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I had attached 2 files … 1 is the PDF and the other one is the captions of that video as I can’t be able to post full video here … so I just post the captions … so you can read what was in that video …..
course name : Disability, sexuality and rights (DIS-2200)
So you have to read those PDFs and provide me the answer … no plagiarism and outside material pls
For your response this week,
Given what you’ve learned from this week’s material about the challenges that some disabled people face in accessing sexual pleasure, please identify and briefly discuss three measures that you believe would enhance disabled people’s sexual access here in Canada. Describe why and how you believe these should and could be implemented. Please draw meaningful connections with the course materials.
These measures could include legal changes, government support, community initiatives, educational resources, professional roles, or any other things that might make sex or pleasure or sexual exploration or relationships more accessible.
Please cite relevant course materials using parenthetical citations to support your response. Outside sources and bibliographic entries aren’t needed for this activity.
Hi I had attached 2 files … 1 is the PDF and the other one is the captions of that video as I can’t be able to post full video here … so I just post the captions … so you can read what was in t
Welcome back. I’m here in Winnipeg on treaty one territory and the Metis homeland. 0:02 And in this section, we’re looking at the challenges many disabled people face in accessing sex, 0:07 including sexual and romantic relationships, casual sex and sensual encounters and personal stimulation and pleasure. 0:12 Much of the value of the materials this week lies in reading and hearing about the 0:22 various experiences described by the people who were interviewed by the authors, 0:26 including disabled people and those who provide various sorts of sexual services to members of the disabled community. 0:30 The image on the right of the slide is an illustration by Dadu Shin, a New York based disabled Asian-American artist. 0:40 This colorful work accompanied a 2016 New York Times story by the extremely influential feminist disability studies scholar Rosemarie Garland Thomson. 0:48 Part of a series featuring articles by disabled writers. Shin has identified loneliness as a recurring theme in his illustration work. 0:57 And I thought that this would fit well with the material this week, 1:06 as loneliness is certainly among the factors motivating people to seek sexual encounters and relationships. 1:09 Because of the wide variety of forms that disability takes, 1:17 disabled individuals may have vastly differing experiences with the accessibility of sexual relationships or even one-off sexual encounters. 1:19 able to find partners and express themselves sexually with another person with at least some degree of success, 1:35 perhaps like the couple in the photo on the right, enjoying the view together. 1:42 But this, of course, is not the experience of everyone. Even some abled people have trouble finding sexual or romantic partners. 1:47 And this can be an even greater struggle for many disabled people who may experience not only physical or communicative barriers, 1:54 but also the social stigma of things like lack of or underemployment, 2:02 For those whose disability impacts their physical appearance in a significant way, the effects of looksism can also intersect with ableism. 2:11 As well, those who have significant mental health issues, who have a psychiatric history or who identify as Mad 2:20 may encounter a variety of additional barriers to finding and sustaining relationships. 2:27 So may people on the autism spectrum. 2:33 People who are autistic or otherwise neurodivergent often find that social 2:35 norms interfere with acceptance by or communication with potential partners. 2:39 In the last weeks of the course, when we look at intellectual disability in a more focused way, 2:45 we’ll also encounter this theme of exclusion quite prominently. 2:50 For those who take a disability justice approach, the emphasis is usually placed upon the ways that ableism acts as a barrier to sexual access. 2:54 Access to sex, whether to specific sexual activities or to ongoing relationships, 3:03 is a difficult issue because it’s different than the sorts of disability rights that are usually involved in areas like education or employment. 3:09 A school or workplace may have a legal duty to accommodate a disabled person’s needs, 3:18 but you can’t legally or ethically have a system in which people have a duty to have sexual relations with someone they don’t want to, 3:23 even if their reason is nothing more than disablist bias. 3:31 So we need to think about rights and justice in other, more nuanced ways when thinking about sexual access. 