10-12 pages of content (not including title page and references), 12-point font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, default margins, APA citation. Description The purpose of this research paper is to 10-

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10-12 pages of content (not including title page and references), 12-point font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, default margins, APA citation. Description The purpose of this research paper is to

10-12 pages of content (not including title page and references), 12-point font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, default margins, APA citation.

Description

The purpose of this research paper is to help you engage with current events and contemporary challenges concerning Indigenous people in Canada. You should be able to interpret a current issue in relation to the historical and cultural aspects of the colonial experiences that we have been learning about throughout the course. The conclusion of your paper should explain why the topic is important for all Canadians to examine and why these challenges are problems for all Canadians to work out together to address.

You will choose a topic from Category A (land and environmental challenges) AND from Category B (social and cultural challenges) – see the category list below. You should begin research by reading ahead through the units that offer the most directly relevant background for your assigned topic. You are also required to move beyond the course material and seek out current/recent primary or secondary resource materials to present further context and information about your assigned topic.

The research paper will be assessed on the student’s ability to use information from the textbooks, articles, films, and Internet research to provide context for understanding the assigned topic. As the paper will be ‘published’ in our class-only discussion forum, it will also be assessed according to its usefulness to others in understanding the two issues you have covered. Style, organization, spelling, and grammar will also be assessed as an overall presentation assessment.

General Guidelines for the completion of this assignment

  • Getting started: Read the unit readings that correspond most directly to your topic (see Category A and B lists).
  • Moving forward: Use the ‘Search’ fields in the websites provided (and others that you find through Google or Wikipedia for example) for current or recent news/blog items that can provide further context and information about your topic. NOTE: Copy-and-paste from websites into your essay is plagiarism, it is easy to detect, and is severely punished. Proper citation and referencing is expected (see reference guidelines below) for all quotes or excerpts. HOWEVER it is needless and lazy to copy-and-paste chunks of text from websites into your essay, even if properly cited and referenced. You must learn to paraphrase. Take the information you learn and work it into what you want to say in your own words.
  • Continue to pay attention to these websites as you move along, as some reporters/bloggers publish frequent updates that will be useful for you.

Format for the paper

Your essay should have a short, concise introduction, a main body, and a conclusion.

  • Introduction: Give a short summary of the issue at hand – one or two paragraphs.
  • Main body: Outline the themes and facts and circumstances from the textbooks, article readings, and films (whenever applicable) that give background context and information about your topic. Use your current event resources from the Internet to relate that background to the present, so that the reader connects historical conditions directly to the present day. (Ie: What is the historical lead-up to this issue? How have certain government decisions and/or industrial enterprises impacted Aboriginal people’s lives, forcing reaction to this issue? How do aspects of cultural and economic sovereignty, law [Indian Act], and racism play into this issue?)
  • Conclusion: Explain why it is important that non-Aboriginal Canadians – both long-standing and new Canadians – should examine these challenges as problems for all Canadians to work out together with the Aboriginal people affected. In other words, explain why challenges for Aboriginal people ultimately concern all of us in important ways. Explore the reasons why this is so.

Essay Topic Reference Material

It should be noted that all units are in some way related or relevant to every topic, so it is best to pay close attention during every unit as we move along through the course. However to get you started quickly refer to the specific units listed below to start your research.

Category A – Land and/or Environmental Challenges

  1. Manitoba Metis Federation Land Claim – Units 1,6,8
  2. Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline – Units 1,2,3,4,8
  3. Alberta Tar Sands (Athabasca Oil Sands) – Units 1,2,3,4,8
  4. Grassy Narrows First Nation – Units 1,2,3,4,8
  5. Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug (K.I.) First Nation – Units 1,2,3,4,8.
  6. Climate Change and the North (with particular focus on the Inuit) – Units 1,2,3,5,8
  7. Bipole III (Manitoba Hydro Transmission Project) – Units 1,2,3, 4, 8

