or not. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab – Semantic criterion Compounds are not one unit only but also one concept. Levi ( ) proposes that compound nouns are derived from underlying relative clause or complement structures by the two processes of deletion and nominalization, e.g. orange juice is a noun refers to a juice made of orange. Therefore, compound nouns have a meaning that differs from two – word syntactic phrases. Compounds can be see n as having a meaning that may relate to but cannot be simply inferred from its parts meaning. Jackson & Z éamvela ( ) also express the distinction between compounds and noun phrases on the semantic gourd by showing the fact that they tend to acquir e specialized meanings, therefore they are becoming very much like idioms. They state that mostly the meaning of at least one element of the compound is somehow obscured. For example, a black board does not have to be black (it can be also green and can be made of material other than wood). Noun phrase in Arabic Arabic has two types of sentences. Nominals start with a noun and verbals start with a verb. Arabic does not have the same form and structure of English noun phrase which refers to a group of word s that have no verb. But English noun phrase corresponds to Arabic noun or pronoun that can be modified by demonstratives and adjective in Arabic. For Abdullah, ( ), Arabic noun phrase is a noun or pronoun accompanied by a set of modifiers. A demons trative must be placed before the noun and the noun should have the definite article. e.g. this boy دلولا اذى Concerning the adjectives, they must match the noun with gender, case, number, and definiteness e.g . a new book ٌ ديدج ٌ باتك The new book يدجلا ُ باتكلا ُ د The new books ُةديدجلا ُ بتكلا ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Compound Noun in Arabic Qabash ( ) states that Arabic nouns consist of simple and compound nouns. Simple nouns consist of one word noun while compound nouns are nouns that comprise of two words built together. The compound itself consists of three types; namely blended, numeral and annexation compound. Kharma and Hajajj ( ) indicate that compounding does not play a significant role in Arabic. Traditional linguists classify compoun ds into five kinds: – Murakab Idhafi (Annexed Compound) This type is realized by the structural relations, in that a nominal is determined by another one. The first element is always the determined noun which is called mudhaf (annexed) and the second is th e determining element which is called mudhaf ilayhi , and was called by Beeston ( ) the amplifying term and this process is called al – idhafa ( the annexation). e.g. sugar cane ركسلا بصق It must be taken it consideration that not al l two nouns are compounds because the two nouns are linked by idhafa in a possessive relation they are not necessarily subject to the same syntactic limitation as compound e.g. The teacher’s house ـمعملا تيب – Murakab Mazji (Mixed C ompound) Mixed compounds as endocentric compounds that are made of two juxtaposed nouns written as one word )تومرضح( (hadhramawt) which consists of رضح (Hadhra) and توم (Mawt) (Abu Hayan, : ). – Murakab Isnadi ( Predicative Compound ) This type i s used only in proper nouns and places e.g. ىار فم ىرس (suramanraaa). It is related to the exocentric compounds type. They consist of a verbal element + noun .e.g. ارش طبأت (tabata shara) Is a name of a person )طبأت( noun + ( ارش ) object (Abbas, : ). Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab – Murakab Adadi (Numeral Compound) Arabic has numbers from eleven to nineteen. Each number behaves syntactically as one word, e.g. رشع دحأ (eleven), the two elements are juxtaposed. – There are also numbers from twenty one to ninety -nine e.g. ست نوعست و ةع (nine ty nine). Although these numbers behave like compound words, the two parts are inflected just like words having the same relation (Walid, ) Consecutive Interpreting Seleskovitch ( ) calls the first stage of interpreting as au ditory perception of a linguistic utterance which carries meaning. Understanding of the message through a