3:35 In the chapter by Kulick and Rydstrom that we’re reading this week, 3:42 the authors point out that even within disabled communities, 3:45 there’s very often what they refer to as a hierarchy of desirability, in which people with certain sorts of 3:48 disabilities are seen as more desirable or less desirable partners 3:54 then those who are disabled in other ways. Within this hierarchy, those who have no disabilities or non-obvious ones are at the top. 3:59 Those who have physical or sensory differences are lower down. 4:08 More significant mobility issues even further down. 4:11 And those with pronounced intellectual disabilities, especially when paired with challenges in communicating, at the bottom. 4:15 This is a general pattern, of course. 4:23 It doesn’t reflect every disabled individual’s experience, and we can’t ignore how other factors like conventional attractiveness, 4:25 size, build, weight, age, race, education, socioeconomic status and so on are also relevant here. 4:32 Most disabled people are influenced by societal norms about attractiveness and partner value, just as abled people are. 4:42 having a less disabled partner also offers opportunities for social respect and acceptance 4:54 that having a disabled partner may not, or may not to the same extent. As Kulick and Rydstrom 5:00 explore, disabled people give a variety of reasons for why they may prefer abled partners or those who are also disabled, 5:06 but with disabilities that they perceive to be less limiting than their own. 5:13 In these explanations, 5:18 we can see examples of how ableism doesn’t just impact disabled people’s access to relationships through direct attitudinal bias, 5:19 but also through the ableism that’s embedded in structures and institutions. 5:26 For example, the blind person who fears greater isolation if they partner with another blind person, 5:31 because then they will both be excluded from some opportunities and activities. 5:36 Or the wheelchair user who wants an able-bodied partner who can more easily navigate 5:41 the world or take care of a child when necessary 5:46 family, community or professional support is lacking, as it so often is for disabled parents. 5:49 A disability 5:56 justice approach doesn’t assume that there will ever necessarily be a time in which all persons will be seen as equally desirable partners, 5:56 but recognizes that if ableism was less entrenched in the form of attitudes, 6:05 structures and practices, 6:10 there would be greater possibilities for acceptance and access to sex relationships and other forms of physical and social connection. 6:13 Are societal attitudes changing about the idea of sex with a disabled partner? 6:22 There’s some evidence that they may be. 6:27 The Observer is a UK based newspaper which conducts, via a research company, periodic public surveys in Britain on sex and sexuality, 6:30 using methods that offer a reasonably fair look at what people think and do sexually, 6:38 In their last large scale survey carried out in 2014, they asked, Have you ever had sex with someone with a physical disability? 6:47 To which 7% of respondents answered yes, 50% no, but they wouldn’t rule it out and 44% no, 6:55 and they thought that they would not. 7:03 Now, those figures may not be particularly heartening for a physically disabled person in the UK who’s looking for a sexual partner. 7:06 However, it is an improvement on the results of the Observer’s previous poll in 2008, 7:14 in which only 4% replied that they had had sex with someone with a physical disability. 7:20 26% said that they wouldn’t rule it out, and a whopping 70% said they didn’t think that they would ever have sex with a disabled person. 7:25 It’s hard to say to what extent this reflects a genuine shift in public opinion in Britain, 7:34 but it is a fairly significant swing in numbers. It’s interesting to contemplate just what might be responsible for this change. 7:39 One of the unavoidable issues when sexual access is discussed is that of paid sex work. 7:49 Attitudes towards disabled people accessing paid sex vary widely. 7:54 As we see in the examples provided at the outset of Kulick and Rydstrom’s chapter, 7:59 the positive and supportive public response to Danish mother Lone Hertz’s statement that she had 8:04 purchased sexual services for her disabled son, 8:09 Feminist scholarship and activism has a difficult history with sex work. For quite some time 8:21 feminist thought was dominated by those who took a strong stance against what they would term prostitution, 8:27 claiming that it’s inherently exploitative and perpetuates the inequality and objectification of women. 