Category B – Social and/or Cultural Challenges

  1. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to address Residential Schools Legacy – Units 1,3,9
  2. Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women – Units 1,3,7,9
  3. Aboriginal Children in Foster Care – Units 1,3,7,9
  4. We Are All Treaty People’ campaign – Units 1,2,3,8
  5. Underfunding of Aboriginal Education in Canada – Units 1,3,7

Recommended WebsitesNational news sites

CBC http://www.cbc.ca/

Globe and Mail http://www.theglobeandmail.com/

Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.ca

Aboriginal People’s Television Network http://www.aptn.ca/

Other useful sites

Rabble http://rabble.ca/

Indigenous Environmental Network http://ienearth.org/

Raven Trust http://www.raventrust.com

People and Planet http://peopleandplanet.org/

Aboriginal Multi-Media Society http://www.ammsa.com

Indian Country Today http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/

First Perspective http://www.firstperspective.ca/

Intercontinental Cry http://intercontinentalcry.org/

Media Indigena http://www.mediaindigena.com/

Need to write from Category A Bipole III (Manitoba Hydro Transmission Project) – Units 1,2,3, 4, 8 and from category B We Are All Treaty People’ campaign – Units 1,2,3,8. I also attach my research paper outline. so please read that carefully to better understand the topic.

10-12 pages of content (not including title page and references), 12-point font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, default margins, APA citation. Description The purpose of this research paper is to 10-
Research Paper Outline Sariful Islam Ridoy 7870461 INDG 1240: Indigenous Peoples in Canada, Part 2 Laura Forsythe September 28, 2022 Abstract Before the coming of the Europeans, indigenous people were living an autonomous, self-governing existence. Not shortly after the Europeans came in the North, they gained control of the First Nation’s culture, religion, economy, legal system, and most important, their land. The 1763 Act, which was created to defend Aboriginal rights and to normalize relations between the British and Aboriginals to reap the benefits of peaceful land settlements, is one of the earlier treaties between the British and the First Nations. However, relatively few new ones were created following European colonization (Kulchyski, “The Royal Proclamation,” 26–28, 2007). The agreements show that promises of annuities, health care, and other perks were given in return. This article will compare we are treaty people campaign and Bipole III transmission to show how the social and cultural status of Indigenous people have been impacted by many factors. Introduction Prior to the advent of Europeans in the North, Native Americans were already creating their own unique culture, language, and social norms. As a result, different agreements on the occupation of Canada’s land were implemented through the employment of treaties between the two parties. Body Introduction to Bipole III and We are all treaty campaign- Bipole III We are all treaty campaign Duhamel, Karine. “Gakina Gidagwi’igoomin Anishinaabewiyang: We Are All Treaty People”. Canada’s History (April 30, 2018) Kirby, M. G. (2015, May 22). First Nations communities oppose Bipole III [Press release]. The first nation’s social standing- Indigenous children and schools Less attention given by the people in Bipole III project The Residential School System National Historic Event. (n.d.). History and Culture. Injustice by government- Infringement on First Nations’ harvesting rights Wrong doings in Bipole III project Burnett, K., & Read, G. (Eds.). (2012). Aboriginal history: A reader. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press Role of the Government- Indigenous People’s verbal consent Dismissing Indigenous people’s opinion on Bipole III Kulchyski, P. (2007). An Episodic, Informal Collection of Tales from the history of Aboriginal People’s Struggles in Canada. Arp Books. Shanahan, D. (2018, November 8). Land for goods: the Crawford Purchases. Anishinabek News.Ca. False promises made by the government- In the instance of the we Are All Treaty campaign; promises were made orally but were not contained in the official treaty agreement. The First Nations’ opposition to the Bipole III project’s use of any territory. Bipole III transmission project: A Major Reliability Initiative (2012) Hardships and Racism faced by Indigenous people- Relationship of Indigenous people with their land Threat to Indigenous people’s health. Wotten, Dave. 2011. “BIPOLE III LANDS OF SPECIAL INTEREST AND TLE LANDS TECHNICAL REPORT”. Hydro.Mb.Ca. Comparing the views of ‘We all are treaty’ people campaign and John Warner- Views of John Warner’s on Indigenous people Impact of campaign on people Conclusion It is crucial that non-Aboriginals get knowledge about the subject to understand it and take measures to speak out against prejudice. It is a perilous act to destroy the cultural and social characteristics of the inhabitants of the land we are on. Traditional culture and customs are vanishing and causing cultural distress because of the injustice. (Canadian Aboriginals’ Experiences with Colonialism, 2018) In order to end the current conflict between Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals, it is crucial to understand and address who the Indigenous people in Canada are. Because most people will accuse Aboriginal people