process of analysis and exegesis. The second stage of interpreting is the immediate and deliberate discarding of the wording and retention of the mess age to respond with the target production. Interpreting is a special kind of communicative interaction which takes place when numbers of different languages engage in cross – language culture communication, using interpreter’s mediators. Therefore, int erpreting involves the comprehension and production of discourse; a speaker produces a stretch of source discourse and the interpreter engages in the mental modeling to produce the stretch of target discourse (Kohn & Kalina, ). Consecutive interpreting is the process of oral interpretation in which the interpreter waits until a complete statement has been spoken and then begins interpreting (Santiago, ). Accordingly, consecutive interpre ting means producing the accurate meaning of SL in TL by expressing thoughts clearly in both languages. No doubt, the more stress patterns the interpreter perceives properly in the SL, the more accurate interpreting will be. Data Collection To analyze the stress perception of compound nouns and noun phrases stress and their meaning transference into Arabic, six th year students are involved in the test, which is carried out in the translation Departm ent, College of Arts, Mosul University, in the year . Collecting the data includes two steps: ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Firstly, the students are asked to listen to seven pairs of recorded English sentences (i.e. fourteen ones), different in the stress placement of compound nou n and noun phrase, free of context, and taken from Collins Online English Dictionary. Secondly, the students are asked to interpret consecutively what they hear while the researcher records one by one. Procedures and Discussions Judging the students’ rend itions is based upon appropriateness. For, Kobenko and Ptashkin ( : ), appropriateness implies recognition of contents in accordance with the norms of the target language. A variety of procedures are used to render CNs and NPs into Arabic, which are as follows: – Literal translation is one of the procedures depended on by the students. Catford ( : ) shows that literal translation denotes word – for – word correspondence. – Equivalence translation is conveying the meaning to preserve communication w ith the receptor and keeping the sense (Nida, ). – Paraphrasing is clarified by Newmark ( ), who sees is as a meaning explanation of a text segment. – Modulation is proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet ( : ). It refers to the variation through chan ge of SL view point. – Transliteration is the transformation of a given name in the SL to a name in the TL, which means TL name is phonemically equivalent to the SL name and conforms to the TL phonology (Halai, : ). SLT ( ) a. I ’II leave the running shoes at home and take my Ꞌwet suit. b. I ’II leave the running shoes at home and take my wet Ꞌsuit Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab Table ( ) SLT ( ) Analysis Intended Meaning Expression type SL expression It is a piece of clothing, usually made from rubber that covers the hol e body when one is swimming. Compound Noun a. Ꞌwet suit A suit that is wet Noun Phrase b. wet Ꞌsuit (Wehmeier, ) Renderings TLT ( ) . ةيرطملا يتلدب ذخاو ؿزنملا يف يضايرلا يئاذح ذخا ؼوس انا -أ . رطملاب ةصاخلا يتلدب ذخاو ؿزنملا يف يضايرلا يئاذح ذخا ؼوس انا -ب TLT ( ) . ةممبملا يتلدب ذخأسو ؿزنملا يف يب صاخلا يرجلا ءاذح ؾرتاس -أ .ةممبملا يتلدب ذخأسو ؿزنملا يف يب صاخلا يرجلا ءاذح ؾرتأس -ب TLT ( ) . ةممبملا ةلدبلا تذخاو ؿزنملاب يرجلا ءاذح تكرت دقل -أ . ةحابسلا ةلدب تذخاو ؿزنملاب يرجلا ءاذح تكرت دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ةممبملا يتلدب ذخاو تيبلا يف ضكرلا ءاذح ؾرتأس -أ ةممبملا يتلدب ذخاو تيبلا يف ضكرلا ءاذح ؾرتأس -ب TLT ( ) . ةممبملا ةلدبلا يدترأسو ؿزنملا يف يئاذح عزنأس -أ . توس تيو ةلدب يدترأسو ؿزنملا يف يئاذح عزنأس -ب TLT ( ) . ةيداع يتلدب ذخاو ؿ زنملا يف ؽابسلا ءاذح ؾرتأس -أ .