8:33 Increasingly, though, the feminist mainstream, 8:40 especially among those feminists who identify as intersectional and sex positive in their approach, 8:42 has moved towards what’s sometimes called a sex work inclusive or pro sex work stance, like that represented by the marchers at right, 8:48 holding a banner that reads Decriminalize Sex Work, Safety First. 8:56 This is a perspective that regards those who offer sexual services in exchange for money to be simply another type of worker, 9:02 arguing that we all use our bodies in some way in our work, 9:08 In the readings this week, we see examples of how national attitudes and laws reflect different positions on the spectrum of acceptance of sex work. 9:24 But selling them is not criminalized. The intent behind this approach is to reduce paid sexual exchange by punishing the 9:40 buyers, who are primarily men, and providing opportunities for sex workers themselves, 9:48 who are predominantly women in most places, 9:53 Of course, while there are certainly some sex workers who would like to do this, 10:05 there are also others who have chosen sex work over other forms of work and are concerned 10:10 about attempts to restrict or regulate the practice in ways that may put them at risk. 10:15 Denmark’s model takes decriminalization further than Sweden. 10:20 In Denmark, it’s not a crime to sell or to purchase sexual services, 10:24 and the country only criminalizes third parties like pimps or brothel owners who profit off other people’s sex work. 10:29 where sex workers are placed in more danger because they have less control over their 10:44 working conditions and their transactions with clients have less transparency. 10:48 In Canada, as of legal changes in 2014, we have a model that looks more like the Swedish than the Danish approach, but with some additional complexity. 10:54 For example, it’s legal to ‘sell sex’ but illegal to advertise sexual services. 11:04 It’s also illegal to operate a brothel or in legal speak, a bawdyhouse, which has been a major concern for many sex workers. 11:10 security is generally considered much safer than working on the street, or out of one’s own home, 11:23 known as in-calls, or going to others homes or hotels, known as out-calls. 11:30 There are also a variety of other approaches to the legislation of sex work worldwide. 11:36 In Aotearoa (New Zealand), for instance, it’s nearly completely decriminalized, whereas in Germany it’s highly bureaucratically regulated. 11:41 The Netherlands, meanwhile, are known not just for their social and legal tolerance of sex work, 11:51 but for the fact that disabled people may even apply to the government for a modest allowance to purchase sexual services. 11:56 One concern that advocates of various perspective share is one that we also 12:03 encounter in Kulick and Rydstrom’s chapter over preventing sex trafficking. 12:07 However, in practice, laws that target voluntary and consensual sex work tend not to be very effective at stopping sex trafficking. 12:12 workers and what Kulick and Rydstrom refer to as sexual surrogates, who use sex and what they identify as therapeutic ways, 12:29 whether with disabled clients specifically or more broadly. 12:37 After looking carefully at the literature and data, 12:42 the authors don’t find much evidence that sexual surrogacy is actually very widely practiced, 12:45 though there are small numbers of people who self-identify as sexual surrogates or use similar labels. 12:51 places in the world where there are special sets of laws and regulations that 12:59 apply to anyone claiming that their clients pay specifically for therapeutic sex. 13:03 The authors also point to the ways this sex surrogate designation can be problematic, 13:08 altruistic form than that of other sex workers and establishing a hierarchy of moral status, 13:19 one that tends to further marginalize already marginalized sex workers, 13:26 especially the large numbers of racialized sex workers who often already struggle to survive and 13:30 remain safe in an environment where people of color are devalued and targeted for violence. 13:35 seeing it as promoting the idea that sex with a disabled person is so unappealing that not only do disabled people need sex workers, 13:48 they need special sex workers. 13:57 In the chapter, we also encounter examples of organizations that may or may not provide actual sexual services for disabled people. 14:01 In Denmark, there’s Handisex. 14:09 This is the organization that Eva describes hiring to help her set up a sex toy for masturbation and then to help her tidy up afterwards. 14:11 This organization offers education and this kind of more tangible support, 14:19 but its workers don’t engage in sexual activities as such with their clients. 