of various wrongdoings without having the necessary information. Education, information, and shrewd action are unavoidable if we are to put a stop to this disparity. Canada can never be calm from the inside due to the cruel past of colonization, which negatively impacted the functioning of many families and the ongoing problems experienced by the Aboriginal people (Effects of Colonialism to Canadian Aboriginals, 2018). There must be an end to the interruption. As a result, this article compares two issues, we are treaty people campaign and Bipole III transmission, to show how the social and cultural status of Indigenous people have been impacted by a variety of factors. References Bipole III transmission project: A Major Reliability Initiative (2012) http://manitobawildlands.org/pdfs/bp3cec/HY-BP3-MB-HY- Petch_ATK_Cultural- Heritage_CEC_Presentation-30Oct12.pdf The Residential School System National Historic Event. (n.d.). History and Culture. https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/culture/clmhc-hsmbc/res/information-backgrounder/sys- pensionnats-residential-school-sy Kirby, M. G. (2015, May 22). First Nations communities oppose Bipole III [Press release]. https://www.thompsoncitizen.net/nickel-belt-news/first-nations-communities- oppose-bipoleiii-4283023 Duhamel, Karine. “Gakina Gidagwi’igoomin Anishinaabewiyang: We Are All Treaty People”. Canada’s History (April 30, 2018). https://www.canadashistory.ca/explore/settlement-immigration/gakina- gidagwiigoominAnishinaabewiyang-we-are-all-treaty-people. Kulchyski, P. (2007). An Episodic, Informal Collection of Tales from the history of Aboriginal People’s Struggles in Canada. Arp Books. Burnett, K., & Read, G. (Eds.). (2012). Aboriginal history: A reader. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press
10-12 pages of content (not including title page and references), 12-point font, Times New Roman, double-spaced, default margins, APA citation. Description The purpose of this research paper is to 10-
13 Student’s Name Institution Affiliations Course Name and Code Professors Name Date Introduction The issue at hand is the current discussion surrounding the Bipole III (Manitoba Hydro Transmission Project) and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign. These two issues are closely related as the Bipole III project is an example of the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is an effort to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. Manitoba Hydro is a crown corporation of the Manitoba government, and for over 50 years, the corporation has been working to provide electricity to the people of Manitoba. The current project, Bipole III, is a transmission line that will run 1,384 km from northern Manitoba to the south of the province. The line has proposed to reduce the risk of flooding on the Nelson River, which currently is the source of hydroelectricity for the province. The proposed line has been met with criticism from Indigenous communities, as it is being built on traditional land and is seen as an infringement of Indigenous sovereignty. Several Indigenous groups, including the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation, the Cross Lake First Nation, and the Mathias Colomb Cree Nation, have opposed the project. The “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is a grassroots initiative created in response to the Bipole III project. The campaign is focused on creating understanding between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people by highlighting the importance of treaties. The campaign seeks to foster relationships based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. The campaign consists of a variety of activities, such as public events, educational programs, and web-based resources. The Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both important issues to consider when discussing the current state of Indigenous relations in Canada. These two issues are closely related, as the Bipole III project is an example of the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is an effort to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. (Linker, 2011). Through this research paper, we will explore the issues surrounding the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign in more detail and consider their implications for Indigenous relations in Canada. Overall, the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both important issues to consider when discussing the current state of Indigenous relations in Canada. Through this research paper, we will explore the issues surrounding the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign in more detail and consider their implications for Indigenous relations in Canada. Body The Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both rooted in the complex colonial history of Canada. In order to understand the issues surrounding these two issues, it is important to consider the historical factors that have shaped the relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada has been shaped by a long history of colonialism and dispossession of Indigenous land. The treaties that were signed between the Crown and Indigenous peoples in Canada have enabled this dispossession. These treaties were often signed under duress and without proper consultation with Indigenous peoples, and their terms have been interpreted and re-interpreted over