صوغ يتلدب ذخاو ؿزنملا يف ؽابسلا ءاذح ؾرتأس -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ) TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N SLT (a) modulation – ةيرطملا يتلدب – ꞋWet suit Compound Noun literal – يتلدب ةممبملا – literal – ةممبملا ةلدبلا – literal – ةممبملا يتلدب – literal – ةممبم ةلدب – equivalent + صوغ ةلدب – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT (b) modulation – رطملاب ةصاخلا يتلدب – Wet Ꞌsuit Noun Phrase Literal + تلدب ةممبملا ي – modulation – ةحابسلا ةلدب – Literal + ةممبملا يتلدب – Transliterati on – توس تيو ةلدب – modulation – ةيداع ةلدب – Discussion In table ( ), Ꞌwet suit as a compound noun is rendered inappropriately by subjects ( , , , , and ) b ecause they could not distinguish between the compound and the phrase. Only subject ( ) has managed intended meaning “صوغ ةلدب” which gives equivalent meaning. Undoubtedly, the outcome of such transfer is a natural sounding speech. The next table also sho ws that subjects ( , , and ) have not managed the meaning of wet Ꞌsuit as a noun phrase and provided inappropriate renditions, because they might have not perceived stress function as an indication of noun phrase. Subjects ( and ) have transferred th e noun phrase properly into “ةممبملا يتلدب” according to its stress pattern. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. If he was the Ꞌblack sheep of the family, they were probably glad to have him gone. b. If he was the black Ꞌsheep of the family, they were probably glad to have him g one. Table ( ): SLT ( ) Analysis Intended Meaning Expression type SL Expression Someone who has done something bad that brings shame to his family Compound Noun a. Ꞌblack sheep A sheep that is black Noun Phrase b. black Ꞌsheep Wehmeier ) ). Renderings TLT ( ) . وباىذب فيديعس ؿمتحملا فم فونوكيس , ةمئاعلا ةيحض وى فاك اذإ -أ . وباىذب فيديعس ؿمتحملا فم فونوكيس , ةمئاعمل دوسلاا ؼورخلا وى فاك اذإ -ب TLT ( ) . ةمئاعمل راع ةمصو ةباثمب وى فاك اذا , وباىذب ةحرف ةمئاعلا فوكتس – أ . ةمئاعمل دوسلاا ؼورخلا اذى فاك ول , وباىذب ةحرف ةمئاعلا فوكتس -ب TLT ( ) . رداغ دق ونلأ ءادعس حجرلاا ىمع اوناك ةمئاعمل دوسلاا ؼورخلا وى فاك اذا -أ . رداغ ونلأ ءادعس حجرلاا ىمع اوناك ـينا ثيح ةرسلأل ةدئافلا ـيدع وى فاك اذا -ب TLT ( ) . ؿحري هوكرتي فاب ءادعس اوناكل , ةمئاعمل دوسلاا ؼورخلا وى فاك ول -أ . ؿحري هوكرتيل ءادعس امبر اوناك , ةمئاعمل دوسلاا ؼورخلا وى فاك اذا -ب TLT ( ) . وترداغم ةلاح يف ءادعس فونوكيس ةمئاعلا فابج وى فاك اذا -أ .وترداغم ةلاخ يف ءادعس فونوكيس دوسا ؼورخ ـييدل فاك اذا -ب TLT ( ) . بىذ ونلأ ةنتمم فوكت فا فكمملا فمف ةمئ اعمل دوسا ؼورخ وى فاك اذا -أ .بىذ ونأب فيديعس فونوكيس ؿتحملا فمف ةمئاعلا ءادف شبك وى فاك اذا -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Modulation – ةيحض – Ꞌblack shee p Compound Noun Equivalent + راع ةمصو – Literal – دوسلاا فورخلا – Literal – دوسلاا فورخلا – Modulation – نابج – Literal – دوسا فورخ – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :b) Literal + دوسلاا فورخلا – black Ꞌsheep Noun Ph rase Literal + دوسلاا فورخلا – Modulation – ةدئافلا ميدع – Literal + دوسلاا فورخلا – Literal + دوسا فورخ – Modulation – ءادف شبك – Discussion Table ( ) shows that subjects ( , , , and ) have misperceived Ꞌblack sheep as a compound noun according to stress pattern by producing inappropriate renditions. Subject ( ) has conveyed the intended meaning successfully in the TLT according to the stress placement and produced the same SL image by using equivalent method .. راع ةمصو”.” Rendering bl ack Ꞌsheep as a noun phrase, subjects ( , , , and ) Have realized the intended meaning by producing appropriate meaning that are considered literal rendering. Whereas, in the case of “دوسلاا ؼورخلا” subjects ( and ) have transferred incorrect mean ing, because they have not realized the difference of meaning according to stress placement . Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. The leaves of my water lily are covered in Ꞌgreenfly . b. The leaves of my water lily are covered in green Ꞌfly . Table ( ): STL ( ) Analysis . Intended Meaning Expression type SL Expression An aphid: a small green insect that damages plants. Compound Noun a. Ꞌgreen fly A fly that is green. Noun Phrase b. green Ꞌfly )Wehmeier , : ). Renderings TLT ( ) .ءارضخ تارشحب ةاطغم يب ةصاخلا ؽبنزلا تابن ؽاروا -أ .