14:24 We’re also introduced briefly in this chapter to an organization called Touching Base, 14:29 located in Australia, 14:33 So we know that there’s a demand from disabled people around the world for access to various types of sexual support and services, 14:43 depending on their needs and comfort levels. 14:50 Let’s briefly look more closely at a few points within Kulick and Rydstrom’s chapter, Paying for Sexual Services. 14:54 Don Kulick is a professor of anthropology in Sweden at Uppsala University. 15:01 His coauthor, Jens Rydstrum, teaches gender studies at Lund University, also in Sweden. 15:05 They’re both middle aged white men pictured on the upper right. 15:11 The chapter is taken from their 2015 book, Loneliness and Its Opposite — Sex, Disability and the Ethics of Engagement, 15:15 in which they focus on the contrasts between sexual circumstances and services for disabled people in Sweden and in Denmark, 15:23 and find a pattern of barriers, legal and otherwise, to sex for those in Sweden and comparatively greater access and support for those in Denmark. 15:31 One of the things the authors consider in this chapter is why disabled people may choose to purchase sexual services. 15:42 If you like, you can pause and have a look at pages 207 to 212 where they identify and discuss these reasons. 15:48 Kulick and Rydstrom emphasize that the majority of disabled people do not access paid sex. But for those who do, 15:56 their reasoning may include suffering, distress, shame and embarrassment over a lack of sexual experience compared to their peers. 16:03 They may be seeking to increase their self-confidence, their knowledge of sex, 16:11 or their understanding and acceptance of their own bodies and sexual capabilities. 16:16 Some express a desire to be loved and accepted and see these services as at least a first step towards achieving this end with others in the future. 16:20 And for some people, they believe that this is their only realistic opportunity to actually have sex, to enjoy sensual pleasure and satisfaction. 16:29 Because of this range of goals, different sorts of sexual services may meet some people’s needs better than others. 16:38 For instance, for some, an encounter with a quote unquote mainstream sex worker might be considered sufficient to bring sexual release. 16:45 For others, the education and guidance offered by a worker who has experience working with others with similar disabilities might be more important. 16:53 Some are seeking sexual intercourse. Some are interested in other sorts of sexual or sensual acts or touching. 17:02 And others, like Eva, need assistance in engaging in self pleasuring. 17:09 The Danish social workers, known as sexual advisors in the English translation, are an interesting type of sexually oriented support worker. 17:14 That’s the organization’s logo on the bottom right, with a pair of colorful, cleverly joined figures. 17:22 They are paid professionals who don’t participate in sexual activities with clients. 17:29 Their motto is, sexuality regardless of disability. 17:33 Sexual advisors work primarily with those who live in group settings, 17:38 and they perform a variety of tasks, from helping disabled people to clarify or express their own sexual wishes, 17:42 guiding them in understanding prices and specific services, or otherwise 17:59 helping to get their clients prepared for a sexual encounter or a masturbation session. 18:04 But they don’t perform sexual acts with their clients. 18:09 The authors interviewed a number of these advisors at length for their work, 18:12 and the advisors discuss some of the specific dilemmas they face in practice, 18:16 such as determining the sexual wishes of clients who do not use oral language or 18:20 steering their clients away from sex workers who may be sex trafficking victims. 18:25 In the latter case, they may do this by refusing to arrange appointments with non Danish sex workers. 18:30 This is a less than perfect solution, though, given that migrants are not the only people trafficked. 18:35 recent research has found that the majority of people who are victims of sex trafficking here are Canadian citizens. 18:43 authors’ research with sex workers about their attitudes towards disabled clients. 18:54 What they find is that most prefer not to work with disabled clients, and many will outright refuse. 19:00 The reasons these workers provide vary widely, 19:07 from some feeling discomfort with bodies or minds that diverge from normate ones, to others 19:10 believing the physical or emotional expectations of such clients may be too high, 19:15 and some expressing concern about unintentionally causing pain, offence or transgressing personal boundaries. 19:20 All of these are perhaps unsurprising, 19:28 though all are also influenced by ableist assumptions and misleading popular representations of disabled people. 19:30 While some sex workers accept disabled clients, the authors find none in Denmark 19:37 who specialize exclusively in offering their services to them, with the very low financial resources of most disabled people being a major barrier. 19:42 Interestingly, one of the workers they interviewed also mentioned that personally they disliked the idea 19:51 of being thought of as self-sacrificing and benevolent for having disabled clients, 19:57 stating, quote, I’m a businesswoman and I do this. 20:02 It’s a job to support myself. I am not a charitable institution. 20:06 the experiences that these sex workers reported with disabled clients were positive, 20:12 respectful interactions with some becoming committed regulars, 20:16 and also sometimes surprising and amusing, as when a client unexpectedly removed a prosthetic limb. 20:20 For their part, 20:27 disabled clients reported varied experiences with sex workers from satisfying and considerate encounters to being outright cheated or insulted. 20:28 Experiences that could obviously be quite traumatizing for a person who had already experienced considerable sexual exclusion or rejection. 20:37 Moving to thinking about the Canadian context through CBC reporter Pia Chattopadhyay’s story — 20:50 — that’s her in the orange coat in the upper right — we see that as far as sex work laws are concerned, 20:55 there is no distinction made here between abled and disabled clients. 21:00 And so anyone claiming to offer therapeutic sexual encounters and anyone paying 21:05 for them would be treated just as they would in any other paid sex situation. 21:10 Legal for the sellers. Illegal for the buyers, with advertising these services 21:15 also forbidden. 21:20 Disabled individuals or their partners in Canada who are seeking sexual support have a few options available to them. 21:22 The indisputably legal ones include people who specialize in providing counseling or education in sexual matters without sexual contact with clients. 21:29 This would include sex therapists, sexologists and sex educators. 21:39 A small number of whom do specialize in helping disabled people. 21:43 In the CBC article we’re introduced to one such organization, Sensual Solutions, 21:56 based in Vancouver, B.C., where employees are referred to as intimacy coaches. 22:01 The range of services that they offer include many of those that a sexual advisor might offer in the Danish context, 22:07 but also ones that are much more sexually engaged, including massage and cuddling. 22:12 Though their website states that they do not sell sexual services. 22:18 There is also a lot of vague language. 22:22 would potentially make their clients legally vulnerable to charges for purchasing sex. 22:36 This puts people like Spencer Williams, interviewed in the article and the audio piece about his own use of the services of 22:41 Sensual Solutions in a difficult and legally vulnerable position. 22:48 For your response this week, 22:57 given what you’ve learned from this week’s material about the challenges that some disabled people face in accessing sexual pleasure, 22:58 please identify and briefly discuss three measures that you believe would enhance disabled people’s sexual access here in Canada. 23:06 Describe why and how you believe these should and could be implemented. 23:13 Please draw meaningful connections with the course materials. 23:18 These measures could include legal changes, government support, community initiatives, educational resources, 23:22 professional roles, or any other things that might make sex or pleasure or sexual exploration or relationships more accessible. 23:30 Please cite relevant course materials using parenthetical citations to support your response. 23:40 Outside sources and bibliographic entries aren’t needed for this activity. 23:46 This week, we have our usual Zoom meeting on Thursday and you have your cycle of creation, evaluation and feedback for the responses. 23:56 The Week 7 section is another that I think is really interesting and thought provoking. 24:06 We’ll be looking at the fetishization of disability. The reading that I’ve selected does a great job of looking into this issue beyond the surface. 24:11 The author is Alison Kafer, a white woman with curly red hair pictured on the right, 24:19 seated at the front of a classroom or lecture hall in a wheelchair. 24:24 She’s a feminist professor at the University of Texas, and her work has rapidly become very popular among disability scholars. 24:28 In this chapter, she combines research with her personal reflections on her own experiences and feelings as an amputee woman. 24:35 I hope you enjoy it, and I’ll see you on Thursday. 24:43 Bye for now.