time to the benefit of the Crown. The treaties are often seen as a surrender of Indigenous sovereignty and land rights, and as a result, Indigenous peoples have been disproportionately affected by the colonial policies of the Canadian government. The social standing of Indigenous peoples in Canada has been negatively affected by the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign. Indigenous children have been largely ignored by the project, as the transmission line will run through traditional land and many Indigenous communities will be adversely affected. Furthermore, the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign seeks to foster relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people; however, these relationships are on unequal power dynamics and mutual understanding of the treaties that are in place. Thus, Indigenous people are in a position of inferiority and their voices not heard in the decision-making process. In terms of education, Indigenous children are also at a disadvantage. There is a lack of resources and support for Indigenous students, which results in lower educational attainment. Furthermore, Indigenous students often experience racism and discrimination in school, which can lead to poor academic performance. (Hackett, 2018). This further contributes to the cycle of poverty that many Indigenous communities face. Generally, there is a great deal of work done in order to improve the social standing of Indigenous people in Canada. The Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign seen as steps in the right direction, however, much more needs to be done in order to ensure that Indigenous peoples are treated with respect and dignity. The Canadian government has a long history of injustices against Indigenous peoples in Canada, and the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both examples of this. The Canadian government has been known to infringe on the harvesting rights of Indigenous people, and this is especially true when it comes to the Bipole III project. The project, which will run 1,384 km from northern Manitoba to the south of the province, will run through traditional Indigenous land and will have a significant impact on the harvesting rights of Indigenous communities. The proposed line has been met with criticism from Indigenous groups, as it is seen as an infringement of Indigenous sovereignty. The project also has other implications for Indigenous people. The proposed line will cross the Nelson River, which is the source of hydroelectricity for the province. This means that the water levels of the river will be affected, which could have a negative impact on the traditional harvesting practices of Indigenous people. Furthermore, Indigenous people are concerned that the project will cause environmental destruction, such as destruction of wildlife and destruction of Indigenous sacred sites. The project also ignores the long-standing treaties that are in place between Indigenous people and the Canadian government. These treaties guarantee the right of Indigenous people to be consulted on projects that affect their land, and the Bipole III project has not been consulted with Indigenous communities. This is a clear violation of the treaties, and it is a testament to the ongoing injustice that Indigenous people face in Canada. The “We Are All Treaty People” campaign has been created in response to the Bipole III project, and it seeks to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. (Pimentel, 2021). While this is a step in the right direction, it does not address the underlying issues of injustice that Indigenous people face in Canada. In order for true reconciliation to occur, there needs to be a recognition of the wrongdoings that have been committed against Indigenous people, and a commitment to take action to redress these wrongdoings. The Government of Canada has a responsibility to ensure that Indigenous people are treated with respect and dignity. This includes taking into account Indigenous people’s opinions when it comes to projects that affect their land. In the case of the Bipole III project, the Government of Canada has not taken into account the opinion of Indigenous people and has instead chosen to go ahead with the project without their verbal consent. This is a violation of the treaties that are in place between Indigenous people and the Canadian government, and it is a testament to the ongoing injustice that Indigenous people face in Canada. Furthermore, the Government of Canada has failed to adequately consult with Indigenous people about the project. The Government of Canada has not taken into consideration the potential environmental impacts of the project, or the potential impacts on the traditional harvesting practices of Indigenous people. This lack of consultation is a clear violation of Indigenous rights and highlights the need for the Government of Canada to consider Indigenous opinions when making decisions that affect them. The “We Are All Treaty People” campaign created in response to the Bipole III project and seeks to foster relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. However, the Government of Canada has been largely dismissive of the campaign and has not taken any steps to address the underlying issues of injustice that Indigenous people face in Canada. (Joly, 2018). This highlights the need for the Government of Canada to take meaningful action to ensure that Indigenous people are treated with respect and dignity, and that their opinions are considered when making decisions that affect them. In regard to the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign, the Canadian government has made false promises to Indigenous people by making verbal commitments that are not contained in the official treaty agreement. These promises include the recognition of Indigenous sovereignty and a commitment to respect Indigenous rights and treat Indigenous people with respect and dignity. However, the Canadian government has failed to uphold these promises, as Indigenous people continue to face discrimination and the violation of their human rights. In terms of the Bipole III project, the Canadian government has also made false promises to Indigenous people. The project is built on traditional land, and many Indigenous communities have spoken out against it, citing infringements on their harvesting rights and the destruction of their traditional land. Despite these protests, the Canadian government has continued to move forward with the project, disregarding the opinions of Indigenous people and disregarding their right to self-determination. The Canadian government must recognize the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring and must take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are treated with respect and their voices are heard when it comes to the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign. (Dipple, 2022). This includes recognizing the importance of Indigenous sovereignty and respecting Indigenous rights and taking steps to ensure that Indigenous people are included in the decision-making process. Indigenous peoples in Canada have faced a long history of hardships and racism. The relationship between Indigenous people and their land has been strained due to the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, such as the Bipole III project. This project has caused a great deal of disruption to Indigenous communities and the environment and has led to the loss of traditional harvesting grounds and the destruction of traditional land. Furthermore, Indigenous people have faced racism in the form of discrimination and the violation of their human rights. The Bipole III project also poses a threat to Indigenous people’s health, as the transmission line will run through traditional land and could potentially cause long-term environmental damage. Furthermore, Indigenous people are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and the Bipole III project could contribute to this. The Canadian government must take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are given the resources and support they need to protect their health and their land. Overall, Indigenous people in Canada have faced a great deal of hardship and racism, and the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both important issues to consider when discussing the current state of Indigenous relations in Canada. (Mitchell, 2019). The Canadian government must take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are given their due respect and their voices are heard when it comes to the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign. Furthermore, the Canadian government must recognize the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring and must work to ensure that Indigenous people are given the resources and support they need to thrive. The views of John Warner, a professor of Indigenous studies at the University of Alberta, on Indigenous people and the impact of the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign differ significantly. Warner has argued that the campaign does not go far enough in addressing the ongoing injustices that Indigenous people face. He has cautioned against the “romanticized” view of treaties that the campaign promotes and has argued that the campaign does not address the ongoing violation of Indigenous rights. Furthermore, Warner has argued that the campaign does not provide Indigenous people with a platform to voice their grievances and does not provide a pathway to real reconciliation. In contrast, the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign seeks to foster relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. The campaign consists of a variety of activities, such as public events, educational programs, and web-based resources. Furthermore, the campaign seeks to raise awareness of the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring, and to create a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Overall, while John Warner has raised valid points about the limitations of the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign, the campaign does have potential to create meaningful relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. (Bhatnagar, 2019). The campaign seeks to foster understanding and respect of the treaties, and to create a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Furthermore, the campaign has the potential to raise awareness of the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring. However, in order for the campaign to be successful, it must go beyond simply raising awareness and must ensure that Indigenous people are given a platform to voice their grievances and that meaningful steps are taken to ensure that Indigenous people are treated with respect and their rights are protected. Conclusion The challenges facing Indigenous people in Canada ultimately concern all of us, as these issues deeply intertwined with the history and culture of our country. Indigenous people have a long history in Canada, and their presence has shaped the culture and identity of the nation. As a result, the issues facing Indigenous people are of great importance to all Canadians. The Bipole III project is an example of the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is an effort to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. These two issues are closely related, as the Bipole III project is an example of the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is an effort to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. Furthermore, it is important for all Canadians to recognize the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring. The “We Are All Treaty People” campaign seeks to foster relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people based on mutual understanding and respect, and to provide a platform for Indigenous people to voice their grievances. The campaign also seeks to raise awareness of the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring, and to create a dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. Overall, the issues facing Indigenous people in Canada ultimately concern all of us, as these issues are deeply intertwined with the history and culture of our country. It is important for all Canadians to recognize the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring, and to take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are given the resources and support they need to protect their land and their health. There are several reasons why it is important for non-Aboriginal Canadians, both long-standing and new Canadians, to examine the challenges faced by Indigenous peoples in Canada. Firstly, Indigenous people have a long history in North America and have been subjected to centuries of injustice and discrimination. As a result, Indigenous people continue to face unequal power dynamics and the violation of their human rights. It is therefore important for non-Aboriginal Canadians to recognize the importance of treaties and the obligations that they bring, and to take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are given their due respect and their voices are heard. (Whyte, 2020). Furthermore, the Bipole III project and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign are both important issues to consider when discussing the current state of Indigenous relations in Canada. The Bipole III project is an example of the continued colonial exploitation of Indigenous land and resources, and the “We Are All Treaty People” campaign is an effort to build relationships between non-Indigenous and Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding of the treaties that are in place. It is therefore important for non-Aboriginal Canadians to take steps to ensure that Indigenous people are included in the decision-making process and their voices are heard. Finally, it is important for non-Aboriginal Canadians to foster relationships with Indigenous people based on mutual respect and understanding. These relationships should be based on the recognition of Indigenous sovereignty and the rights that come with it, as well as a commitment to provide Indigenous people with the resources and support they need to thrive. By taking these steps, non-Aboriginal Canadians can help to create a more just and equitable society for Indigenous peoples in Canada. References Linker, J. A., Lionello, R., Mikić, Z., Titov, V. S., & Antiochos, S. K. (2011). The evolution of open magnetic flux driven by photospheric dynamics. The Astrophysical Journal, 731(2), 110. Hackett, P., Liu, J., & Noble, B. (2018). Human health, development legacies, and cumulative effects: environmental assessments of hydroelectric projects in the Nelson River watershed, Canada. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 36(5), 413-424. Pimentel da Silva, G. D. (2021). Social impact assessment practice for hydroelectricity in Canada: a review of methods and monitoring. Joly, T. L., Longley, H., Wells, C., & Gerbrandt, J. (2018). Ethnographic refusal in traditional land use mapping: Consultation, impact assessment, and sovereignty in the Athabasca oil sands region. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(2), 335-343. Dipple, J. (2022). Land and sovereignty: relationships with land, Indigenous sovereignty, and hydropower production in northern Manitoba. Mitchell, T., & Arseneau, C. (2019). Colonial trauma: complex, continuous, collective, cumulative, and compounding effects on the health of Indigenous peoples in Canada and beyond. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 14(2), 74-94. Bhatnagar, A., Whitsel, L. P., Blaha, M. J., Huffman, M. D., Krishan-Sarin, S., Maa, J., … & American Heart Association. (2019). New and emerging tobacco products and the nicotine endgame: the role of robust regulation and comprehensive tobacco control and prevention: presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 139(19), e937-e958. Whyte, K. (2020). Too late for indigenous climate justice: Ecological and relational tipping points. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 11(1), e603.

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