بوسعيلا تارشحب ةاطغم يب ةصاخلا ؽبنزلا تابن ؽاروا فا -ب TLT ( ) . ءارضخ ةرشحب ىطغم يب صاخلا ؽبنزلا ءام ؽاروا -أ .ءارضخ ةرشحب ةاطغم يب صاخلا ؽبنزلا ءام ؽاروا -ب TLT ( ) .ءارضخ ةرشح ؽبنزلا ؽاروا يطغت -أ .ءارضخ ةبابذ ؽبنزلا ؽاروا يطغت -ب TLT ( ) .ءارضخلا ةرشحلاب ىطغم يتصاخ ؽبنزلا ءام ؽار وا -أ .ءارضخلا تارشحلاب ةاطغم يتصاخ ؽبنزلا ءام ؽاروا -ب TLT ( ) رضخا فول تاذ تارشحب ةئيمم ضوحلا ءام ؽاروا فا -أ .ؽبنزلا ةرشحب ةئيمم ضوحلا ءام ؽاروا فا -ب TLT ( ) .ءارضخ ةرشحب ةاطغم ؽبنزلا ةرىز ؽاروا -أ .تاتابنلا ةرشحب ةاطغم ؽبنز لا ةرىز ؽاروا -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Literal – ءارضخ تارشح – Ꞌgreenfly Compound Noun Literal – ءارضخ ةرشح – Literal – ءارضخ ةرشح – Literal – ءارضخ ةرشح – Literal – شح رضخا نول تاذ ةر – Literal – ءارضخ ةرشح – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N SLT ( :b) Modulation – بوسعي ةرشح – green Ꞌfly Noun Phrase Literal + ءارضخ ةرشح – Modulation – ءارضخ ةبابذ – Literal + ءارضخ تارشح – Modulation – ةرشح قبنزلا – Modulation – تاتابن ةرشح – Discussion It is clear that all the subjects have mismatched the meaning of Ꞌgreenfly as a compound noun . So they have conveyed it inappropriately into “ءارضخ ةرشح” as a noun phrase meaning which may refer to b eneficial or harmful insect in Arabic context. It can be rendered into “تابنلا ةممق “or.” “فملا Concerning green Ꞌfly as a noun phrase, subjects ( and ) have transferred its meaning successfully into “ءارضخ ةرشح” by using literal rendering. The rest o f the subjects have not managed the intended meaning according to the stress placement on the second part as any fly with green. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. We adopted a Ꞌgrey hound a year ago. b. We adopted a grey Ꞌhound a year ago. Table ( ) SLT ( ) Analysis Intend ed Meaning Expression type SL Expression A type of dog that has a thin body, long and thin legs, and can run fast in races. Compound Noun a. Ꞌgrey hound A dog that is grey. Noun Phrase b. grey Ꞌhound )Wehmeier , : ). Renderings TLT ( ) .ةيضاملا ةنسلا ديص بمك انينبت دق ل -أ . ةيضاملا ةنسلا يقومس بمك انينبت دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ةيضاملا ةنسلا يف فسلا ريبك بمك انينبت دقل -أ . ةيضاملا ةنسلا فوملا يصاصر بمك انيبت دقل -ب TLT ( ) .يدامر ونول بمك انينبت دقل -أ . ديص بمك انينبت دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ةنس ؿبق ايدامر ًابمك انيبر -أ . ةنس ؿبق ًايدامر ابمك انيبر -ب TLT ( ) . فلاا فم ةنس ؿبق يصاصر بمك ةيبرتب انمق -أ . ةيضاملا ةنسلا يف يصاصر ونول بمك ةيبرتب انمق دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ةيضاملا ةنسلا يف يدامر بمك ينبتب انمق -أ .ةيضاملا ةنسلا يف يدامر بمك ينبتب انمق -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Equivalent + ديص بمك – Ꞌgrey hound Compound Noun Modulation – نسلا ريبك بمك – Literal – يدامر هنول بمك – Literal – ايدامر بمك – Literal – يصاصر بمك – Literal – ك يدامر بم – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :b) Modulation – يقومس بمك – grey Ꞌhound Noun Phrase Literal + نوملا يصاصر بمك – Modulation – ديص بمك – Literal + ايدامر ابمك – Literal + يصاصر هنول بمك – Literal + دامر بمكي – Discussion Table ( ) shows that only subject ( ) has conveyed the intended meaning according to the stress placement on the first part Ꞌgrey hound by using the equivalent rendering “ديص بمك” . Subjects ( , , , and ) have produced inappropriate renderings because stress placement might not be obvious for them. It can also be rendered into.” “يقومس بمك Subjects ( and ) have failed in producing the proper meaning of grey Ꞌhound in the TLT as a noun phrase because they couldn’t distinguish between compounds and phrases. While subjects ( , , and ) have managed the intended meaning as a noun phrase i.e. adjective and noun “فوػملا يػصاصر بػمك “and بػمك” “يدامر by using literal procedure. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. I used to have nightmares about that Ꞌhot do g. b. I used to have nightmares about that hot Ꞌdog . Table ( ) SLT ( ) Analysis Intended Meaning Expression type SL Expression A cooked sausage eaten in along soft bread. Compound Noun a. Ꞌhot dog A dog feels hot. Noun Phrase b. hot Ꞌdog )Wehmeier , : ). Renderings TLT ( ) . راحلا بمكلا ؾلذ فع سيباوك ىرا فا تدوعت دقل -أ . راحلا بمكلا ؾلذ فع سيباوك ىرا فا تدوعت دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ؽناقنلا ؾمت فع سيباوك ىرا تنك -أ . فخاسلا بمكلا ؾلذ فع سيباوك يدل فاك -ب TLT ( ) . ؽنا قنلا تابجو فع سيباوك ىرا فا تدتعا دقل -أ . رحلاب رعشي بمك فع سيباوك ىرا فا تدتعا دقل -ب TLT ( ) . ؽجسلا ؾلذ فع سيباوك ةيؤر تدتعا -أ . ةرارحلاب رعشي بمك فع سيباوك ةيؤر تدتعا -ب TLT ( ) . غود توى ؿوح سيباوكلا ىمع تدتعا -أ . راحلا بمكلا فع سيباوك ىرا فا تدتعا -ب TLT ( ) . ؽناقنلا ؾمت ببسب سيب اوكلا ةيؤر ىمع تدتعا -أ .فخاسلا بمكلا ؾلذ سيباوكلا ةيؤر ىمع تدتعا -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Literal – راح بمك – Ꞌhot dog Compound Noun Equivalent + قناقن – Equivalent + قناقن تابجو – Equivalent + قجس – Transliteration – غود توه – Equivalent + قناقن – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :b) Literal – راح بمك – hot Ꞌdog Noun Phrase Literal – نخاس بمك – paraphrasing + رحلاب رعشي بمك – paraphrasing + ةرارحلاب رعشي بمك – Literal – راح بمك – Literal – نخاس بمك – Discussion Regarding Ꞌhot dog as a compound noun, subjects ( and ) have misinterpreted the intended meaning according to stress pattern. Subjects ( , , , and ) have managed the inte nded meaning as a single meaning unit in the TLT ؽجس” or ؽناقن” , that is the equivalent rendering. For hot Ꞌdog as a noun phrase, although subjects ( , , and ) have realized the intended meaning, they have produced inappropriate renditions خاػػس بػػمك” ” ف and “راػػح بػػمك” , which are not acceptable in Arabic context. Subjects ( and ) have provided the same image and managed the meaning according to stress pattern by using paraphrasing procedure “ “رحلاػػب رعػػشي بػػمك . It can also be rendered into . “ثىلا بمك ” Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. ꞋTurkish teacher is nice enough but Janet doesn’t like her. b. Turkish Ꞌteacher is nice enough but Janet doesn’t like her. Table ( ) SLT ( ) Analysis Intended Meaning Type SL Expression A teacher teaches Turkish. Compound Noun a. ꞋTurkish teac her A Turkish teacher from Turkey. Noun Phrase b. Turkish Ꞌteacher Renderings TLT ( ) . ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةياغمل ةفيطل ةيكرتلا ةممعملا فا -أ . ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةياغمل ةفيطل ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةممعم فا -ب TLT ( ) .ايبحت ـل تيناج فكلو ةفيطل ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا تناك -أ .ايبحت ـل تيناج فكلو ةفيطل ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا تناك -ب TLT ( ) . ايبحت لا تيناج فكل ةياغمل ؼيطل صخش ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةسردم فا -أ .ايبحت لا تيناج فكل ةياغمل ةفيطل ةيكرتلا ةسردملا فا -ب TLT ( ) . ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةيافكلا ويف امب ةديج ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا فا -أ . ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةيافكلا ويف امب ةديج ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا ةقيرط -ب TLT ( ) .ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةنكمتم ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةدام ةسردم فا -أ . ايبحت لا تيناج فكلو ةنكمتم يى ةيكرتلا ةسردملا فا -ب TLT ( ) .ايبحت لا ت يناج فكلو ةيافكلا ويف امب ةديج ةيكرتلا ةسردملا -أ .ةديج اينوك فم ـغرلا ىمع ةيكرتلا ةسردملا ؾمت بحت لا تيناج -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Literal – ةيكرتلا ةممعملا – ꞋTurkish teacher Compound Noun Lit eral – ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا – Equivalent + ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةسردم – Literal – ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا – Equivalent + ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةدام ةسردم – Literal – ةيكرتلا ةسردملا – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :b) Modulation – ةغملا ةممعم ةيكرتلا – Turkish Ꞌteacher Noun Phrase Literal + ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا – Literal + ةيكرتلا ةسردملا – Literal + ةيكرتلا ةذاتسلاا – Literal + ةيكرتلا ةسردملا – Literal + ةيكرتلا ةسردملا – Discussion Rendering the meaning of ꞋTurkish teacher as a compound noun is inappropriate by subjects ( , , and ), due to their misperception of its meaning as a teacher of Turkish according to stress placement. Whereas, subjects ( and ) have transferred its meaning properly into “ ةيكرتلا ةغملا ةسردم“ according to the stress pattern by giving the equivalent meaning. Concerning Turkish Ꞌteacher as a noun phrase, only subject ( ) has misinterpreted the intended meaning. Subjects ( , , , and ) have managed the same SL meaning in the TL ا ةسردملا” “ةيكرتل which is literal translation. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab SLT ( ) a. A team of ꞋWhite House would have no comment. b. A team of white Ꞌhouse would have no comment. Table ( ) SL ( ) Analysis Intended Meaning Expression type SL Expression The official residence of US president. Compound Noun a. ꞋWhite House A house that is white. Noun Phrase b. white Ꞌhouse )Wehmeier , : ). Renderings TLT ( ) . تاقيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا ؽيرف ىدل سيل -أ .تاقيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا يف ؽيرفلا ىدل سيل -ب TLT ( ) .ؽيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا فم ؽيرفل فكي ـل -أ . ؽيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا وذ ؽيرفمل فكي ـل -ب TLT ( ) . ًاقيمعت ضيبلاا تيبلا ؾممي لا -أ . ًاقيمعت فوملا ضيبلااب غوبصملا ؿزنملا ؽيرف ؾممي لا -ب TLT ( ) . ؽيمعت يا ويدل فوكي لا دق ضيبلاا تيبلا فم ؽيرف -أ .ؽيمعت يا ويدل فوكي لا دق ضيبلاا تيبلا فم ؽيرف -ب TLT ( ) . ؽيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا ؽيرف ىدل سيل -أ . ؽيمعت يا ـييدل سيل ضيبلاا فوملاب يمطملا تيبلا ؽيرف فا -ب TLT ( ) . ؽيمعت يا ويدل فوكي فل ض يبلاا تيبلا فم ؽيرف -أ .ؽيمعت يا ضيبلاا تيبلا ؽيرف ىدل فوكي فل -ب ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): TLTs ( ) Analysis Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :a) Literal + ضيبلاا تيبلا – ꞋWhite House Compound Noun Literal + بلاا تيبلا ضي – Literal + ضيبلاا تيبلا – Literal + ضيبلاا تيبلا – Literal + ضيبلاا تيبلا – Literal + ضيبلاا تيبلا – Procedure Appropriateness TL Rendering TLT N . SLT ( :b) Literal – ضيبلاا تيبلا – white Ꞌhouse Noun Phrase Literal – ضيبلاا تيبلا – Paraphrasing + ضيبلأاب غوبصملا لزنملا – Literal – ضيبلاا تيبلا – Paraphrasing + يمطملا تيبلا ضيبلاا نوملاب – Literal – ضيبلاا تيبلا – Discussion In tabl e ( ) , all the subjects have got the meaning of ꞋWhite House as a compound noun that is a unit has its own meaning by using literal type of translation ضيبلاا تيبلا”” that refers to the residence of US president in Arabic context . In the following tabl e the meaning of white Ꞌhouse, which refers to any house painted white , has been rendered improperly into Arabic context, although the subjects ( , , and ) have used literal translation “ ضيبلاا تيبلا” . Therefore the meaning difference between ꞋWhite Ho use and white Ꞌhouse have not been shown clearly. Subjects ( and ) have managed the intended meaning by – Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab producing paraphrasing interpreting “ضيبلااب غوبصملا ؿزنملا” and ” ؿزنملا “ضيبلاا فوملاب يمطملا and stimulated the TL receptor response. Table ( ) Subj ects’ Overall Compound Noun Renderings Percentage Frequency Procedure % 26 42 Literal % 41 9 Equivalent % 12 2 Modulation %4 1 Transliteration % 122 24 Total Table ( ): Subjects’ Overall Noun Phrase Renderings Percentage Frequency Procedure % Liter al % 12 Paraphrasing % 42 14 Modulation %4 1 Transliteration % 122 24 Total The above tables show the times number of procedures used by the students. Table ( ) Subjects’ Overall Stress Perception of Compound Noun Incorrect perception Correct perception Expression NO. 5 1 wet suit Ꞌ 1 5 1 ꞋBlack sheep 4 2 2 ꞋGreen fly 3 5 1 Grey hound Ꞌ 2 4 Hot dog Ꞌ 5 2 4 Turkish teacher Ꞌ 2 2 2 ꞋWhite House 6 46 15 Total ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH Table ( ): Subjects’ Overall Stress Perception of Noun Phrase Incorrect perception Correct perception Procedure NO. 2 4 Ꞌsuit wet 1 4 2 Black Ꞌsheep 4 2 4 Green Ꞌfly 3 4 2 Grey Ꞌhound 2 2 4 Hot Ꞌdog 5 1 5 Turkish Ꞌteacher 2 2 4 White ꞋHouse 6 41 41 Total Table ( ) : Subjects’ Overall Stress Perception of Compounds and Phrases Percentage Frequency Procedure 23 32 appropriate 56 22 inappropriate % 122 22 Total Findings After analyzing the SLTs and investigating their pe rception and rendering into the TL; the study has come up with the following main findings: – The students’ rate of failure in rendering the compounds and phrases is higher than the rate of success. – The noun phrases are conveyed more appropriately than the compounds because the students utilize the literal translation that the lexical environment nature of the noun phrase accepts. Therefore, their success, at least for some of them, is not based on their background knowledge of such stress pattern. – The data shows the students’ rate of failure to convey the compounds meaning is high owing to the fact that most students treat compounds as phrases without paying attention to stress pattern as a key meaning indicator. Obviously, equivalent translation is the mos t suitable way to render compound noun as a one meaning concept. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab Conclusion It is evident in the process of interpreting that the students may have a high degree of difficulty in recognizing compounds nouns and noun phrases because most students are not aware of a shift in the stress placement from the first part to the second one can denote syntactic and semantic shifts in English. Thus, teaching such stress patterns to the learners of English is very important for their progress in the English pronunciation skills. Consequently, teachers should give priority to stress and such features can be taught by practicing a list of minimal pairs containing compounds and phrases and then asking students to make a distinction between them according to str ess placement in order to realize meaning difference and be able to express meaning obviously in the target language. ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH References – Abbas, H. ( ) “Alnahu Alwafi”. Cairo: Dar Almaarif. – Abdullah, N. ( ) “Transfer – Based Arabic to English Noun Sentence Translation Using Shallow Segmentation”. The International Arab Journal of Information Technology , Vol. , No. 5 – Abu Hayan, ( ) “Irtishaf Aldharb”. Cairo: Almadani press. – Adams, V. ( ) “An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation”. London Longman Group ltd. – Arciuli , J and Cupples, L. ( ). “The Processing of Lexical Stress and Orthographic Correlates” .The quarterly. Journal of Experimental Psychology, ( ). – Beeston, A.F.L ( ) “The Arabic Language Today”. London. Hutchinson and Co. Publishers – Catford, J. C. ( ) “A Linguistic Theory of Translation London” Oxford University Press . – Chomsky, N & Halle, M. ( ) “The sound Pattern of English”. New York Harper and Row. – Collins, H. ( ). “Collins English Dictionary”. www.Collinsdictionary.com . – Finin, T. ( ) “Semantic Interpretation of Compound Nominal” University of Illionis, Coordinated Science. – Gimson, A.C. ( ) “An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English” London Edward Arnold Ltd. – Halai, N. ( ) “Making Use of Bilingual Interview Data: Some Experiences from The Field”. The Qualitative Report, Vol. ( ). – Howard, J. ( ) “Grammar & Meaning “. New York Longman Group limited. – Jackson, H and Zéamvela, E. ( ) “Words, Meaning and Vocabulary An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology”. London: Continuum . – Jesperson, O. ( ) “A Modern English Grammar’. On Historical Principles, parts VI Morphology .North Hampton: John Dickens. Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab – Jones, D. ( ) “An outline of English Phonetics Cambridge” CUP. – Kharma, N and Hajjaj, a ( ) “Errors in English among Arabic Speakers. Analysis and Remedy”. London Longman Group UK Ltd. – Kobenko, J. And Ptashkin, A. ( ) “Equivalence and Appropriateness: Divergence Characteristics of Categories un der Translation” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. MCSER Publishing, Rome, Italy, Vol. No. – Kohn, K. and Kalina, S. ( ) “The Strategic Dimensions of Interpreting”. In Meta, Vol. XLI. No. . – Ladefoged, P. and Johnson, K. ( ). “A course in Phonetics”. Cengage Learning: USA. – Levi, J. ( ) “The Syntax and Semantics of complex Nominals”. New York Academic Press. – Marchand, H. ( ) “the Categories and types of present”. Day English word Formation” G.H. Becksche Verlagsbuvhh and Lund Munchen . – Newmark, P. ( ) “A Textbook of Translation”. London Prentice Hall International Ltd . – Nida, E. ( ) “Toward a Science of Translating”. L eiden: E .J Brill. – Ogden, R. ( ) “An Introduction to English Phonics”. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University. – Plag, I. ( )”Word Formation in English”. Cambridge CUP. – Qabash, A. ( ) “ALKamal Fi AL nahwa wa Sarf Lillughati al Araia”. Beirut Dar AL .Jee l Company . – Quirk, R, Greenbaun, S. Leech, G. and Srartive, J. ( ) “A Comprehensive Grammar of English Language” London London Group. Ltd – Reed, M. & Levis, J. M. ( ) “The Handbook of English Pronunciation”. Oxford Black well. – Roach, P. ( ) “Engli sh Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical course”. – Santiago, R. ( ) “Consecutive Interpreting A Brief Review”. In www. Home .earth link .com. ADAB AL -RAFIDAYN, VOL.( ) June ( ) AD / AH – Seleskovitch, D. ( ) “Interpreting for Internation al Conferences”. Trans. S. Daily and E. N. McMillan. Washington, D.C.: Pen and Booth. – Stageberg, N.C. ( ) “An Introduction to English Grammar “( nd ed.) New York : Holt, Rinchart and Winston – Trask, R. L. ( ) “A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology”. London Routledge. – Tryon, B. ( ) “Open, Close, or Hyphenated? Clearing up the compounds “. www.higherprose.com – Vinay, J. P. And Darbelnet ( ) ” Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A methodology for Translation”, Translated and edited by: J. C. Sager and M. J. Hamel. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, Pa. John Benjamins. – Walid, A. ( ) “Compounding in English and Arabic A contrastive S tudy” www.Pdffactory.com – Wehmeier, S. ( ). “Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary”. London: Oxford University Press . Stress of Compound Nouns and Noun Phrases in English – Arabic Consecutive Interpret ing Lect. Anwar Abdul -Wahab ا يف ةيمسلاا تارابعلا و ةبكرملا ءامسلأا ربن إ ةيزيمكنلإا نم ةيبقاعتلا ةمجرتل ىل ةيبرعلا باهولادبع راونأ .م صمختسملا ثحبت ألأا ىنعم ؾا ردِ إ ةسا ردلا اىربنل ًاقفو ةيمسلاا تا رابعلاو ةبكرملا ءامس فم ؾلذو ،ةيبقاعتلا ةمجرتلا يف اىريثأتو ِ إ امييناعم ؿقن ةقيرط حيضوت ؿلاخ ةغملا ىل داعإب ـوقي ـث ـمكتملا اىردصم ةعباتتم ؿئاسر ـجرتملا ىقمتيو .ةيبرعلا ىنعملا ؿيكشت ة ف ًا روف دوصقملا ً ديقعت اياضقلا رثكأ دحأأ وى ربنلاف .ةيبقاعتلا ةمجرتلا ي نلاب فيثدحتممل ةبس ألأا ربن طامنأأ ىلِ إ اويبتني فأأ ةبمطلا ىمع بجوتي ؾلذل ـ ُلأا ـيتغل ريغ ةغمب ءامس ةبكرملا ا يف ربن طامنأأ اذكى ةفرعم ـادعنا ببسي دق ذِ إ ؛ةيمسلاا تا رابعلاو ِ لا ةغمل يمكن ِ إ ةيز ءوس ىل وغملا ئفاكملا ؽيقحت ىمع ةردقلا ـادعنا يلاتلابو ـيف يضفيو ؼديلا ةغملا يف بومطملا ي ِ إ .حيحص ريغ ؽوطنم باطخ ىل أأ ةساردلا ضرتفتو ن ِ إ ـتي لا و اردؾ ألأا ربن ؿكشب ةيمسلاا تارابعلاو ةبكرملا ءامس ِ او امينيب زييمتلا فكمي لاو حيحص فاكم داجي حيحص ؿكشب ايل يوغل ئ ؼديلا ةغل يف أأ ؿمؤملا فمو يب اميف زييمتلاب ةبمطلا ةفرعم ةساردلا هذى ززعت ف عقومل ً اقفو ؾلذو امين أأ ةسا ردلا ريظتو ،حضاو ؿكشب ىنعملا ؿاصيِ إ ؿجأأ فم ربنلا ف ةبمطلا ـظعم ةمجرت ءامسلأل ةبكرملا ،ةمئلام ريغ ةيمسلاا تارابعلاو ـيتردق ـدعل ؾلذو اميف زييمتلا ىمع ايجيتارتسا ينبتو ،امينيب ِ إ امييناعم ؿقنل ىعسم يف ةفمتخم ت .ةيبرعلا ةغملا ىل تاممكلا : ةيحاتفملا ، ةمجرتلاو ، دايجلاو ، ةيمسلاا تارابعلاو ، ةبكرملا ءامسلأا ةيزيمجنلا ةغملا يف رتوتلاو
I want a research proposal in translation filed between 11 to 13 pages I have a certain point to follow every 2 weeks I need a specific section
Main findings/ conclusion Data collection/Analysis Subject/participants Purpose/ Questions Citation Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4 Article 5 Article 6

Writerbay.net

Most students find it hard to finish papers at some point in their studies. If it ever happens to you, don’t get desperate—we have a service for every writing emergency! Whether you’re stuck with a problem, equation, or a piece of creative writing, we will definitely come to your rescue. Fill in the order form with the details of your paper. Write your personal instructions so we can meet your expectations.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper