1. This article and topic on the sociology of globalization: “Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein”2. You will write an annotated outline that summarizes and sociologically examines

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1. This article and topic on the sociology of globalization:

  • “Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein”

2. You will write an annotated outline that summarizes and sociologically examines what you have learned in the reading. An annotated outline asks you to organize the main ideas of the paper. You include more in-depth notes and analyses than just a simple summary. I want to see that you can connect with the readings, dissect them, and successfully synthesize the key terms, concepts, debates, and theories. Explain what this all means. The summary is the “who” and “what,” while the analysis is the  “why” and “how.” Follow this 3-step model:

  • Summarize the reading in a concise, outlined format.
  • Describe the key points/themes/arguments. Provide specific examples from the articles to back up those points.
  • Explain how the reading connects to larger sociological analyses on the economy, technology, class, race, gender, inequality, or culture.

Reading and note-taking tips:

  • Sociology readings can be dense and challenging, but my goal for you is to identify, define, and analyze the central themes and arguments.
  • Writing notes while reading the articles is more engaging and helpful to help you better comprehend what you are learning.
  • You will encounter some terminology you are not familiar with–don’t skip over them! If there is a vocabulary word/term/concept you are unfamiliar with, Google the definition.
  • Be patient! Learning how to write- essays or annotated outlines- takes time, practice, and effort. I’m still learning to write better (and I still Google challenging words I don’t know the definition of!)
  • Your outline should be 1-2 pages in length.
  • Please submit your outline as a .PDF file.
  • Please proofread your assignment before you submit it.
  • You are not required to cite sources or use quotes, but please use the Chicago or MLA citation style if you do.

1. This article and topic on the sociology of globalization: “Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein”2. You will write an annotated outline that summarizes and sociologically examines
SOC360: Globalization Fall 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi U sin g o utlin es t o u nders ta n d t h e r e ad in gs: ● Outlines are practical study tools because they help you organize your thoughts in a flowchart manner rather than writing a paragraph. Outlines work by breaking down the readings into larger themes, arguments, and supporting details. ● Outlines contain three components: structure, summary , and thematic analysis. ● W ays to format and organize your outlines include the following: ○ Symbols to organize the outline: bullet points, dashes, numbers, letters ○ T ext formatting also helps organize your outline: ■ bold , italics , underline , highlight ● Analysis: Y ou will write an annotated outline that summarizes and sociologically examines what you have learned in the reading. An annotated outline asks you to organize the main ideas of the paper . Y ou include more in-depth notes and analyses than just a simple summary . I want to see that you can connect with the readings, dissect them, and successfully synthesize the key terms, concepts, debates, and theories. Explain what this all means. The summary is the “who” and “what,” while the analysis is the “why and how .” Follow this 3-step model: 1. Summarize the reading in a concise, outlined format. 2 . Describe the key points/themes/arguments. Provide specific examples from the articles to back up those points. 3 . Explain how the reading connects to larger sociological analyses on the economy , technology , class, race, gender , inequality, or culture. ● Reading and note-taking tips: ○ Sociology readings can be dense and challenging, but my goal for you is to identify , define, and analyze the central themes and arguments. ○ It is more engaging and helpful to write notes while reading the articles to help you better comprehend what you are learning. ○ Y ou will encounter some terminology you are not familiar with–don’t skip over them! If there is a vocabulary word/term/concept you are unfamiliar with, Google the definition. ○ Be patient! Learning how to write- essays or annotated outlines- takes time, practice, and ef fort. I’m still learning to write better (and I still Google challenging words I don’t know the definition of!) ○ Please watch the following two clips on best practices for reading and note-taking: ● T aking Notes : https://www .youtube.com/watch?v=E7CwqNHn_Ns ● Readings Assignments : https://www .youtube.com/watch?v=W AIUkjsZ5xQ ● The Big Picture: Sociology analyzes how institutions and processes operate in society . Institutions include the media, the economy , technology, religion, the criminal justice system, government and politics, race, class, and gender . Institutions serve essential functions and roles that maintain the structure and cohesiveness of society , but they also serve as sources of conflict and inequality . I want you to connect globalization to these processes to answer the “what and how .” Questions to keep in the back of your mind in this class this semester: ■ Are globalization processes (cultural, social, economic, political) natural, or do people in power purposely design them? ■ In what ways has society transformed because of globalization? What are the pros and cons of globalization? ■ How does globalization produce, reproduce, or work to fight against systems of inequality along racial, class, and gender lines?
1. This article and topic on the sociology of globalization: “Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein”2. You will write an annotated outline that summarizes and sociologically examines
G lo baliz a tio n a n d t h e s o cio lo gy o f I m man u el W alle rste in : A c rit ic a l a p pra is a l William I Robinson U niv e rsit y o f C alif o rn ia a t S an ta B arb ara , U SA A bstr a ct 1 –23 © T he A uth o r(s ) 2 011 R ep rin ts a n d p erm is sio n: s a ge p ub. c o .u k/jo urn als P erm is sio ns.n av D O I: 1 0.1 177/0 268580910393372 is s.s a ge p ub.c o m By the turn of the 21st centur y the concept of globalization had earned its place in the social sciences and debate turned mor e squar ely to the theor etical significance of globalization. Y et not all scholars w er e ha pp y with the notion of globalization. Some claim that is mer ely a ne w name f or earlier theories and concepts. Among those who r eject ne w paradigmatic thinking on the cur rent age is Imman uel Wallerstein, the world-renowned sociologist and ‘father’ of the w orld system paradigm . This ar ticle is intended as an a ppraisal of W allerstein’ s œuvr e in the context of the debate on global transf ormations in the late 20th and earl y 21st centuries and fr om the vantage point of the pr esent author’ s o wn critical globalization perspectiv e. The first thr ee par ts summarize and assess W allerstein’ s theor etical system and his man y contributions to macr o, historical and comparativ e sociolog y, to de velopment studies and international political econom y. The f our th discusses W allerstein’ s assessment of the e volution of the w orld ca pitalist system in r ecent decades, including his vie ws on the concept of globalization, and the fifth f ocuses on earlier and mor e r ecent critical a ppraisals of his w ork, including the pr esent author’ s o wn, in light of the r ecent transformations in w orld capitalism identified with globalization. K eyw ord s de velopment, globalization, history of sociolog y, social change , sociological theor y M ost w ould a g re e t h at i f w e a re t o u nders ta n d t h e 2 1st- c en tu ry s o cia l w orld w e m ust c o m e t o g rip s w ith t h e c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n. T he t e rm f ir s t b ecam e p opula riz ed i n t h e 1 980s. T he 1 990s s a w r a g in g d eb ate s o n t h e u se fu ln ess o f t h e c o ncep t f o r t h e s o cia l s c i e n ces a n d h um an itie s. B y t h e n ew c en tu ry t h e c o ncep t h ad c le arly e arn ed i ts p la ce a n d d eb ate t u rn ed m ore s q uare ly t o t h e t h eo re tic al s ig nif ic an ce o f g lo baliz atio n. Y et n ot a ll C orre sp o ndin g a u th o r: W illia m I R obin so n, U niv e rsit y o f C alif o rn ia , S an ta B arb ara C am pus, S an ta B arb ara , C A 9 3106, U SA . E m ail: w ir o bin [email protected] so c.u csb .e d u 2 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy s c h ola rs a re h ap py w ith t h e n otio n o f g lo baliz atio n. S om e c la im t h at i t i s o ld w in e p oure d i n to a n ew b ottle , m ere ly a n ew n am e f o r e arlie r t h eo rie s a n d c o ncep ts . C erta in ly t h e w orld h as e x perie n ced d ra m atic c h an ges s in ce I m man uel W alle rs te in p ublis h ed i n 1 974 t h e f ir s t v olu m e i n h is s e m in al t r ilo gy, T he M odern W orld -S yste m . B ut n ot a ll b elie v e t h at t h ese c h an ges s ig nal a n y s o rt o f q ualita tiv e t r a n sfo rm atio n i n t h e s y ste m o f w orld c ap ita l i s m t h at m erits n ew t h eo re tic al c la im s. A m ong t h ose w ho r e je ct n ew p ara d ig m atic t h in k in g o n t h e c u rre n t a g e i s I m man uel W alle rs te in , o ne o f t h e m ost r e n ow ned s o cio lo gis ts a n d w ho i s i d en tif ie d a s t h e ‘ fa th er’ o f t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m . T his a rtic le i s i n te n ded a s a n a p pra is a l o f W alle rs te in ’s œ uvre i n t h e c o nte x t o f t h e d eb ate o n g lo bal t r a n sfo rm atio ns i n t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en t u rie s. W hat i s t h e e x pla n ato ry p urc h ase o f t h is o eu vre t o o ur u nders ta n din g o f c o nte m p ora ry 2 1st- c en tu ry w orld a ff a ir s , s p ecif ic ally , t o s y ste m ic l e v el t r a n sfo rm atio ns c o m in g i n to f o cu s o ne d ecad e i n to t h e n ew c en tu ry ? T he f ir s t t h re e p arts s u m mariz e W alls te in ’s t h eo re tic al s y ste m a n d h is m an y c o n tr ib utio ns t o m acro , h is to ric al a n d c o m para tiv e s o ci o lo gy, t o d ev elo pm en t s tu die s a n d i n te rn atio nal p olitic al e co nom y, a n d a sse ss t h ese c o n t r ib utio ns f ro m w hat I h av e t e rm ed a c ritic al g lo baliz atio n p ers p ectiv e ( R obin so n, 2 008). T he f o urth d is c u sse s W alle rs te in ’s a sse ssm en t o f e v olu tio n o f t h e w orld c ap ita lis t s y ste m i n r e cen t d ecad es, i n clu din g h is v ie w s o n t h e c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n, a n d t h e f if th s e c t io n f o cu se s o n e arlie r a n d m ore r e cen t c ritic al a p pra is a ls o f h is w ork , i n clu din g m y o w n, i n l ig ht o f t h e r e cen t t r a n sfo rm atio ns i n w orld c ap ita lis m i d en tif ie d w ith g lo baliz atio n. Rein vigorating historical sociolo gy S om e s e e t h e w orld -s y ste m s p ara d ig m a s a ‘ p re cu rs o r’ t o g lo baliz atio n t h eo rie s ( W ate rs , 2 001). W orld -s y ste m t h eo ry , h ow ev er, s ta rte d o ut n ot a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n b ut o f d ev elo pm en t. I n t h e l a te 1 950s, t h e f ie ld o f d ev elo pm en t w as d om in ate d b y t h e m odern iz a t io n s c h ool, w hic h c am e u nder a tta ck b y d ep en den cy t h eo rie s a n d o th er r a d ic al T hir d W orld a p pro ach es t o i n te rn atio nal i n eq ualitie s. B y t h e l a te 1 970s, w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry h ad b eco m e e sta b lis h ed a s a n a lte rn ativ e p ers p ectiv e f ro m w hic h t o e x am in e i s su es o f d ev elo p m en t a n d w orld i n eq ualitie s ( s e e e .g . R oberts a n d H ite , 2 000; S o, 1 990). W alle rs te in ’s c o lle ag ue t h e l a te G io van ni A rrig hi o bse rv ed t h at ‘ w orld -s y ste m s a n aly sis a s a d is tin ctiv e s o cio lo g ic al p ara d ig m e m erg ed a t l e ast 1 5 y ears b efo re t h e u se o f g lo baliz atio n a s a s ig ni f ie r t h at b la zed a cro ss t h e h ead lin es a n d e x plo ded a s a s u bje ct o f a cad em ic r e se arc h a n d p ublic atio n’ ( A rrig hi, 2 005: 3 3). T he p ara d ig m d id i n deed c o m e o f a g e i n t h e 1 970s a n d 1 980s. Y et w hat i s d is tin ctiv e t o w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry i s n ot t h at i t a s b een a ro und l o nger t h an m ore r e cen t g lo baliz atio n s tu die s. R ath er, t h is p ara d ig m – a n d c erta in ly W alle rs te in h im se lf – t e n ds t o v ie w g lo baliz atio n n ot a s a r e cen t p hen om en on b ut a s v ir tu ally s y nony m ous w ith t h e b ir th a n d s p re ad o f w orld c ap ita lis m , c ir c a 1 500. I n dee d , W alle rs te in i s c re d ite d f o r h av in g r e in vig ora te d h is to ric al s o cio lo gy. I f o ne o f t h e h allm ark s ( a n d i n m y v ie w , s tr e n gth s) o f t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m i s i ts d eep ly h is to ric al f o cu s, i t a ls o r e p re s e n ts t h e p ro ble m atic n atu re o f t h e p ara d ig m i f i t i s s e en a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n. O ne o f t h e k ey i s su es i n t h e g lo baliz atio n d eb ate , a n d o ne t h at c u ts t o o ne o f t h e u nder l y in g o nto lo gic al i s su es i n g lo baliz atio n s tu die s, i s w h en d oes g lo baliz a tio n b eg in ? W hat i s t h e t im e d im en sio n o f t h e p ro cess? H ow a t h eo ry a n sw ers t h is q uestio n w ill s h ap e – e v en d ete rm in e – w hat w e u nders ta n d w hen w e s p eak o f g lo baliz atio n, o r i f t h e t e rm – a n d R obin so n 3 t h e p ro cess o f c h an ge i n h is to ric al s tr u ctu re s t h at t h e t e rm i s a ssu m ed t o e x plic ate – i s w orth w hile , o r s im ply s u perflu ous a n d m is le ad in g. W e c an i d en tif y t h re e b ro ad a p pro ach es t o t h e t e m pora l q uestio n o f g lo baliz atio n – a p ro cess t h at d ate s b ack t o t h e d aw n o f h is to ry , w ith a s u dden r e cen t a ccele ra tio n; a p ro cess c o te rm in ous w ith t h e s p re ad a n d d ev elo p m en t o f c ap ita lis m o ver t h e p ast 5 00 y ears ; a n d a r e cen t p hen om en on a sso cia te d w ith s o cia l c h an ge o f t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu rie s. T he w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m c le arly a rg ues t h e s e co nd o f t h ese . I n f a ct, a n um ber o f w orld -s y ste m t h eo ris ts s u ggeste d i n t h e 1 990s t h at t o t a lk o f g lo baliz atio n w as m ere ly t o r e in ven t t h e w heel ( s e e l a te r). W alle rs te in h im se lf d oes n ot s e e a n yth in g n ew i n g lo baliz atio n. ‘ T he p ro ponen ts o f w orld -s y ste m s a n aly sis ’, s ta te s W alle rs te in , h av e b een t a lk in g a b out g lo baliz atio n s in ce l o ng b efo re t h e w ord w as i n ven te d – n ot, h ow ev er, a s s o m eth in g n ew b ut a s s o m eth in g t h at h as b een b asic t o t h e m odern w orld -s y ste m e v er s in ce i t b eg an i n t h e s ix te en th c en tu ry ’ ( W alle rs te in , 2 004a: x ). M y o w n v ie w , a lb eit b rie fly , i s t h at t h e c u rre n t p erio d m ark s a q ualita tiv ely n ew e p och i n t h e o ngoin g e v olu tio n o f w orld c ap ita lis m , o ne t h at i n volv es c erta in d is c o ntin ui t ie s a n d q ualita tiv ely n ovel d im en sio ns t h at c an not b e e x pla in ed w ith in t h e w orld -s y ste m s p ara d ig m . I f g lo baliz atio n s im ply m ean s t h e o nly g eo gra p hic e x te n sio n o f m ate ria l a n d c u ltu ra l e x ch an ges t h en i t h as b een g oin g o n f o r t h ousa n ds o f y ears , a n d i f i t m ean s t h e s p re ad a n d d ev elo pm en t o f c ap ita lis m , i n clu din g t h at w hic h t h e c ap ita lis t s y ste m i m plie s, t h en i t h as b een g oin g o n f o r 5 00+ y ears . I n m y o w n c o ncep tio n, I r e se rv e t h e t e rm g lo bal i z atio n t o r e fe r t o t h e n ovel c h an ges a sso cia te d w ith t h e p ast f e w d ecad es. T hese c h an ges i n volv e, t o r e ite ra te , q ualita tiv ely n ew d im en sio ns t h at t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m c an not a cco unt f o r g iv en t h e i m min en ce o f i ts c o re c o ncep ts , a s I d is c u ss l a te r, a lb eit b rie fly . W orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry s h are s w ith s e v era l o th er a p pro ach es t o g lo baliz atio n, m ost n ota b ly t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis m a p pro ach w ith w hic h I m yse lf a m i d en tif ie d ( R obin so n, 2 004a, 2 007), a c ritiq ue o f c ap ita lis m a s a n e x pan sio nary s y ste m t h at h as c o m e t o e n co m p ass t h e e n tir e w orld o ver t h e p ast 5 00 y ears . T hese d is tin ct t h eo rie s s h are a c o m mon g en ealo gy t h at t r a ces b ack t o M arx a n d h is c ritiq ue o f c ap ita lis m , a n d i n t u rn g re w o ut o f a l o ng t r a d itio n i n M arx is t a n d r a d ic al a n aly se s o f w orld c ap ita lis m d atin g b ack t o t h e w ritin gs o f L en in , H ilf e rd in g, R osa L uxem burg a n d o th er e arly 2 0th -c en tu ry t h eo ris ts o f i m peria lis m ( s e e, i n te r a lia , B re w er, 1 991; W ors le y, 1 977). B ut a cco unts o f w orld c ap i t a lis m a m ong r a d ic al a cad em ic s a n d p olitic al a cto rs b eg an t o d iv erg e i n t h e p ost- S eco nd W orld W ar p erio d. I n p artic u la r, m ore t r a d itio nally o rie n te d a p pro ach es f o llo w ed M arx ’s v ie w t h at c ap ita lis m w ould d ev elo p t h e f o rc es o f p ro ductio n w orld w id e a s i t s p re ad , w hile o th ers s a w t h e b ack w ard ness a n d u nderd ev elo pm en t o f s o m e r e g io ns o f t h e w orld a s t h e a lte r- e g o o f t h e a d van cem en t a n d d ev elo pm en t o f o th ers . A n um ber o f s c h ools e m erg ed t h at a rg ued t h at i t w as t h e v ery n atu re a n d d ynam ic s o f w orld c ap ita lis m t h at r e su lte d i n g lo bal i n eq ualitie s a m ong c o untr ie s a n d r e g io ns, b rin gin g a b out t h e d ev elo p m en t o f s o m e a n d t h e u nderd ev elo pm en t o f o th ers . T his v ie w w as f ir s t p ut f o rw ard b y t h e s tr u ctu ra l s c h ool o f R au l P re b is c h a n d t h e U nite d N atio ns E co nom ic C om mis sio n f o r L atin A m eric a i n t h e 1 950s a n d 1 960s, f o llo w ed b y m ore r a d ic al a n d e x plic itly n eo -M arx is t d ep en den cy t h eo ris ts – o r t h e ‘ d ep en den tis ta s’ – o f t h e 1 960s a n d 1 970s ( C hilc o te , 1 984). A t t h e s a m e t im e, r a d ic al i n te lle ctu als a n d p olitic al l e ad ers f ro m o th er p arts o f t h e T hir d W orld w ere r e ach in g s im ila r c o nclu sio ns, a m ong t h em , S am ir A m in a n d W alte r R odney, i n sp ir e d i n p art b y t h e L atin A m eric an s ( s e e e .g . A m in , 1 974; R odney, 1 981; W ors le y, 1 977). 4 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy I t w as i n t h is m ilie u t h at W alle rs te in f o rg ed h is d is tin ctiv e w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry , a s p art o f a b ro ad er i n te lle ctu al e x ch an ge w ith A m in a n d o th ers , i n clu din g A ndre G under F ra n k a n d T erre n ce H opkin s. W alle rs te in h ad h im se lf l iv ed i n F ra n ce a n d A fric a a n d b eg an h is c are er a s a n A fric an is t ( o n W alle rs te in ’s i n te lle ctu al b io gra p hy, s e e G old fra n k, 2 000). H is f ir s t m ajo r w ork , A fr ic a : T he P olitic s o f I n dep en den ce , b ecam e a n a cad em ic b ests e lle r. B ut w hat l a u nch ed t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m w as t h e p ublic atio n i n 1 974 o f t h e f ir s t v olu m e o f h is m ag nus o pus, T he M odern W orld -S yste m . T he f ir s t v olu m e, u nder t h e s u btitle C apita lis t A gric u ltu re a nd t h e O rig in s o f t h e E uro pea n W orld -E co nom y i n t h e S ix te en th C en tu ry , l a y s o ut t h e b asic p ostu la te s o f t h e t h eo ry . I t w as f o llo w ed b y a s e co nd v olu m e i n 1 980, s u btitle d M erc a ntilis m a nd t h e C onso lid atio n o f t h e E uro pea n W orld E co nom y, 1 600–1750 , a n d t h en a t h ir d v olu m e i n 1 988, T he S eco nd E ra o f G re a t E xp ansio n o f t h e C apita lis t W orld E co nom y, 1 730–1840s. W alle rs te in i s a r e m ark ab ly p ro lif ic w rite r a n d h as p ro duced d ozen s o f b ooks a n d h undre d s o f a rtic le s a n d e ssa y s. M ore r e cen t w ork s h av e c o ntin ued t o e la b ora te a n d r e fin e t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m , a n d t o a p ply i t t o a n a rra y o f c o nte m pora ry a n d h is to ric al p hen om en a ( s e e e sp . W alle rs te in , 2 000c, a c o lle ctio n o f e ssa y s s p an nin g s o m e 4 0 y ears ; s e e a ls o , i n te r a lia , W alle rs te in , 1 979, 1 998, 2 004a). O th er r e cen t w ork s h av e f o cu se d o n m atte rs o f m eth od, e p is te m ol o gy a n d o nto lo gy o f s o cia l s c ie n ce, p artic u la rly w ith h is c all f o r a u nif ic atio n o f t h e d is c ip lin es a n d o f h is to ry i n to a h is to ric al s o cia l s c ie n ce ( W alle rs te in , 2 001, 2 004b). I f t h e r a d ic al l ite ra tu re o n d ev elo pm en t w as o ne m ajo r i n flu en ce o n W alle rs te in ’s i d eas, t h e s e co nd w as t h e F re n ch A nnale s s c h ool t h at r e ach ed i ts z en ith i n t h e p ost- S ec o nd W orld W ar y ears , a n d i n p artic u la r, t h e t h ought o f i ts l e ad in g f ig ure s, F ern an d B ra u del. B ra u del h ad s o ught t o d ev elo p ‘ to ta l’ o r ‘ g lo bal’ h is to ry . B y t h is h e m ean t a n a p pro ach t o h is to ry t h at o bse rv es t h e t o ta lity o f t h e f ie ld o f s o cia l f o rc es, s o t h at h is to ry i s a ll- e m bra cin g a n d e m phasiz es t h e i n te rc o nnecte d ness o f w hat c o nven tio nal a p pro ach es c o nsid er t o b e d is tin ct h is to rie s. B ut B ra u del a ls o m ean s b y ‘ g lo bal h is to ry ’ t h e s y nth esis o f h is to ry a n d s o cia l s c ie n ces t h ro ugh a n e m phasis o n t h e l o ngue d uré e ( th e l o ng t e rm ), w hat B ra u del a lte rn ativ ely r e fe rre d t o a s ‘ s tr u ctu ra l t im e’ i n h um an a ff a ir s . T he l o ngue d uré e i s a h is to ric al p ro cess i n w hic h a ll c h an ge i s s lo w , i n volv in g c o nsta n t r e p etitio n a n d r e cu rrin g c y cle s. I t i s o nly t h ro ugh t h e s tu dy o f t h e l o ng t e rm t h at t h e t o ta lity , t h e d eep est l a y ers o f s o cia l l if e , t h e ‘ s u bte rra n ean h is to ry ’, a n d t h e c o ntin uin g s tr u ctu re s o f h is to ric al r e ality a re r e v eale d . W alle rs te in h as p ush ed f u rth er t h is f u sio n o f h is to ry a n d s o cia l s c ie n ce, c allin g f o r a h is to ric a l s o cia l s c ie n ce t h at w ould r e u nif y h is to ry w ith s o cio lo gy, t h e o th er s o cia l s c i e n ces a n d t h e h um an itie s, a n d t h at w ould o pera te o n a g lo bal s c ale . T w o o f t h e h allm ark s o f w orld -s y ste m a p pro ach es a re t h e t r a n sd is c ip lin ary n atu re o f m uch r e se arc h a n d t h e d eep ly h is to ric al p ers p ectiv e i t b rin gs t o b ear o n r e se arc h . I n 1 976, W alle rs te in a n d s e v e ra l o f h is c o lle ag ues e sta b lis h ed t h e F ern an d B ra u del C en te r f o r t h e S tu dy o f E co nom ie s, H is to ric al S yste m s, a n d C iv iliz atio n a t t h e S ta te U niv ers ity o f N ew Y ork a t B in gham to n. A cco rd in g t o t h e C en te r’s f o undin g s ta te m en t: [The Center] exists to engage in the analysis of lar ge-scale social change over long periods of historical time. W e operate on two assumptions. One is that there is no structure that is not historical. In order to understand a structure one must not only know its genesis and its context; one must also assume that its form and its substance are constantly evolving. The second R obin so n 5 assumption is that no sequence of events in time is structureless, that is, fortuitous. Every event occurs within existing structures, and is af fected by its constraints. Every event creates part of the context of future events. Of course, there are ruptures in structures which represent fundamental change. But such ruptures too are explicable in terms of the state of the structures. W e therefore do not separate the study of historical sequence and the study of structural relationships. 1 The modern w orld-system W orld -s y ste m t h eo ry a s e la b ora te d b y W alle rs te in s ta rts w ith t h e p ro positio n t h at t h e a p pro pria te u nit o f a n aly sis f o r m acro so cia l i n quir y i n t h e m odern w orld i s n eith er c la ss, n or s ta te /s o cie ty , o r c o untr y , b ut t h e l a rg er h is to ric al s y ste m , i n w hic h t h ese c ate g orie s a re l o cate d . T he d efin in g b oundarie s o f a h is to ric al s y ste m a re t h ose w ith in w hic h t h e s y ste m a n d t h e p eo ple w ith in i t a re r e g ula rly r e p ro duced b y m ean s o f s o m e k in d o f o ngo i n g d iv is io n o f l a b or. C en tr a l t o t h e i d ea o f a h is to ric al s y ste m i s t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or – a c o re c o ncep t i n t h e s o cia l s c ie n ces. T he e x is te n ce o f a d iv is io n o f l a b or i m plie s s p ecia l i z ed w ork r o le s a m ong i n div id uals a n d g ro ups a lo ng w it h t h e c o ord in atio n o r s y nch ro ni z atio n o f t h ese d if f e re n t r o le s, o r l a b or a ctiv itie s. H en ce, t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or n atu ra lly f o rm s t h e o ute r b oundarie s o f a n y s o cia l o rd er i n t h at i t s e ts t h e b oundarie s f o r a n d s o cia l r e la tio ns a n d i n te rd ep en den cie s. I n h um an h is to ry , W alle rs te in a rg ues, t h ere h av e b een t h re e k now n f o rm s o f h is to ric al s y ste m s: m in i- s y ste m s , a n d w orld -s y ste m s o f t w o k in ds – w orld -e m pir e s a n d w orld e co nom ie s . M in i- s y ste m s l a rg ely c o rre sp ond t o t h e p re -a g ric u ltu ra l e ra . T hey a re s e lf c o nta in ed s y ste m s t h at t e n d t o b e s m all i n s p ace a n d b rie f i n t im e. T hey a re g en era lly s u bsis te n ce e co nom ie s, g overn ed b y t h e l o gic o f r e cip ro city i n e x ch an ge. M in i- s y ste m s w ere h ig hly h om ogen eo us i n t e rm s o f c u ltu ra l a n d g overn in g s tr u ctu re s a n d t h ey s p lit u p w hen t h ey b ecam e t o o l a rg e. W orld -s y ste m s d o n ot e x hib it t h is h om ogen eity . F or W alle rs te in , a w orld -s y ste m i s a n e co nom ic e n tity n ot c ir c u m sc rib ed b y p olitic al o r c u l t u ra l b oundarie s, a n d i s a s e lf -c o nta in ed s o cia l s y ste m . W orld -e m pir e s w ere t h e d om i n an t f o rm o f h is to ric al s y ste m s f ro m t h e e arlie st c iv iliz atio ns u ntil a b out 1 500 a d . T he d efin in g c h ara cte ris tic i s a s in gle p olitic al c en te r o r s tr u ctu re e n co m passin g a n e x te n siv e d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d a w id e r a n ge o f c u ltu ra l p atte rn s. W orld -e m pir e s o pera te d t h ro ugh t h e e x tr a ctio n o f t r ib ute , o r s u rp lu s, f ro m o th erw is e l o cally s e lf -a d m in is te re d c o m muni t ie s o f p ro du cers t h at w as p asse d u pw ard t o t h e c en te r a n d r e d is tr ib ute d t o a n etw ork o f o ff ic ia ls . I n t u rn , a w orld -e co nom y i n volv es v ast, u nev en c h ain s o f i n te g ra te d p ro ductio n s tr u ctu re s b ro ught t o geth er t h ro ugh a c o m ple x d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d e x te n siv e c o m mer c ia l e x ch an ge. T his m ay b e t r u e o f a w orld -e m pir e a s w ell. F or W alle rs te in , t h e b oundarie s o f a w orld -s y ste m a re f o rm ed b y t h e e x te n t a n d r e ach o f a g iv en s o cia l d iv is io n o f l a b or. F or i n sta n ce, t h e R om an E m pir e w as a w orld -s y ste m , i n t h at a ll o f t h e l a n ds a n d p eo ple s e n co m passe d w ith in i ts r e alm s p artic ip ate d i n a s in gle e m pir e -w id e d iv is io n o f l a b or, a n d w ere c o nnecte d b y s p ecia liz ed r e g io nal r o le s a n d e co n om ic c o ntr ib utio ns, a n d t r a d in g n etw ork s a m ong t h em . I n W alle rs te in ’s o w n w ord s, a w orld -s y ste m i s a ‘ s p atia l/te m pora l z o ne w hic h c u ts a cro ss m an y p olitic al a n d c u ltu ra l u nits , o ne t h at r e p re se n ts a n i n te g ra te d z o ne o f a ctiv ity a n d i n stitu tio ns w hic h o bey c er t a in s y ste m ic r u le s’ ( W alle rs te in , 2 004a: 1 7). I n t u rn , W alle rs te in d is tin guis h ed b etw een 6 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy t w o t y pes o f w orld -s y ste m s. O ne i s w orld -e m pir e s, i n w hic h t h ere i s a s in gle p olitic al b oundary . H en ce t h e R om an w orld -s y ste m w as a w orld -e m pir e . I n d is tin ctio n, a w orld -e co nom y i s a w orld -s y ste m t h at h as m ultip le p olitic al c en te rs r a th er t h an a s in gle p olitic al c en te r o r b ound a ry . T he p ecu lia r s tr e n gth o f t h e m odern o r c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m i s t h at i t h as n ot t r a n sfo rm ed i n to a w orld -e m pir e , w hic h w ould i m ply a s in gle p olitic al s y ste m o r c en te r. T he c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y t h at e m erg ed f ro m c ir c a 1 500 a n d o n e x pan ded t o c o ver t h e e n tir e g lo be, a b so rb in g i n t h e p ro cess a ll e x is tin g m in i- s y ste m s a n d w orld -e m pir e s, e sta b lis h in g m ark et a n d p ro ductio n n etw ork s t h at e v en tu ally b ro ught a ll p eo ple s a ro und t h e w orld i n to i ts l o gic a n d i n to a s in gle w orld w id e s tr u ctu re . H en ce, b y t h e l a te 1 9th c en t u ry t h ere w as b ut o ne h is to ric al s y ste m t h at h ad c o m e t o e n co m pass t h e e n tir e g lo be, t h e c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m . I t i s i n t h is s e n se t h at w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry c an b e s e en a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n e v en i f i ts p rin cip al a d here n ts r e je ct t h e t e rm g lo baliz atio n ( s e e l a te r). A s W alle rs te in l a y s o ut i n V olu m e I o f T he M odern W orld -S yste m , t h e m odern w orld s y ste m a s a c a pita lis t w orld -s y ste m c am e i n to b ein g d urin g t h e ‘ lo ng s ix te en th c en tu ry ’ o f 1 450–1640 o ut o f t h e g en era l c ris is o f E uro pean f e u dalis m t h at b eg an i n t h e 1 4th c en t u ry . ‘ S tr u ctu re s a re t h ose c o ra l r e efs o f h um an r e la tio ns w hic h h av e a s ta b le e x is te n ce o ver r e la tiv ely l o ng p erio ds o f t im e’, s ta te s W alle rs te in . ‘ B ut s tr u ctu re s t o o a re b orn , d ev elo p, a n d d ie . . . t h e s tu dy o f s o cia l c h an ge . . . s h ould b e r e str ic te d t o t h e s tu dy o f c h an ges i n t h ose p hen om en a w hic h a re m ost d ura b le ’ ( 1 974: 3 ). H e t h en g oes o n t o p ro c la im t w o ‘ g re at w ate rs h ed s i n t h e h is to ry o f m an . . . t h e s o -c alle d N eo lith ic o r a g ric u l t u ra l r e v olu tio n. T he o th er g re at w ate rs h ed i s t h e c re atio n o f t h e m odern w orld ’ ( 1 974: 3 ). P rio r t o t h e c re atio n o f t h is E uro pean -c en te re d w orld -s y ste m t h ere w ere a n um ber o f w orld -e co nom ie s a n d w orld -e m pir e s a ro und t h e p la n et, i n clu din g t h e M ed ite rra n ean w orld -e co nom y, t h e I n dia n O cean –R ed S ea c o m ple x , t h e C hin ese r e g io n, t h e C en tr a l A sia n l a n d m ass f ro m M ong olia t o R ussia a n d t h e B altic a re a, a m ong o th ers ( W alle rs te in , 1 974: 1 7). B ut t h e E uro pean w orld -e co nom y d id a w ay w it h t h ese o th er w orld -e co nom ie s a n d w orld -e m pir e s t h ro ugh i ts o w n e x pan sio n. E m erg in g c ap ita lis t e lite s ( m erc h an ts , f in an cie rs , p olitic al e lite s) f ro m P ortu gal, l a te r S pain , H olla n d, E ngla n d, F ra n ce a n d e ls e w here , e x pan ded o utw ard i n p urs u it o f n ew e co nom ic o pportu nitie s. T his e x pan sio n w as m ad e p ossib le b y t h e d ev elo pm en t o f s tr o ng s ta te s i n t h e ‘ c o re ’ o f t h e e m erg in g c ap ita li s t w orld -e co nom y. I n W este rn E uro pe, c en tr a liz ed m onarc h ie s r e p la ced f e u dal f ie fs , w hic h w ere t h en r e p la ced b y m odern n atio n-s ta te s. T hese s ta te s d efe n ded t h e i n te re sts o f t h eir e lite c la sse s a n d p la y ed a k ey r o le i n c o nstr u ctin g t h e s tr u ctu re s o f t h e m odern w orld s y ste m . T hey f ir s t c o lo niz ed t h e A m eric as a n d e co nom ic ally i n co rp ora te d E aste rn E uro pe i n to a l a rg er s in gle A tla n tic w orld -e co nom y. W ith e ach e x pan sio n n ew r e g io ns w ere b ro ught i n to t h e s y ste m . T he s y ste m c o ntin ued t o e x pan d, e v en tu ally i n co rp ora tin g t h e e n tir e p la n et a n d b eco m in g, b etw een 1 815 a n d 1 917, a t r u ly ‘ g lo bal e n te rp ris e ’. T his c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m i s c h ara cte riz ed b y e co nom ic d om in an ce o f t h e p la n et, n ot b y a n y s in gle p olitic al o r c u ltu ra l s y ste m ( b ut s e e l a te r c o m men ts o n W alle rs te in ’s n otio n o f g eo cu ltu re a n d m y c o m men ta ry ). Structur es and pr ocesses of the modern w orld-system A k ey s tr u ctu re o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m b eco m es t h e d iv is io n o f t h e w orld i n to t h re e g re at r e g io ns, o r h ie ra rc h ic ally o rg an iz ed t i e rs . T he f ir s t i s t h e c o re , o r t h e p ow erfu l R obin so n 7 a n d d ev elo ped c en te rs o f t h e s y ste m , o rig in al c o m pris e d o f W este rn E uro pe a n d l a te r e x pan ded t o i n clu de t h e U nite d S ta te s a n d J a p an . T he s e co nd i s t h e p erip hery – t h ose r e g io ns t h at h av e b een f o rc ib ly s u bord in ate d t o t h e c o re t h ro ugh c o lo nia lis m o r o th er m ean s, a n d i n t h e f o rm ativ e y ears o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m w ould i n clu de L atin A m eric a, A fric a, A sia a n d E aste rn E uro pe. T hir d i s t h e s e m i- p erip hery , c o m pris e d o f t h ose s ta te s a n d r e g io ns t h at w ere p re v io usly i n t h e c o re a n d a re m ovin g d ow n i n t h is h ie ra rc h y, s u ch a s t h e I b eria n c o untr ie s f o llo w in g t h eir 1 6th -c en tu ry h ey day, o r t h ose t h at w ere p re v io usly i n t h e p erip hery a n d a re m ovin g u p, s u ch a s I ta ly i n e arlie r c en tu rie s, R ussia f o llo w in g t h e S ovie t r e v olu tio n, o r m ore r e cen tly , I n dia , C hin a, B ra zil, S outh A fric a a n d s u ch ‘ A sia n T ig ers ’ a s S outh K ore a a n d T aiw an . ‘ T he a b ility o f a p artic u la r s ta te t o r e m ain i n t h e c o re s e cto r i s n ot b ey ond c h alle n ge’, a sse rts W alle rs te in . ‘ T he h ounds a re e v er t o t h e h are s f o r t h e p ositio n o f t o p d og. I n deed , i t m ay w ell b e t h at i n t h is k in d o f s y ste m i t i s n ot s tr u ctu ra lly p ossib le t o a v oid , o ver a l o ng p erio d o f h is to ric al t im e, a c ir c u la tio n o f t h e e lite s i n t h e s e n se t h at t h e p artic u la r c o untr y t h at i s d om in an t a t a g iv en t im e t e n ds t o b e r e p la ced i n t h is r o le s o oner o r l a te r b y a n oth er c o untr y ’ ( 1 974: 3 50). W ith t h is t r im odal s tr u ctu re i n volv in g t h re e d is tin ct r e g io ns: c en te r ( o r c o re ) , p erip hery a n d s e m i- p erip hery , W alle rs te in i s b orro w in g f ro m , a n d e x pan din g o n, e ar l ie r t h eo rie s o f g lo bal p olitic al e co nom y. T he c o ncep t o f c o re a n d p erip hery w as f ir s t d ev elo ped i n t h e 1 950s b y R au l P re b is c h , t h e d ir e cto r o f t h e E co nom ic C om mis sio n f o r L atin A m eric a ( E LC A ). D ep en den cy t h eo ry p osite d a b im odal m odel o f c o re , o r m et r o polita n s ta te s t h at h ad h is to ric ally c o nquere d a n d c o lo niz ed r e g io ns t h at b ecam e s a te llite s, o r p erip hera l a re as o f w orld c ap ita lis m . B ut w ith t h e a d ditio n o f t h e s e m i p erip hery i n W alle rs te in ’s c o nstr u ct t h is b im odal s tr u ctu re b eco m es t r im odal. T he s e m i- p erip hery i s s e en a s o ccu pyin g a n i n te rm ed ia te p la ce b etw een t h e c o re a n d t h e p erip hery . W ith in t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or, t h e c o re a n d t h e p erip hery a re i n volv ed i n a n u neq ual e x ch an ge o f h ig h-w ag e p ro ducts ( e .g . m an ufa ctu re s) a n d l o w -w ag e p ro ducts ( e .g . r a w m ate ria ls ). F or i ts p art, t h e s e m i- p erip hery s ta n ds i n b etw een i n t e rm s o f i ts w ag e l e v els a n d t h e p ro ducts i t t r a d es, a n d s e ek s t o t r a d e i n b oth d ir e ctio ns. B ut f o r W alle rs te in t h e s e m i- p erip hery ’s r o le g oes b ey ond a d is tin ct m id dle p ositio n i n t h e i n te rn atio nal d iv is io n o f l a b or. I t a ls o p la y s a p olitic al r o le i n t h e s y ste m , d iv ertin g p re ssu re s f ro m t h e p erip hery i n t h e s a m e w ay t h at a m id dle c la ss m ay d efu se t e n sio ns b etw een w ork ers a n d c ap ita lis ts : The semiperiphery . . . is not an artifice of statistical cutting points, nor is it a residual category . The semiperiphery is a necessary structural element in a world-economy . These areas play a role parallel to that played, mutatis mutandi , by middle-trading groups in an empire. They are collection points of vital skills that are often politically unpopular . These middle areas (like middle groups in an empire) partially deflect the political pressures which groups primarily located in peripheral areas might otherwise direct against core states and the groups which operate within and through their state machineries. (1974: 349–50) T he w orld -s y ste m t h us h as a n i n te rn atio nal d iv is io n o f l a b or d is tin guis h ed b y c o re , p erip hery a n d s e m i- p erip hery , e ach p la y in g a f u nctio nally s p ecif ic r o le w it h in t h e s y s t e m . B ut m ore s p ecif ic ally , W alle rs te in t e rm s t h is a n a xia l d iv is io n o f l a b or. W hat h e m ean s b y t h is i s t h at c o re -lik e ( e .g . h ig h-w ag e, c a p ita l- in te n sity a n d s k ill l e v el) a n d p erip hera l p ro ductio n p ro cesse s ( e .g . r a w m ate ria l p ro ductio n, l o w c ap ita l- in te n sity o r 8 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy s k ill l e v el) a re b ound t o geth er i n t h e w orld -s y ste m a n d t h at p erip hera l p ro ductio n p ro cesse s a re c o ncen tr a te d i n a g eo gra p hic p erip hery a n d c o re p ro ductio n p ro cesse s a re c o ncen tr a te d i n a g eo gra p hic c o re . T he t h eo ry ’s i n sis te n ce t h at t h is a x ia l d iv is io n o f l a b or m ust t a k e a g eo gra p hic al/te rrito ria l e x pre ssio n h as b een c ritiq ued b y o th ers c o m in g f ro m a g lo baliz atio n p ers p ectiv e ( s e e l a te r). W hat i s c ru cia l w ith r e g ard t o g lo baliz atio n t h eo ry i s t h at i n W alle rs te in ’s c o nstr u ct t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or i s n ecessa rily g eo gra p hic al a n d i n te rn atio nal, s o t h at d if f e re n t g eo gra p hic al r e g io ns a n d d if f e re n t c o untr ie s o ccu py d if f e re n t p ositio ns w ith in t h e w orld d iv is io n o f l a b or. I n a w orld -s y ste m ‘ th ere i s e x te n siv e d iv is io n o f l a b or. T his d iv is io n i s n ot m ere ly f u n ctio nal – t h at i s , o ccu patio nal – b ut g eo g ra p hic al. T hat i s t o s a y, t h e r a n ge o f e co nom ic t a sk s i s n ot e v en ly d is tr ib ute d t h ro ughout t h e w orld -s y ste m ’ ( 1 974: 3 49). A c o re c o m ponen t o f W alle rs te in ’s t h eo ry i s t h e g en era tio n a n d a p pro pria tio n o f s u r p lu se s t h ro ughout t h is s y ste m . S urp lu se s t e n d t o m ove f ro m p erip hera l a n d s e m i p erip hera l t o c o re r e g io ns, s o t h at t h e n atu ra l f u nctio nin g o f t h e s y ste m – t h at i s , w orld a ccu m ula tio n – r e su lts i n t h e e n ric h m en t a n d d ev elo pm en t o f t h e c o re a n d t h e i m pover i s h m en t a n d u nderd ev elo pm en t o f t h e p erip hery . H ere w e s e e h ow i m porta n t t h e c o ncep t o f t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or i s t o w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry . T he p erip hera l r e g io ns a re c o nsig ned t o p ro ducin g r a w m ate ria ls ( a g ric u ltu ra l g oods a n d m in ed p ro ducts ) f o r t h e w orld e co n o m y w hile t h e c o re i n dustr ia liz es a n d p ro duces m an ufa ctu re d g oods. T hus a n i n te rn a t io nal d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d a w orld t r a d e s y ste m i s c re ate d t h at f a v ors t h e c o re . H ere w e h av e a t h eo ry t h at p ro vid es a n e x pla n atio n f o r g lo bal i n eq ualitie s a n d, a s m an y h av e p oin te d o ut, a p ote n t a n tid ote t o t h e m odern iz atio n t h eo rie s t h at p ro lif e ra te d i n t h e 1 950s a n d 1 960s. A noth er s tr u ctu re i m man en t t o t h e w orld -s y ste m , a cco rd in g t o W alle rs te in , i s d if f e r e n t m eth ods o f l a b or c o ntr o l i n d if f e re n t z o nes o f t h is w orld -e co nom y. W ag e l a b or d ev el o ped i n t h e N orth w est E uro pean ‘ c o re ’ o f t h e s y ste m , w hil e c o erc ed f o rm s o f l a b or d ev elo ped i n ‘ p erip hera l’ z o nes. I n p artic u la r, s la v e l a b or a n d w hat W alle rs te in c alls ‘ c o erc ed c ash -c ro p l a b or’ ( a f o rm o f s e rfd om i n w hic h p easa n ts a re f o rc ed t o p ro duce f o r t h e w orld m ark et) d ev elo ped i n t h e A m eric as a n d i n E aste rn E uro pe. M ix ed f o rm s o f l a b or c o ntr o l d ev elo ped i n t h e ‘ s e m i- p erip hery ’, a m ong t h em s h are -c ro ppin g a n d t e n an t f a rm in g. B ecau se t h e n otio n o f d is tin ct m odes o f l a b or c o ntr o l, i n p artic u la r w ag e l a b or i n t h e c o re a n d c o erc ed l a b or i n t h e p erip hery , i s s o c en tr a l t o W alle rs te in ’s t h esis ( s e e e sp . 1 974: 1 27) a n d i s c o ntr a ste d t o c o ntr a ry p ro positio ns i n o th er g lo baliz atio n t h eo rie s, i t i s w orth q uotin g W alle rs te in a t s o m e l e n gth o n t h e m atte r: . . . these occupational categories were not randomly distributed either geographically or ethnically within the bur geoning world-economy . After some false starts, the picture rapidly evolved of a slave class of African origins located in the W estern Hemisphere, a ‘serf ’ class divided into two segments: a major one in Eastern Europe and a smaller one of American Indians in the W estern Hemisphere. The peasants of western and southern Europe were for the most part ‘tenants.’ The wage-workers were almost all west Europeans. . . . each mode of labor control is best suited for particular types of production. . . . The world-economy was based precisely on the assumption that there were in fact these three zones and that they did in fact have dif ferent modes of labor control. W ere this not so, it would not have been possible to assure the kind of flow of the surplus which enabled the capitalist system to come into existence. (1974: 87) R obin so n 9 A s m en tio ned , a w orld -e co nom y d oes n ot h av e a s in gle p olitic al c en te r a s d oes a w orld -e m pir e ; h en ce t h e i n te r- s ta te s y ste m b eco m es a n oth er i m man en t f e atu re o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m . ‘ P olitic al e m pir e s a re a p rim itiv e m ean s o f e co nom ic d om in a t io n’, c la im s W alle rs te in . ‘ It i s t h e s o cia l a ch ie v em en t o f t h e m odern w orld , i f y ou w il l, t o h av e i n ven te d t h e t e ch nolo gy t h at m ak es i t p ossib le t o i n cre ase t h e f lo w o f t h e s u rp lu s f ro m t h e l o w er s tr a ta t o t h e u pper s tr a ta , f ro m t h e p erip hery t o t h e c en te r, f ro m t h e m ajo r i ty t o t h e m in ority , b y e lim in atin g t h e “ w aste : o f t o o c u m bers o m e a p olitic al s u pers tr u c t u re ’ ( 1 974: 1 5–16). I f t h e w orld b eco m es d iv id ed i n to a t h re e-tie re d h ie ra rc h y o f c o re – se m i- p erip hery –perip hery , i n t u rn , t h e c o re s ta te s a re t h em se lv es h ie ra rc h ic ally o rg an iz ed a ro und a ‘ h eg em on’. T his h eg em on i s a l e ad in g c o re s ta te t h at e x erc is e s i ts p olitic al d om in atio n a n d c o ntr o l o ver t h e s y ste m a n d i m pose s r u le s a n d n orm s t h at b rin g i t d is p ro portio nate b en efits . T here h av e b een a s u ccessio n o f h eg em ons i n t h e h is to ry o f t h e m odern w orld -s y ste m , f ro m S pain t o t h e U nit e d P ro vin ces o f t h e N eth erla n ds, l a te r G re at B rita in , a n d t h en t h e U nit e d S ta te s i n t h e 2 0th c en tu ry ( a lth ough W alle rs te in d oes n ot c o nsid er S pain t o h av e b een a f u ll- b lo w n h eg em on). A c o nsta n t t h em e i n W alle rs te in ’s m ore r e cen t w ritin gs, a n d i n l ite ra tu re f ro m t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m m ore g en era lly , i s t h e d eclin e o f U S h eg em ony a n d a r e n ew ed w orld s tr u ggle f o r h eg em onic s u ccessio n ( s e e e .g . A rrig hi a n d S ilv er, 1 999). M uch c o n f lic t i n m odern w orld h is to ry i s s e en a s w ars a m ong c o re p ow ers o ver h eg em onic s ta tu s, o r w ars o f c o nquest b y t h e c o re o ver t h e p erip hery . T hus w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry o ff e rs a n e x pla n atio n f o r i n te rn atio nal c o nflic t a n d f o r s u ch t h em es a s p ow er a n d b ala n ce o f f o rc es i n t h e i n te rn atio nal s y ste m . I n a c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y, s ta te s W alle rs te in , ‘ c o re s ta te s . . . [ a re ] i n te rtw in ed i n a s ta te o f c o nsta n t e co nom ic a n d m ilita ry t e n sio n, c o m petin g f o r t h e p riv ile g e t o e x plo it ( a n d w eak en in g t h e s ta te m ach in erie s o f) p erip h e ra l a re as, a n d p erm ittin g c erta in e n titie s t o p la y a s p ecia liz ed , i n te rm ed ia ry r o le a s s e m i p erip hera l p ow ers ’ ( 1 974: 1 97). I n t h is , W alle rs te in i s e la b ora tin g o n t h e c la ssic al t h eo ry o f i m peria lis m , w hic h s a w t h e i n te r- s ta te r iv alr ie s a n d c o nflic ts a m ong r ic h c o untr ie s a s a s tr u ggle f o r c o ntr o l o ver w orld m ark ets a n d c o lo nia l s o urc es o f l a b or a n d r a w m ate ria ls , a n d i n c o ncu rre n ce w ith a n um ber o f r e la te d s tr a n ds i n i n te rn atio nal r e la tio ns t h eo ry . T w o o th er s tr u ctu ra l c h ara cte ris tic s o f t h e w orld -s y ste m a re c y clic al r h yth m s a n d s e cu la r t r e n ds i n t h e w orld -e co nom y a s a w hole . T here a re a t l e ast t w o t y pes o f c y clic al r h yth m s. O ne i s k now n a s K ondra tie ff c ycle s , n am ed a fte r R ussia n e co nom is t N ik ola i K ondra tie ff , w ho i n t h e 1 920s f ir s t w ro te a b out t h ese c y cle s, i n volv in g f ir s t e x pan sio n a n d t h en a c o ntr a ctio n i n t h e w orld -e co nom y, l a stin g s o m e 4 5–50 y ears . B ey ond w orld -s y ste m t h e o ry , m ost p olitic al e co nom is ts w ho s tu dy w orld c ap ita lis m h av e o bse rv ed a n d s tu die d t h ese K ondra tie ff c y cle s, a n d m ost c o ncu r w it h W alle rs te in ’s o bse rv atio n t h at t h e l a st A -p hase ( th e p erio d o f e x pan sio n) b eg an c ir c a 1 945 a n d e n ded c ir c a 1 972/3 , a n d t h at t h e w orld e n te re d a B -p hase ( p erio d o f c o ntr a ctio n) i n 1 972/3 ( s e e e .g . M an del, 1 978 [ 1 972]). T here i s , h ow ev er, c o nsid era b le d eb ate o ver h ow t o i n te rp re t t h e p erio d o f s ta g natio n t h at b eg an i n t h e e arly 1 970s. W e c an not v is it t h is d eb ate h ere o th er t h an t o n ote t h at i t i s r e la te d t o g lo baliz atio n i n so fa r a s a n um ber o f t h eo ris ts s e e t h e e co nom ic t u rm oil o f t h e l a te 2 0 th c en tu ry a s r e la te d t o t h e p ro cesse s a sso cia te d w ith g lo baliz atio n. W alle rs te in h as t a k en a p artic u la r p ositio n i n t h is r e g ard t h at I d is c u ss l a te r. T he s e co nd s e t o f c y clic al r h yth m s i s w hat w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ris ts c all ‘ lo gis tic s’ c y cle s, w hic h l a st a p pro xim ate ly 2 50 y ears , f ir s t i d en tif ie d b y F ra n co is S im ia n d i n t h e 1 930s. W alle rs te in h as a rg ued t h at 1 0 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy a l o gis tic s c y cle t h at r a n f ro m 1 450 t o 1 750 i n volv ed t h e b ir th a n d c o nso lid atio n o f t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y ( 1 980, e sp . C h. 1 ). M ean w hile , s o m e o f t h e s e cu la r t r e n ds i n t h e w orld -s y ste m a re t h e g eo gra p hic e x pan sio n o f t h e s y ste m , i n cre asin g c o m modif ic atio n, i n cre asin g i n dustr ia liz atio n a n d a W eb eria n b ure au cra tiz atio n. T here a re a g re at m an y a re as o f p artic u la r r e se arc h a n d a n um ber o f w ork in g c o ncep ts w ith in t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m . O ne o f t h ese i s a n ti- s y ste m ic m ovem en ts , w hic h a t c erta in m om en ts h av e r e ach ed a c ritic al m ass t h at p ro duces ‘ w orld r e v olu tio ns’ ( e .g . 1 789, 1 848, 1 917, 1 968) ( A rrig hi e t a l., 1 997), w hat i n o th er t h eo re tic al d is c o urs e s m ig ht b e c alle d c o unte rh eg em onic m ovem en ts , o ppositio nal f o rc es, r e v olu tio nary m ovem en ts a n d s o f o rth . A cco rd in g t o t h e B ra u del C en te r: W e mean by antisystemic movements all those movements or ganized by persons who seek to transform the world-system in a more democratic, more egalitarian direction. This has included movements of the working classes, nationalist and/or ethnic movements, women’ s movements, and a variety of other kinds of movements. The concept is an inclusive one in terms of the social composition of the movements and their primary locus of concern, but it is an exclusive one as well, seeking to omit movements narrowly focussed on the ascending of the stratification ladder by some particular group. A naly zin g l a te 2 0th -c en tu ry d ev elo pm en ts i n t h e w orld -s y ste m , W alle rs te in n ote s t h at t h e e x pan sio n o f t h e w orld -e co nom y s in ce 1 945 h as p ro bab ly b een a s g re at a s f o r t h e e n tir e p erio d o f 1 500–1945, a n d t h at t h e p olitic al s tr e n gth o f a n ti- s y ste m ic f o rc es i n cre ase d d ra m atic ally d urin g t h is p erio d. F in ally , a c o ncep t w orth m en tio nin g b ecau se o f i ts i m plic atio ns f o r g lo baliz atio n t h e o ry i s g eo cu ltu re , a s I b elie v e t h ere a re b oth d if f e re n ces a n d c o nverg en ces i n t h e i n te rp re t a tio ns o f w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry a n d t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis m a p pro ach t o t h e m atte r o f c u ltu re i n t h e g lo bal o r w orld -s y ste m . A gain t h e B ra u del C en te r: W e mean by geoculture the cultural framework of the world-system as a whole. The institutionalization of science and knowledge is a major component of the geoculture of the capitalist world-economy . W e mean by civilizations those constructs of the present which are claims of a long and particular cultural heritage in a specific region of the world. The boundaries of the ‘civilization’ are often defined in relation to a religious and linguistic core. The tension between the singular geoculture of the capitalist world-economy and the multiple renewed civilizational claims is a central feature of the politics of the world-economy . I d on’t g iv e m uch w eig ht t o v ers io ns o f g lo baliz atio n t h at i m pute e x pla n ato ry – e v en c au sa l – p rio rity t o t h e d ra m atic c u ltu ra l c h an ges w orld w id e a sso cia te d w ith t h e p ro cess, a n d d o n ot s h are t h e c ritic is m t h at w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry d oes n ot a cco rd m ore c au sa l p rio rity t o c u ltu re i n t h e s h ap in g o f h is to ric s tr u ctu re s. H ow ev er, t h e a ccele ra te d i n te g ra t io n o f p eo ple s i n to g lo bal s o cia l s tr u ctu re s a n d s o cia l l if e b ro ught a b out b y g lo baliz atio n i m plie s a u niv ers a l c u ltu ra l t r a n sm is sio n a n d b y n ecessity i n volv es a m in im um q uotie n t o f s h are d s y m bols , a d ap tiv e s tr a te g ie s a n d m ean in g s y ste m s, i f s o cia l l if e i s t o b e p ossi b le a t t h e g lo bal l e v el. T he q uestio n i s , w hat a re t h e s o cia l a n d c la ss f o rc es i n t h e g lo bal s y ste m t h at h av e t h e p ow er t o d if f u se a n d i m pose s y m bols a n d s h ap e m ean in g s y ste m s. I n t h is r e g ard I d o n ot s e e c o untr ie s o r r e g io ns i m posin g d om in an t c u ltu re s, a s w orld -s y ste m s R obin so n 1 1 t h eo ry d oes, b ut s o cia l g ro ups a s a g en ts . ‘ C ultu ra l c la sh es’ i n t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis m v ie w r e fle ct l e ss t h at o f c o m petin g g eo cu ltu ra l r e g io ns t h an t h e i m pacts o f g lo bal c ap ita lis t c u ltu re a n d m an if o ld f o rm s o f r e sis ta n ce t o i t. T he c u ltu ra l i m pact o f t h e n ew g lo bal c ap i t a lis m i s i m men se . T he c u ltu ra l i c o ns o f C oca C ola , M ic k ey M ouse , B ig M acs, N ik e, a n d s o o n, a re s y m bolic o f t h e r e al m ate ria l d om in atio n o f t r a n sn atio nal c o rp ora tio ns. T ra n sn atio nal p ro ductio n c h ain s, b y t h e n atu re o f t h e a ctiv itie s i n volv ed a n d t h e n et w ork s o f p eo ple d ra w n i n to t h em , f a c ilita te w id esp re ad c u ltu ra l c h an ge a n d p ro m ote a d om in an t g lo bal c ap ita lis t c u ltu re . T o t h e e x te n t t h at t h is g lo bal c ap ita lis t c u ltu re h as e m an ate d o ut f ro m i ts o rig in al h eartl a n ds o f c ap ita lis m – o r f ro m t h e c o re i n t h e w orld s y ste m l e x ic o n – a n d c o ntin ues t o d o s o t h en t h ere i s a g eo cu ltu ra l a n d ‘ c iv iliz atio nal’ d im en sio n t o g lo bal c ap ita lis t c u ltu ra l d om in atio n. B ut t h is g lo bal c o rp ora te c u ltu re , b ase d o n c o nsu m eris m , i n div id ualis m a n d c o m petitio n, m ay w ell b e m ore f le x ib le a n d a d ap ta b le t o d is tin ct r e g io nal ‘ g eo cu ltu re s’ t o w hic h W alle rs te in r e fe rs ( R obin so n, 2 004a; S kla ir , 2 000). G lo bal c a p ita lis t c u ltu ra l h eg em ony c le arly p la y s a n i n cre asin gly i m por t a n t r o le i n m ain ta in in g t h e c o hesio n o f t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis t o rd er. T his i s p artic u la rly s o g iv en t h e g re ate r c u lt u ra l c o hesio n a m ong n atio nal e lite s i n t h e w orld s e ttin g, a s t h eir t r a n sn atio nal i d en tit ie s o vers h ad ow t h eir n atio nal o nes. T he c u ltu re a n d i d eo lo gy o f g lo bal c ap ita lis m – c o nsu m eris m , i n div id ualis m a n d c o m petitio n – a re l e ss ‘ w este rn ’ o r ‘ c o re ’ t h an g lo bal c a pita lis t p atte rn s a n d a re i m pose d a s m uch f ro m w ith in b y l o cal c o n t in gen ts o f t h e t r a n sn atio nal c ap ita lis t c la ss a n d t r a n sn atio nally o rie n te d e lite s ( s e e l a te r) a s f ro m w it h out b y a g en ts f ro m o th er r e g io ns. C onvers e ly , c u ltu ra l s y m bols a re c re ate d a n d a p pro pria te d b y t h e o ppre sse d a n d c u ltu re c an a n d d oes s u bvert a s m uch a s i t d om i n ate s. I t i s i n t h is r e sis ta n ce t h at g ro ups d ra w o n h is to ric al g eo cu ltu re s a n d a d ap t t h em t o e n tir e ly n ew c ir c u m sta n ces, i n clu din g r e sc rip tin g a n d e v en m yth olo giz in g t h em . T he w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m h as s p aw ned a h uge a n d c o ntin uously g ro w in g b ody o f l ite ra tu re a cro ss t h e s o cia l s c ie n ces a n d h um an it ie s ( fo r o verv ie w s, s e e C hase -D unn, 1 998; H all, 1 984). G iv en t h e n um ero us d eb ate s w it h in t h e p ara d ig m , t h e d iv ers e a n d a t t im es c o nflic tin g a p pro ach es a n d a p plic atio ns a n d t h e s h eer s c o pe o f r e se arc h s e lf i d en tif ie d a s w orld -s y ste m s c h ola rs h ip , i n r e cen t y ears m ost w orld -s y ste m s c h ola rs h av e a sse rte d t h at t h e a p pro ach i s n ot a ‘ th eo ry ’ p er s e b ut a f ra m ew ork o f a n aly sis , a m eth od o lo gy ( s e e e .g . G old fra n k, 2 000), o r i n W alle rs te in ’s o w n w ord s, a ‘ p ers p ectiv e’ ( 2 004a). B y t h e 2 1st c en tu ry , t h e p ara d ig m w as i n cre asin gly r e fe rre d t o a s ‘ w orld -s y ste m a n aly sis ’ o r t h e ‘ w orld -s y ste m p ers p ectiv e’. W allerstein, the world-system and globalization I s t h e w orld -s y ste m a p pro ach a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n o r a n a lte rn ativ e t h eo ry o f w orld s o cie ty ? T he a n sw er t o t h is q uestio n w ould , i n t u rn , d ep en d o n h ow w e d efin e t h e c o n t e ste d c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n. I f a b are -b ones d efin itio n i s i n te n sif ie d i n te rc o nnectio ns a n d i n te rd ep en den cie s o n a p la n eta ry s c ale a n d c o nsc io usn ess o f t h em , t h en c erta in ly w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry i s a c o hesiv e t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n, o rg an iz ed a ro und a 5 00+ -y ear t im e s c ale c o rre sp ondin g t o t h e r is e o f a c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y i n E uro pe a n d i ts s p re ad a ro und t h e w orld . O n t h e o th er h an d, h ow ev er, i t i s n ot s e lf -id en tif ie d a s a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n a n d i s n ot a t h eo ry o f t h e w orld w id e s o cia l c h an ges o f t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu rie s. A rrig hi h as n ote d , i n d ir e ct r e fe re n ce t o W alle rs te in , t h at n ot a ll 1 2 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy w orld -s y ste m t h eo ris ts a g re e o n t h e a ff in ity o f e v en c o m patib ility b etw een t h eir r e se arc h p ro gra m a n d t h e e m erg in g g lo baliz atio n s tu die s ( 2 005: 3 3). W alle rs te in h as h im se lf b een d is m is siv e o f t h e c o ncep t o f g lo baliz atio n. ‘ T he c u rre n t b uzz-w ord t o d esc rib e t h e c o nte m pora ry s itu atio n i s “ g lo baliz atio n”. . . . P ers o nally , I t h in k i t i s m ean in gle ss a s a n a n aly tic c o ncep t’ ( 2 000a: 2 8). Y et W alle rs te in h as r e fe rre d t o g lo baliz atio n i n t w o d is tin ct s e n se s. I n t h e f ir s t, i t i s a n i d eo lo gy o f d om in an t g ro ups i n r e fe re n ce t o t h e n eo lib era l p olitic al i d eo lo gy o f g lo bal f re e t r a d e a n d c ap ita l a ccu m ula t io n u nre str a in ed b y s ta te s. I n deed , i n t h is s e n se , W alle rs te in i s a b so lu te ly c o rre ct – i t i s i n deed a b la ta n t i d eo lo gy e v oked b y r u lin g g ro ups t o j u stif y c ap ita lis t g lo baliz atio n p oli c ie s. A t t h e s a m e t im e, h ow ev er, h e h as d is m is se d o th er s o cia l s c ie n tif ic c o ncep tio ns o f g lo baliz atio n a s s im ply a n ew a n d s u perflu ous t e rm f o r t h e s a m e h is to ric al p ro cesse s t h at w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry h as b een e x poundin g o n s in ce t h e 1 970s: The processes that are usually meant when we speak of globalization are not in fact new at all. They have existed for some 500 years. . . . One would think, reading most accounts, that ‘globalization’ is something that came into existence in the 1990’ s – perhaps only upon the collapse of the Soviet Union, perhaps a few years earlier . The 1990’ s are not however a significant time marker to use if one wants to analyze what is going on. Rather , we can most fruitfully look at the present situation in two other time frameworks, the one going from 1945 to today , and the one going from circa 1450 to today . (2000b: 250) I f f o r t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m g lo baliz atio n i s s y nonym ous w it h t h e b ir th a n d s p re ad o f c ap ita lis m , t h en h ow c ap ita lis m i s d efin ed d if f e rs a m ong d is tin ct t h eo rie s w it h m ajo r i m plic atio ns f o r o ur c o ncep tio n o f g lo baliz atio n. M ost w orld -s y ste m t h eo ris ts f o l l o w W eb er i n t h is r e g ard w here as o th er c ritic al a p pro ach es t o g lo baliz atio n a p ply M arx ’s d efin itio n. W eb er s a w c ap ita lis m a s a m ark et o r e xch ange r e la tio n w here as M arx d efin ed c ap ita lis m a s a p ro ductio n r e la tio n . T his d is tin ctio n i s i m porta n t t o t h e m atte r o f g lo bal i z atio n. I n t h e W eb eria n d efin itio n, a n y p ro ductio n u nderta k en f o r e x ch an ge o n t h e m ar k et f o r a p ro fit i s c ap ita lis t. B y t h is d efin itio n, i f s e rfs o r s la v es g ro w a c ro p w hic h t h e l o rd o r s la v er m ark ets , t h en t h is c o nstitu te s c ap ita lis m . T hose t h at f o llo w M arx ’s d efin i t io n o f c ap ita lis m a s e ss e n tia lly a p ro ductio n r e la tio n b etw een c ap ita l a n d l a b or w ould t e n d t o a rg ue t h at c ap ita li s m s ta rtin g i n t h e 1 6th c en tu ry b ecam e t h e d om in an t m ode o f p ro ductio n w orld w id e a n d t h at t h is b ro ad er c ap ita lis t w orld e co nom y b ecam e ‘ a rtic u l a te d ’ f o r m uch o f t h e m odern p erio d t o d iv ers e o th er m odes o f p ro ductio n u nder t h e h eg em ony o f t h e c ap ita lis t m ode ( C hilc o te a n d J o hnso n, 1 983; F oste r- C arte r, 1 978). T hus s la v ery i n t h e A m eric as w as a s la v e m ode, n ot c ap ita lis t, a rtic u la te d i n t u rn t o a l a rg er w orld c a p ita lis t s y ste m . A nd u nti l t h e l a tte r d ecad es o f t h e 2 0th c en tu ry a g ood p ortio n o f t h e c o untr y sid e i n L atin A m eric a w as f e u dal i n c h ara cte r e v en t h ough a p ortio n o f a g ric u ltu ra l o utp ut w as s o ld o n t h e c ap ita lis t w orld m ark et. A nd i n dustr y i n C om munis t C hin a o r t h e f o rm er S ovie t U nio n u se d t o b e o rg an iz ed t h ro ugh a n on-c ap ita lis t s ta tis t s y ste m . O bse rv in g t h ese d is tin ct c o ncep tio ns o f c ap ita lis m , R obert B re n ner, i n a f a m ous c ri t iq ue o f W alle rs te in , r e fe rs t o t h e w orld -s y ste m a p pro ach a s ‘ n eo -S m ith ia n M arx is m ’ ( 1 977), b y w hic h h e m ean s a r e lia n ce o n a d efin itio n o f c ap ita lis m t h at i m plic itly d eriv es f ro m t h e d octr in es o f A dam S m ith . F or S m ith , t h e e sse n ce o f c ap ita lis m w as t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or a n d t h e c o n se q uen t e x te n sio n o f e x ch an ges a m ong p ro ducers R obin so n 1 3 i n volv ed i n e v er m ore s p ecia liz ed w ork . S uch a n u nders ta n din g o f c ap ita lis m b ase d o n t h is f u nctio nal e x pan sio n a n d d ev elo pm en t o f m ark et r e la tio ns – a ‘ c o m merc ia liz atio n m odel’ – l e ad s t o a v ie w o f g lo baliz atio n a s a m ovem en t i n b oth t h e i n te n sity a n d e x te n t o f i n te rn atio nal c o m merc ia l i n te ra ctio ns, w here as a v ie w o f c ap ita lis m a s i n volv in g e x plo ita tiv e p ro perty r e la tio ns a n d t h e a ccu m ula tio n o f c ap ita l t h ro ugh t h e c a pita l– la bor p ro ductio n r e la tio n w ill l e ad t o a d is tin ct v ie w o f g lo baliz atio n. H ow w e d efin e c ap ita lis m i s , t h ere fo re , n ot a m atte r o f m ere s e m an tic s a n d g ets t o t h e h eart o f t h e q uestio n p ose d a b ove: i s t h e w orld -s y ste m a p pro ach a t h eo ry o f g lo baliz atio n o r a n a lte rn ativ e t h eo ry o f w orld s o cie ty ? T he m ark et/e x ch an ge d efin itio n i m plie s t h at g lo baliz atio n c an o nly b e a q uantita tiv e i n te n sif ic atio n o f a 5 00-y ear- o ld p ro cess, w here as t h e p ro ductio n d efin itio n a llo w s f o r q uan tita tiv e c h an ge t o g iv e w ay u nder g lo baliz atio n t o q ualita tiv e c h an ge. W alle rs te in a n d o th ers f ro m t h e w orld s y ste m p ara d ig m , b y v ir tu e o f t h eir d efin itio n o f c ap ita lis m , c o nceiv e o f g lo baliz atio n n ot a s s o m eth in g q ualita tiv ely n ew i n t h e w orld b ut a s a m ere q uan tita tiv e i n te n sif ic atio n o f c o nnectio ns a n d s y ste m ic e x ch an ges d atin g b ack t o c ir c a 1 500. T his i s w hy W alle rs te in , A rrig hi a n d o th ers f ro m t h e p ara d ig m i n sis t t h at w orld w id e c h an ges i n t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu rie s c an b e a d eq uate ly c h ara cte riz ed a s s im ply m ore o f t h e s a m e a n d a re d is m is siv e o f t h e c o ncep t o f g lo bali z atio n. O n t h e o th er h an d, W alle rs te in h as p ut f o rw ard a n e x pla n atio n o f l a te 2 0th /e arly 2 1st- c en tu ry c h an ge f ro m t h e l o gic o f w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry a s a m om en t o f t r a n sitio n i n t h e s y ste m . I n a n e ssa y t itle d ‘ G lo baliz atio n o r t h e a g e o f t r a n sitio n?’ ( 2 000b; s e e a ls o W alle rs te in , 1 998, 2 004a: e sp . C h. 5 ), h e a n aly zes t h e l a te 2 0th – a n d e arly 2 1st- c en tu ry w orld c o nju nctu re a s a ‘ m om en t o f t r a n sfo rm atio n’ i n t h e w orld -s y ste m , a ‘ tr a n sitio n i n w hic h t h e e n tir e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m w ill b e t r a n sfo rm ed i n to s o m eth in g e ls e ’ ( 2 000b: 2 50). A cco rd in g t o t h is a n aly sis , t h e w orld -e co nom y e n te re d a l o ng p erio d o f s ta g natio n c ir c a 1 970, w hic h c o rre sp onded t o t h e B -p hase , o r d ow nsw in g, i n t h e K ondra tie ff c y cle , f o llo w in g a n A -p hase , o r u psw in g f ro m 1 945 t o 1 967–73. S ev era l o f t h e p hen om en a t y pic ally i d en tif ie d w ith g lo baliz atio n, i n clu din g r a m pan t f in an cia l s p ecu la tio n i n t h e w orld -e co nom y, r is in g u nem plo ym en t, s h if ts i n t h e l o ci o f p ro ductio n f ro m h ig h- t o l o w w ag e z o nes a n d c o rp ora te d ow nsiz in g a re i n r e sp onse t o t h is d ow ntu rn ( 2 000b: 2 53). A t t h e s a m e t im e, a c o m bin atio n o f c y clic r h yth m s a n d s e cu la r t r e n ds t h at d efin e t h e c ap ita l i s t w orld -s y ste m , a rg ues W alle rs te in , a re h ittin g ‘ a sy m pto te s’. A n a sy m pto te r e fe rs t o s o m eth in g t h at i s s e lf -in te rs e ctin g, a n d i n m ath em atic s, r e fe rs t o a s tr a ig ht l in e t h at a lw ay s a p pro ach es b ut n ev er m eets a c u rv e ( th e a sy m pto te i s t h e 1 00 p erc en t p oin t) . W alle rs te in s e em s t o b e a rg uin g, t h ere fo re , t h at t h ese c y clic al a n d s e cu la r t r e n ds a re r e ach in g t h eir u pper- lim its w ith in t h e l o gic o f t h e s y ste m . W alle rs te in t h en g oes o n t o i d en t if y t h re e s e cu la r t r e n ds t h at a re a p pro ach in g t h eir a sy m pto te s a n d c re atin g a s tr u ctu ra l c ris is o f c ap ita l a ccu m ula tio n i n t h e w orld -s y ste m . T he f ir s t a sy m pto te i s t h e t r e n d i n t h e r e al w ag e l e v el i n t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m a s a p erc en ta g e o f t h e c o sts o f p ro ductio n. T he c u rv e o f t h e p olitic al s tr e n gth o f t h e w ork in g c la sse s h as b een u pw ard o ver t h e l o ngue d uré e , s a y s W alle rs te in , l e ad in g c ap ita lis ts t o r e lo cate g iv en s e cto rs o f p ro ductio n t o o th er z o nes o f t h e w orld -e co nom y w here a v era g e w ag es a re l o w er. L ow er- w ag e w ork ers , s p ecif ic ally , t e n d t o b e n ew ly r e cru ite d i m mi g ra n ts f ro m r u ra l a re as o fte n e n te rin g t h e w ag e-la b or m ark et f o r t h e f ir s t t im e. B ut a s ig nif ic an t r u ra l s e cto r n ot y et e n gag ed i n w ag e l a b or f ro m w hic h c ap ita lis ts c an c o ntin ue 1 4 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy t o d ra w ‘ is p re cis e ly w hat h as b een d im in is h in g a s a s e cu la r t r e n d. T he d eru ra liz atio n o f t h e w orld i s o n a f a st u pw ard c u rv e. I t h as g ro w n c o ntin uously o ver 5 00 y ears , b ut m ost d ra m atic ally s in ce 1 945. I t i s q uite p ossib le t o f o re se e t h at i t w il l h av e l a rg ely d is a p p eare d i n a n oth er 2 5 y ears ’ ( 2 000b: 2 59). T he s e co nd a sy m pto te i s t h e t r e n d i n r is in g c o sts o f m ate ria l i n puts t o t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m . A lth ough t h is w ould a p pear t o b e a n a rg um en t t h at n on-re n ew ab le r e so urc es a re b eco m in g e x hau ste d , W alle rs te in a ctu ally s e em s t o a rg ue s o m eth in g d if f e re n t, n am ely t h at u nutiliz ed a re as i n w hic h t o d um p w aste i n t h e w orld -s y ste m a re d ry in g u p. H en ce, w aste d is p osa l b eco m es a r is in g c o st, w hic h p ose s e co lo gic al l im its t o w orld a ccu m ula tio n: ‘ E ven tu ally t h ere a re n o m ore s tr e am s t o p ollu te , o r t r e es t o c u t d ow n – o r a t l e ast, t h ere a re n o m ore w ith out s e rio us i m med ia te c o nse q uen ces f o r t h e h ealth o f t h e b io sp here ’ ( 2 000b: 1 61). W hat c an b e d one? T he c o sts o f a ‘ v ast c le an -u p c am paig n a n d a v ast c am paig n o f o rg an ic r e n ew al’ w ould e ith er h av e t o b e b orn e b y g overn m en ts v ia s o m e f o rm o f t a x es, o r b y t h e t o ta l i n te rn aliz atio n b y f ir m s o f a ll c o sts . T ax in g c ap ita lis ts w ould p ut p re ssu re o n p ro fit m arg in s, a s w ould t h e i n te rn aliz atio n b y i n div id ual f ir m s o f t h eir w aste d is p osa l a n d o rg an ic r e n ew al c o sts , w hile t a x in g w ould b e a m ountin g t a x b urd en . T here i s n o ‘ p la u sib le s o lu tio n f o r t h is s o cia l d ile m ma w ith in t h e f ra m ew ork o f a c ap ita lis t w orld -e co nom y’, a n d h en ce ‘ th is i s t h e s e co nd s tr u ctu ra l p re ssu re o n t h e a ccu m ula tio n o f c ap ita l’ ( 2 000b: 1 61). T he t h ir d a sy m pto te h as t o d o w ith r is in g t a x atio n t o c o ver t h e c o sts o f s e cu rity , c iv il b ure au cra cie s a n d s o cia l w elf a re , t h is l a st i te m o fte n a g overn m en t ‘ p ay -o ff ’ t o ‘ k eep t h e c la ss s tr u ggle w ith in l im ite d b ounds’ ( 2 000b: 2 61). P opula r d em an ds f o r s o cia l w elf a re ‘ h av e b een m ad e i n m ore a n d m ore z o nes o f t h e w orld -s y ste m . . . w ith n o c le ar l im it i n s ig ht’ , a n d t h is ‘ h as m ean t, h as h ad t o m ean , s te ad ily r is in g t a x r a te s i n v ir tu ally e v ery c o untr y , w ith a t m ost o ccasio nal s lig ht r e d uctio ns’ ( 2 000b: 2 61). H ow ev er, s u ch r e d is t r ib utiv e t a x es i n te rfe re w ith t h e p ossib ility o f a ccu m ula tin g c ap ita l, r e p re se n tin g t h e t h ir d s tr u ctu ra l p re ssu re o n s u ch a ccu m ula tio n. M ean w hile , w ork in g c la sse s h av e l o st f a ith i n t h e a b ility o f a n ti- s y ste m ic m ovem en ts ( C om munis ts , s o cia l d em ocra ts a n d n atio nal l ib era tio n m ovem en ts ) d ue t o t h e i n ab ility o f t h ese m ovem en ts w here t h ey t o ok p ow er i n t h e p ost- S eco nd W orld W ar p erio d t o f u lf ill t h eir p ro m is e s. A s a r e su lt t h ere h as b een a m assiv e d is in vestm en t i n s ta te s tr u ctu re s, a s t h e m asse s o f t h e w orld , ‘ h av in g t u rn ed t o w ard s t h e s ta te s a s a g en ts o f t r a n sfo rm atio n, h av e n ow r e tu rn ed t o a m ore f u ndam en ta l s k ep tic is m a b out t h e a b ility o f t h e s ta te s t o p ro m ote t r a n sfo rm atio n, o r e v en t o m ain ta in s o cia l o rd er’, w ith a r e su ltin g ‘ w orld -w id e u psu rg e o f a n ti- s ta tis m ’ ( 2 000b: 2 63). ‘ T hus’, a rg ues W alle rs te in i n c o nclu sio n, . . . at the very moment that capitalists are faced with three structural squeezes on the global rates of profit, and hence on their ability to accumulation capital, they find that the states are less able than before to help them resolve these dilemmas. Thus it is that we can say that the capitalist world-economy has now entered its terminal crisis, a crisis that may last up to fifty years. . . . W e can think of this long transition as one enormous political struggle between two lar ge camps: the camp of all those who wish to retain the privileges of the existing inegalitarian system, albeit in dif ferent forms, perhaps vastly dif ferent forms; and the camp of all those who would like to see the creation of a new historical system that will be significantly more democratic and more egalitarian. . . . The outcome of the political struggle will be in part the result of who is able to mobilize whom, but it will also be in lar ge part the degree to which who is able to analyze better what is going on what are the real historical alternatives with which we are collectively faced. (2000b: 263, 265) R obin so n 1 5 T here a re a n um ber o f p ro ble m s i n t h is a rg um en t, i n clu din g a c erta in i n co nsis te n cy b etw een i ts p ro positio ns a n d e m pir ic al r e ality i n t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu ry . A nti- s ta tis m , i t c o uld b e a rg ued , h as r e su lte d n ot s o m uch f ro m a w ith dra w al o f w ork in g c la sse s f ro m t h e s ta te b ut a s a r e su lt o f c ap ita lis t d is m an tlin g o f p ublic s e cto rs , w elf a re s y ste m s a n d s ta te r e g ula tio n o f t h e e co nom y. A nd a s M arx a n d o th ers h av e a n aly zed , c ap ita lis ts c o nsta n tly s e ek t o r e p la ce t h e h um an l a b or e le m en t w it h m ach in ery a n d t e ch n olo gy i n t h e p ro ductio n p ro cess, w hic h e x pan ds a r e se rv e a rm y o f l a b or a n d d riv es d ow n w ag es. T his i s a w ell- d ocu m en te d c y clic al p ro cess i n w orld c ap ita lis m . T he s e cu la r t r e n d t o w ard r is in g s tr u ctu ra l u nem plo ym en t i n t h e g lo bal e co nom y – a t t h e t u rn o f t h e c en tu ry s o m e o ne-th ir d o f t h e e co nom ic ally a ctiv e p opula tio n w orld w id e w as u n- o r u ndere m plo yed ( IL O , 1 997) – p ro vid es a v ast p ool o f c h eap l a b or t h at o ff s e ts t h e d w in d lin g s u pply o f r u ra l m ig ra n ts . U nder g lo baliz atio n t h e w ag e l e v el h as g one d ow n i n t h e c o re s im ulta n eo us t o t h e s h if t i n s e cto rs o f p ro ductio n t o l o w er- w ag e z o nes. D esp ite t h ese p ro ble m s, W alle rs te in ’s t h esis o n t h e t e rm in al c ris is o f t h e s y ste m c an b e s a id t o p ro vid e a n e x pla n atio n f o r s o cia l c h an ge i n t h e a g e o f g lo baliz atio n c o nsis te n t w ith h is o w n w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry . Globalization and w orld-system theory: Earlier criticisms and r ecent debates T he w orld -s y ste m s p ara d ig m h as f a ced c ritic is m o n a n um ber o f f ro nts s in ce t h e 1 970s, a n d m ore r e cen tly , f ro m c o m petin g a p pro ach es t o g lo baliz atio n. E arly c ritic s a re n um er o us ( b ut s e e, i n te r a lia , A ro now itz , 1 981; B re n ner, 1 977; F itz g era ld , 1 981; S kocp ol, 1 977; S m ith , 1 986; Z eitlin , 1 984; Z olb erg , 1 981). T hese c h arg ed t h e p ara d ig m w it h a r e if ie d c o ncep t o f t h e w orld -s y ste m , w ith t e le o lo gy a n d c ir c u la r r e aso nin g, w it h n eg le ct i n g h is to ric ally s p ecif ic d ev elo pm en t a t t h e n atio nal l e v el, a s w ell a s p olitic al c o ntin g en cy, a u to nom y a n d a g en cy, a n d w ith c o nfla tin g c la ss a n d s ta tu s g ro up a n d h ig hlig htin g s tr a tif ic atio n a n aly sis a t t h e e x pen se o f c la ss a n aly sis ( S o, 1 990: 2 20). E xam ple s o f r e if ic atio n, t e le o lo gy a n d c ir c u la r r e aso nin g c an c erta in ly b e f o und t h ro ughout W alle rs te in ’s M odern W orld -S yste m t r ilo gy a n d o th er w ritin gs. W alle rs te in a ttr ib ute s t h e d is tin ct c h ara cte r o f e arly E uro pean s ta te s t o e ach c o untr y ’s d is tin ct r o le i n t h e i n te rn atio nal d iv is io n o f l a b or: ‘ T he d if f e re n t r o le s [ in t h e d iv is io n o f l a b or] l e d t o d if f e re n t c la ss s tr u ctu re s w hic h l e d t o d if f e re n t p olitic s’ ( 1 974: 1 57). B ut h ow d id t h ese d if f e re n t r o le s c o m e a b out h is to ric ally ? I n w hat a p pears t o b e a c le ar c ase o f c ir c u la r r e aso nin g, W alle rs te in i n t u rn e x pla in s t h is b y d if f e re n t c la ss s tr u ctu re s a n d d if f e re n t p olitic s. W alle rs te in o fte n r e fe rs t o s ta te s, a n d e v en t o t h e w orld -s y ste m , a s i f t h ey w ere c o nsc io us m acro -a g en ts . ‘ T he N eth erla n ds R ev o lu tio n l ib era te d a f o rc e t h at c o uld s u s t a in t h e w orld -s y ste m a s a s y ste m o ver s o m e d if f ic u lt y ears o f a d ju stm en t, u ntil t h e E nglis h ( a n d t h e F re n ch ) w ere r e ad y t o t a k e t h e s te p s n ecessa ry f o r i ts d efin itiv e c o nso li d atio n’ ( 1 974: 2 10), h e w rite s. P assa g es s u ch a s t h ese , s u ggestin g s o m e c o nsc io us d esig n o n t h e p art o f c o untr ie s a s s y ste m ic a g en ts , o r s o m e t e le o lo gic al n ecessity f o r s o cia l f o rc es t o s u sta in t h e w orld -s y ste m , a re n ot u nco m mon. S kocp ol h as c h arg ed i n t h is r e g ard t h at t h ere i s a n u nderly in g f u nctio nali s t b ia s i n e x pla in in g t h e d ynam ic s o f t h e s y ste m o ver h is to ric al t im e w here c h an ges i n p arts a re u nders to od a s n ecessa ry t o t h e c o ntin ual o pera tio n a n d r e p ro ductio n o f t h e w hole s y ste m ( S kocp ol, 1 977). 1 6 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy I n t h e s a m e v ein , Z eitlin c h arg es t h at W alle rs te in ‘ in verts t h e r e al h is to ric al p ro cess i n w hic h t h ese g lo bal r e la tio ns w ere c re ate d . T he w orld e co nom y i ts e lf , s o i t i s s a id , a p par e n tly “ assig ned s p ecif ic e co nom ic r o le s” w ith in i ts e lf t o i ts o w n “ zo nes,” a n d t h ese “ zo nes” t h en “ u se d d if f e re n t m odes o f l a b or c o ntr o l” a n d s o f o rth ’ ( Z eitlin , 1 984: 2 27). I n o th er w ord s, h is to ric al e v en ts a re u se d t o e x pla in t h e o rig in s o f t h e w orld -s y ste m , b ut t h ese h is to ric al e v en ts h ad t o h ap pen b ecau se t h e w orld -s y ste m r e q uir e d t h em t o h ap pen , e rg o , t h e w orld -s y ste m o rig in ate d b ecau se o f i ts c o nse q uen ces. S m ith r e fe rs t o t h is a s t h e ‘ ty ra n ny o f t h e w hole ’, w hic h a ssu m es t h at b ecau se t h e w hole i s g re ate r t h an t h e s u m o f t h e p arts , t h e p arts l e ad n o s ig nif ic an t e x is te n ce s e p ara te f ro m t h e w hole , b ut o pera te s im ply i n f u nctio nally s p ecif ic w ay s e n tir e ly a s a c o nse q uen ce o f t h eir p la ce i n t h e w orld s y ste m ( S m ith , 1 986). E ven ts , p ro cesse s, g ro up-id en titie s, c la ss a n d s ta te p ro je cts a re e x pla in ed b y r e fe re n ce t o t h e s y ste m a s a w hole . A ctio ns w ould s e em t o b eco m e r e fle x es o f s y ste m ic i m pera tiv es. I t i s a ls o i m porta n t t o n ote t h at W alle rs te in ’s a n d t h e F ern an d B ra u del C en te r’s p io n eerin g t h eo re tic al s y ste m h as s p aw ned a h uge a n d c o nsta n tly e x pan din g l ite ra tu re w ith in t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m i n volv in g d if f e re n ces a n d m an y f ru itf u l d eb ate s a m ong t h e l e ad in g s e n io r s c h ola rs a sso cia te d w ith t h e p ara d ig m , s u ch a s t h e l a te G io van ni A rrig hi, T erry B osw ell a n d A ndre G under F ra n k, a s w ell C hris to pher C hase -D unn a n d S am ir A m in . I c an not t a k e u p t h ese i n tr a – p ara d ig m d eb ate s h ere , o th er t h an a f e w e x am p le s. C hase -D unn a n d H all ( 1 996) h av e d ev elo ped a c o m para tiv e a n d e v olu tio nary w orld -s y ste m s p ers p ectiv e t h at s h ow s t h at p re -a g ra ria n s o cie tie s w ere n ot n ecessa rily t h e c u ltu ra lly h om ogen eo us m in i- s y ste m s a s t h ey a re c h ara cte riz ed b y W alle rs te in b ut ‘ m ul t ic u ltu ra l w orld -s y ste m s w ith t h eir o w n c o m ple x n etw ork s o f e x ch an ge’. C hase -D unn ( 1 998), a m ong o th ers , a rg ues t h at t h e l a b or o f s la v es a n d s e rfs i n t h e m odern c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m w as s ig nif ic an tly c o m modif ie d s o a s t o c h ara cte riz e t h em a s p ro le ta ria n s, a n d h en ce a s i n te rn al t o c ap ita lis t p ro ductio n ( n ot j u st e x ch an ge) r e la tio ns i n t h e w orld s y ste m . F ra n k a n d G il ls ( 1 996) c la im t h at t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m d ate s b ack n ot 5 00 b ut 5 000 y ears , a n d A rrig hi ( 1 994) p la ces i ts o rig in w ith t h e 1 2th – a n d 1 3th -c en tu ry I ta lia n c ity s ta te s, w hic h h e c o nsid ers t h e f ir s t ‘ h eg em ons’. O f m ore c o ncern t o m e h ere a re r e cen t c ritiq ues o f w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry f ro m o th er t h eo re tic al a p pro ach es t o g lo baliz atio n, a n d i n p artic u la r f ro m t h e g lo bal c ap ita lis m a p pro ach w ith w hic h I a m c lo se ly i d en tif ie d ( s e e e .g . R obin so n, 1 998, 2 002b, 2 004a, 2 004b, 2 007, 2 008), 2 a n d w hic h a rg ues t h at g lo baliz atio n r e p re se n ts a q ualita tiv ely n ew e p och i n t h e o ngoin g a n d o pen -e n ded e v olu tio n o f w orld c ap ita lis m . F or w orld -s y ste m is ts , t w o k ey q uestio ns a re : ( 1 ) I s t h ere s o m eth in g n ew g oin g o n i n t h e w orld o f t h e l a te 2 0th a n d e arly 2 1st c en tu rie s t h at c an not b e a d eq uate ly e x pla in ed b y w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry ? ( 2 ) I n t h e f a ce o f l a te 2 0th – a n d e arly 2 1st- c en tu ry c h an ges, d oes t h e s y ste m o f w orld c ap ita l i s m s till e x hib it t h e e sse n tia l s tr u ctu ra l c h ara cte ris tic s, c y clic al p atte rn s a n d s e cu la r t r e n ds p ostu la te d b y t h e t h eo ry ? T he b ig gest c h alle n ge f a cin g w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry i n t h is r e g ard i s a cco untin g f o r t r a n sn atio nal p ro cesse s u nfo ld in g u nder g lo baliz atio n, p artic u la rly t h e c o nstr u ctio n o f a n ew g lo bal p ro ductio n a n d f in an cia l s y ste m t h at i s c le arly t r a n sn atio nal r a th er t h an i n te r n atio nal i n n atu re . I n te rn atio naliz atio n i s s e en a s i n volv in g t h e e x te n sio n o f e co nom ic a ctiv itie s a cro ss n atio nal b oundarie s a n d i s e sse n tia lly a q uantita tiv e p ro cess w hic h l e ad s t o a m ore e x te n siv e g eo gra p hic al p atte rn o f e co nom ic a ctiv ity , w here as t r a n sn atio naliz atio n R obin so n 1 7 i s q ualita tiv ely d if f e re n t f ro m i n te rn atio naliz atio n p ro cesse s, i n volv in g n ot m ere ly t h e g eo gra p hic al e x te n sio n o f e co nom ic a ctiv ity a cro ss n atio nal b oundarie s b ut a ls o t h e t r a n sn atio nal f ra g m en ta tio n o f t h ese a ctiv itie s a n d t h eir f u nctio nal i n te g ra tio n ( D ic k en , 2 003; R obin so n, 2 004a). A lo ngsid e t h e e m erg en ce s in ce t h e 1 970s o f g lo bally m obile t r a n sn atio nal c ap ita l i n cre asin gly d iv orc ed f ro m s p ecif ic c o untr ie s, a n i n te g ra te d g lo bal f in an cia l s y ste m h as r e p la ced t h e n atio nal b an k-d om in ate d f in an cia l s y ste m s o f e arlie r p erio ds. G lo bal f in an cia l f lo w s s in ce t h e 1 980s a re q ualita tiv ely d if f e re n t f ro m e arlie r i n te rn atio nal f in an cia l f lo w s. V alu es c ro ss b ord ers s e am le ssly a s t h e m ove s w if tly – o fte n i n sta n ta n eo usly – t h ro ugh t h ese n ew t r a n sn atio nal o r g lo bal c ir c u its o f a ccu m ula tio n. N atio nal e co nom ie s h av e b een d is m an tle d a n d t h en r e co nstitu te d a s c o m ponen t e le m en ts o f t h is n ew g lo bal p ro ductio n a n d f in an cia l s y ste m , w hic h i s a q ualita tiv ely d is tin ct w orld e co nom ic s tr u ctu re f ro m t h at o f p re v io us e p och s, w hen e ach c o untr y h ad a d is tin ct n atio nal e co nom y l in ked e x te rn ally t o o ne a n oth er t h ro ugh t r a d e a n d f in an cia l f lo w s. T his i s a s h if t f ro m i n te rn atio nal m ark et i n te g ra tio n t o g lo bal p ro ductiv e i n te g ra tio n. T his c o ncep tio n o f c h an ges i n r e cen t d ecad es i s i n co m patib le w ith w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry , w hic h s e es t h e w orld -e co nom y a s b ro ken d ow n i n to d is tin ct a n d c o m petin g n atio nal e co nom ie s b rin gin g t o geth er n atio nal c ap ita lis ts a n d f ir m s w ith t h eir r e sp ectiv e s ta te s t h at t h e t h eo ry p osits a s i m man en t a n d i m muta b le t o t h e c ap ita lis t w orld -s y ste m . I a lo ng w ith a n um ber o f o th er t h eo ris ts ( C ox, 1 987; H oogvelt, 1 997; R obin so n, 1 998, 2 003, 2 002a) h av e a rg ued t h at t h e p ro ductio n a n d l a b or p ro cesse s t h at a re c en tr a l t o t h e c o ncep tu al d is tin ctio n w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry m ak es a m ong c o re , s e m i- p erip hery a n d p erip hery h av e u nderg one q ualita tiv e t r a n sfo rm atio ns a n d t r a n sn atio naliz atio n i n r e cen t d ecad es t h at r e n der a g eo gra p hic al o r t e rrito ria l c o ncep tio n o f c o re a n d p erip hery i n cre as i n gly o utd ate d . A s n ote d e arlie r, c en tr a l t o W alle rs te in ’s c o nstr u ct i s t h e i n te rn atio nal d iv i s io n o f l a b or, w hic h h e t e rm s a n a xia l d iv is io n o f l a b or. W hat h e m ean s b y t h is i s t h at c o re -lik e ( e .g . h ig h-w ag e, h ig h-te ch nolo gy, h ig h-p ro ductiv ity ) a n d p erip hera l- lik e ( e .g . l o w -w ag e, l o w -te ch nolo gy, l o w -p ro ductiv it y ) p ro ductio n p ro cesse s a re b ound t o geth er i n t h e w orld -s y ste m a n d t h at p erip hera l p ro ductio n-lik e p ro cesse s a re c o ncen tr a te d i n a g eo g ra p hic p erip hery a n d c o re -lik e p ro cesse s a re c o ncen tr a te d i n a g eo gra p hic c o re . A s w e s a w e arlie r, w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry i n sis ts t h at t h is a x ia l d iv is io n o f l a b or m ust t a k e n ot o nly a g eo gra p hic al/te rrito ria l f o rm , b ut s p ecif ic ally a n atio n-s ta te f o rm , s o t h at c o re a n d p erip h e ry b y d efin itio n a re s p atia lly d is tin ct z o nes i n t h e w orld -s y ste m . T hese z o nes a re c o te rm i n ous w it h p artic u la r n atio n-s ta te s c h ara cte riz ed a s c o re , s e m i- p erip hera l a n d p erip hera l s ta te s. W alle rs te in i s v ery c le ar i n a ff ir m in g t h at l o w er a n d u pper s tr a ta i n t h e w orld t a k e t h e f o rm o f a h ie ra rc h y o f t e rrito ria l s ta te s. ‘ S ta te s c an b e v ie w ed . . . a s a s o rt o f u pw ard o r d ow nw ard “ m obility ” o f t h e s ta te a s a n e n tity , a m ovem en t m easu re d i n r e la tio n t o o th er s ta te s w it h in t h e f ra m ew ork o f t h e i n te rs ta te s y ste m ’, h e a rg ues ( 1 9 80: 1 79). T he c o re – p erip hery d iv id e a s a t e rrito ria l a n d s p ecif ic ally a s a n atio n-s ta te d iv id e i s i m manen t t o w orld c ap ita lis m a n d a n i m muta ble s tr u ctu re f ro m t h e w orld -s y ste m s p ers p ectiv e. I a n d o th ers h av e a rg ued t h at t h ere i s a c h an gin g r e la ti o nsh ip b etw een p ro ductio n a n d g eo gra p hy – b etw een s p ace a n d a ccu m ula tio n – u nder g lo baliz atio n t h at W alle rs te in i s i g norin g. T he s o cia l c o nfig ura tio n o f s p ace i s l e ss t e rrito ria l a n d c erta in ly t h e n atio n-s ta te i s o nly o ne p ossib le h is to ric al f o rm o f c o nfig urin g s o cia l s p ace. T he t r a ns n atio nal g eo g ra p hic d is p ers a l o f t h e f u ll r a n ge o f w orld p ro ductio n p ro cesse s s u ggests t h at c o re a n d p erip hera l p ro ductio n a n d a ccu m ula tio n p ro cesse s c o rre sp ond i n cre asin gly l e ss t o t h e 1 8 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy l o gic o f g eo gra p hy a n d t o s p ecif ic t e rrito ria lly d efin ed n atio n-s ta te s ( C aste lls , 1 996; C ox, 1 987; H oogvelt, 1 997; R obin so n, 1 996b, 1 998, 2 002a, 2 003, 2 008). W hile i n e arlie r e p och s c o re a n d p erip hery r e fe rre d t o s p ecif ic t e rrito rie s a n d t h e p opula tio ns t h at r e sid ed t h ere in , u nder g lo baliz atio n t h ese c o ncep ts n eed t o b e r e co nceiv ed i n s o cia l r a th er t h an g eo gra p hic t e rm s, a s s o cia l l o catio n i n a g lo bal s o cie ty i s i n cre asin gly s tr a tif ie d l e ss a lo ng n atio nal a n d t e rrito ria l l in es t h an a cro ss t r a n sn atio nal s o cia l l in es. C ox a rg ues: While it is relatively simple to describe [the] characteristics of core and periphery , it is more dif ficult to give the terms cor e and periphery generalizable concrete points of reference. The terms originated with a geographical connotation that they still retain. The core was located in the leading industrial countries and the periphery in the economically less developed countries. Y et it is quite possible to note shifts in industrial leadership within the geographical core . . . as well as instances of conventional core-type industry in certain less-developed countries. Similarly , within so-called core countries, there exists a core–periphery division within industries between the principal centers of innovation and development, on the one hand, and regional or provincial production units of a lower technological level, on the other . Geographical shifts of the core have also taken place within countries. . . . Although the functional characteristics of core and periphery remain analytically valid, their association with specific geographical positions must be considered to be a matter of perhaps transitory circumstances, not of immutable destiny . (Cox, 1987) I h av e a rg ued , f u rth er, t h at ‘ n atio n-s ta te c en tr is m ’ a n d ‘ s ta te s tr u ctu ra lis m ’ i n w orld s y ste m t h eo ry i m ped e t h e t h eo ry ’s a b ility t o c o ncep tu aliz e t h e d ynam ic s o f g lo baliz atio n ( R obin so n, 1 996a, 1 996b, 1 998, 2 001, 2 002a, 2 004a, 2 008). W orld -s y ste m t h eo ry t a k es a n atio nal/in te rn atio nal a p pro ach t h at v ie w s t h e s y ste m o f n atio n-s ta te s a s a n i m muta b le s tr u ctu ra l f e atu re o f t h e l a rg er w orld o r i n te r- s ta te s y ste m , i n c o ntr a st t o t r a ns n atio nal o r g lo bal a p pro ach es t h at f o cu s o n h ow t h e s y ste m o f n atio n-s ta te s a n d n atio nal e co no m ie s, a n d s o o n, a re b eco m in g t r a n sc en ded b y t r a n sn atio nal s o cia l f o rc es a n d i n stitu t io ns g ro unded i n a g lo bal s y ste m r a th er t h an t h e i n te r- s ta te s y ste m . T he w orld -s y ste m i s a ssu m ed s till t o b e c h ara cte riz ed i n t h e c u rre n t e p och b y c o m petitiv e n atio n-s ta te s a s t h e a p pro pria te s u bunits o f a n aly sis a n d t h e c o m petiti v e i n te r- s ta te s y ste m i s a n i m muta b le f e atu re . T he k ey a cto rs a re r iv al s ta te s o pera tin g i n a n i n te r- s ta te s y ste m , e ach i n c o m peti t io n w ith a ll t h e o th ers t o m ove u p t h e h ie ra rc h y o f s ta te s o r p re se rv e t h eir p ositio n, s o t h at t r a n sn atio nal s o cia l r e la tio ns b ec o m e s u bsu m ed u nder i n te r- s ta te r e la tio ns. T his p ositio n i s j u stif ie d w ith t h e p re su m ptio n t h at 2 1st- c en tu ry w orld c ap ita lis m i s c h ara cte r i z ed b y n atio nal c ap ita lis t c la sse s a n d s ta te s t h at d efe n d t h e c o m petin g i n te re sts o f t h ese r e sp ectiv e n atio nal g ro ups a g ain st e ach o th er. F or m ost w orld -s y ste m a n aly sts , w orld p olitic al d ynam ic s a re t o b e e x pla in ed b y c o m petitio n a n d r iv alr y a m ong t h ese n atio nal s ta tu s g ro ups a n d t h eir n atio nal s ta te s. S ta te s ‘ a re b y d efin itio n r iv als , b earin g r e sp onsi b ility t o d if f e re n t s e ts o f r iv al f ir m s’, W alle rs te in c o ntin ues t o i n sis t ( 2 004a: 5 6), d esp ite m ountin g e v id en ce t h at t h e t r a n sn atio naliz atio n o f c ap ita l h as a d van ced c o nsid era b ly s o t h at r iv al f ir m s t e n d t o b e g lo bal r a th er t h an n atio nal c o rp ora tio ns h ouse d i n p artic u la r s ta te s ( s e e e .g . B arn et a n d C av an ag h, 1 995; R obin so n, 2 004a; S kla ir , 2 000). T here a re e m erg in g n ew r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een t h e s ta te , c la sse s, i n stitu tio ns a n d a ccu m ula tio n u nder g lo baliz atio n t h at c an not b e s o e a sily f r a m ed i n t h e t e rrito ria l, g eo gra p hic al a n d s ta tis t t e rm s p osite d b y w orld -s y ste m s t h eo ry . S om e g lo baliz atio n t h eo rie s s e e t h e r is e R obin so n 1 9 o f s u ch s u pra n atio nal p olitic al a n d p la n nin g a g en cie s a s t h e T rila te ra l C om mis sio n, t h e W orld E co nom ic F oru m , t h e G ro up o f S ev en – a n d n ow t h e G ro up o f 2 2, a n d t h e W orld T ra d e O rg an iz atio n – a s s ig ns o f a n i n cip ie n t t r a n sn atio nal o r g lo bal g overn an ce s tr u ctu re ( s e e, i n te r a lia , H eld e t a l., 1 999). I h av e t h eo riz ed t h e e m erg en ce o f a t r a n sn atio nal s ta te a p para tu s ( R obin so n, 2 001, 2 004a). F or W alle rs te in ( 2 000b: 2 55) a n d m ost w orld -s y ste m a n aly sts ( s e e e .g . A rrig hi a n d S ilv er, 1 999), t h ese a g en cie s a re i n str u m en ts o f a U S e ff o rt t o m ain ta in i ts w orld w id e p olitic al c o ntr o l o ver p ote n tia l r iv als f o r h eg em ony. T he w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m ’s a p pro ach t o h eg em ony i s t h at a p artic u la r h eg em onic c o untr y ’s n atio nal p ro ducts o utc o m pete t h e p ro ducts o f o th er c o untr ie s ( s e e, i n te r a lia , W alle rs te in , 1 980: 3 8–9). H eg em ony i n t h e w orld -s y ste m p ara d ig m , a s i n m uch i n te rn a t io nal r e la tio ns t h eo ry , i s p re d ic ate d o n t h is n atio n-s ta te c en tr ic a p pro ach t h at a sso cia te s h eg em ony i n t h e w orld -s y ste m w ith t h e d om in an ce o f a p artic u la r c o untr y . M ost w orld s y ste m a n aly sts , i n clu din g W alle rs te in ( 2 003), s e e a n ew r o und o f i n te r- c o re r iv alr y o ver w hic h s ta te w ill b e t h e n ex t h eg em on i n t h e w ak e o f d eclin in g U S h eg em ony. B ut i n t h e a g e o f g lo baliz ed p ro ductio n o ne i s h ard -p re sse d t o f in d e v id en ce t h at s u pports t h e n otio n o f e ach c o untr y p ro ducin g a n d t r a d in g i ts o w n n atio nal p ro ducts . T he p ro ble m o f s ta te c en tr ic a n d n atio n-s ta te c en tr ic a n aly sis i s t h at i t d oes n ot a llo w u s t o c o nceiv e o f a n e m erg en t g lo bal h eg em ony i n t e rm s o f t r a n sn atio nal c la sse s a n d g ro ups n ot b ound t o a n y s ta te o r t o s p ecif ic g eo gra p hie s. A n a lte rn ativ e v ie w o f t h e s tr u ggle f o r h eg em ony i n t h e g lo bal s y ste m s e es i t n ot i n t e rm s o f a d is p ute a m ong n atio n-s ta te s b ut i n t e rm s o f t r a n s n atio nal s o cia l a n d c la ss g ro ups a n d t h eir s tr u ggle s t o d ev elo p h eg em onic a n d c o unte rh e g em onic p ro je cts . I h av e c ritic iz ed t h is n atio n-s ta te c o ncep tio n o f h eg em ony ( R obin so n, 2 004a, 2 004b, 2 005a, 2 005b, 2 008), a rg uin g i n ste ad t h at t h e 2 1st c en tu ry i s w itn ess t o e m erg en t f o rm s o f t r a n sn atio nal h eg em ony b y s o cia l g ro ups o pera tin g t h ro ugh m ultip le s ta te s, t h ro ugh i n tr a – a n d s u pra n atio nal o rg an iz atio ns, s ta te s a n d o th er i n stitu tio ns. N atio n-s ta te c en tr ic a n aly se s o f i n te r- a n d t r a n sn atio nal r e la tio ns f a il t o a p pre cia te t h e i n te g ra tiv e c h ara cte r o f g lo bal c ap ita lis m . B oth S kla ir ( 2 000) a n d I ( R obin so n, 1 996b, 2 001) h av e s u ggeste d t h at a n ew t r a n sn atio nal c ap ita lis t c la ss ( T C C) h as e m erg ed o ut o f f ra ctio ns o f n atio nal c ap ita lis t c la sse s t h at h av e i n te r- p en etr a te d t h ro ugh n um ero us m ech an is m s w ith s u ch f ra ctio ns f ro m o th er c o untr ie s. T he T C C i s g ro unded i n t h e g lo bal r a th er t h an t h e i n te r- s ta te s y ste m . I t h as b een a tte m ptin g t o p ositio n i ts e lf a s a n ew r u lin g c la ss g ro up w orld w id e s in ce t h e 1 980s a n d t o b rin g s o m e c o here n ce a n d s ta b ility t o i ts r u le t h ro ugh a n e m erg en t T N S a p para tu s ( R obin so n, 2 004a, 2 004b). I n d is tin ctio n t o t h e w orld -s y ste m p ers p ectiv e, t h e w orld p olitic s o f t h is w ould -b e g lo bal r u lin g c la ss i s n ot d riv en , a s i t w as f o r n atio nal r u lin g c la sse s, b y t h e f lu x o f s h if tin g n atio nal r iv alr ie s a n d a llia n ces p la y ed o ut t h ro ugh t h e i n te r- s ta te s y ste m b ut b y t h e n ew g lo bal s o cia l s tr u ctu re o f a ccu m ula tio n. Concluding comments I s e t o ut h ere t o r e v ie w a n d a p pra is e W alls e rte in ’s œ uvre , t o i d en tif y t h e e x pla n ato ry p urc h ase o f t h is t h eo re tic al s y ste m t o o ur u nders ta n din g o f c o nte m pora ry 2 1st- c en tu ry w orld a ff a ir s , s p ecif ic ally , t o s y ste m ic -le v el t r a n sfo rm atio ns c o m in g i n to f o cu s o ne d ecad e i n to t h e n ew c en tu ry , a n d t o c o ntr a st, h ow ev er b rie fly , w orld -s y ste m s a n d g lo bal c ap ita lis m e x pla n atio ns f o r t h e c u rre n t e p och o f t r a n sfo rm atio ns. W alle rs te in ’s œ uvre i s 2 0 In te rn atio nal S o cio lo gy v ast, a n d h e c o ntin ues t o w rite p ro lif ic ally . N o o ne w ho w is h es t o e n gag e i n m acro so cia l t h eo ry o r a n aly sis c an a v oid d ealin g w ith t h e s w eep o f h is s c h ola rs h ip . I f o ne h ad t o i d en tif y t w o o vera rc h in g o r ‘ s ig natu re ’ c o ntr ib utio ns o f W alle rs te in ( a n d h is c o lle ag ues) t h ey w ould s u re ly b e: t h e r e in vig ora tio n o f h is to ric al s o cio lo gy; a n d t h e e la b ora tio n o f a t h eo re tic al s y ste m t h at a cco unts f o r t h e d iv is io n o f w orld c ap ita lis m , s e en f ro m t h e b ro ad s w eep o f i ts i n cep tio n a n d d ev elo pm en t, i n to d ev elo ped a n d u nderd ev el o ped r e g io ns a s p ola r o pposite s o f a s in gle u nity . B y d ra w in g o ur a tte n tio n t o t h e h is to ric al a n d t h e l a rg e-s c ale n atu re o f t h e p ro cesse s i d en tif ie d w ith w orld c ap ita lis m , W alle rs te in h as m ad e a n e n orm ous c o ntr ib utio n t o t h e w ay w e t h in k a b out a n d s tu dy t h e c o nte m pora ry w orld . T he l o ng h is to ric v ie w , o ne t h at i d en tif ie s e n durin g c y cle s, t e n den cie s, s tr u ctu re s a n d t h e p atte rn s o f s tr u ctu ra l c h an ge – o ne o f t h e h allm ark s o f w orld -s y ste m s c h ola rs h ip – i s e sse n tia l i f w e a re t o u nders ta n d t h e c u rre n t p erio d o f g lo baliz atio n a n d o f g lo bal c ris is . O n t h e o th er h an d, a s I h av e a llu ded t o i n t h is a rtic le a n d h av e t a k en u p a t c o nsid era b le l e n gth e ls e w here , n eith er t h e e m erg en t t r a n sn atio nal s ta g e i n w orld c ap ita lis m n or t h e c u rre n t c ris is o f g lo bal c ap ita li s m c an , i n m y v ie w , b e u nders to od t h ro ugh t h e l e n s o f t h e n atio n-s ta te c en tr ic t h in k in g a n d t h e s ta te -s tr u ctu ra lis m t h at i s i m man en t t o W alle rs te in ’s c o nstr u ct. T his i s n ot t o s a y t h at t h e n atio n-s ta te i s n o l o nger i m porta n t o r i s d is a p pearin g – f a r f ro m i t – b ut t h at t h e s y ste m o f n atio n-s ta te s a s d is c re te i n te ra ctin g u nits , t h e i n te r s ta te s y ste m , i s n o l o nger t h e f u ndam en ta l o rg an iz in g p rin cip le o f w orld c ap ita lis m a n d t h e p rin cip al i n stitu tio nal f ra m ew ork t h at s h ap es g lo bal s o cia l f o rc es o r t h at e x pla in s w orld p olitic al d ynam ic s. T he n atio n-s ta te /in te r- s ta te c en tr ic p ers p ectiv e b ound u p w it h w orld -s y ste m t h eo ry – a n d f o r t h at m atte r w ith m an y o th er a p pro ach es t o w orld c ap ita l i s m a n d w orld o rd er – h as b eco m e a b lin der t h at l im its a n d i n cre asin gly d is to rts o ur u nders ta n din g o f c o nte m pora ry g lo bal c ap ita lis m a n d i ts c ris is . Y et w hate v er v ie w i s a ff o rd ed b y a lte rn ativ e p ers p ectiv es, s u ch a s t h e g lo bal c ap ita l i s m a p pro ach , w e m ust r e co gniz e t h at t h is v ie w w ould n ot b e p ossib le w ere w e n ot s ta n d i n g o n t h e s h ould ers o f g ia n ts , t o p a m ong t h em I m man uel W alle rs te in . F undin g This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for -profit sectors. N ote s 1. See the Center ’s home page: fbc.binghamton.edu/fbcintel.htm. 2. Globalization in my own theoretical construct constitutes a qualitatively new epoch in the ongoing evolution of world capitalism, marked by a number of fundamental shifts in the capi talist system. These shifts include: (1) the transition from a world-economy , or national circuits of accumulation in an integrated international market, to a global economy , or globalized circuits of accumulation; (2) the rise of truly transnational capital and the integration of every country into a new global production and financial system; (3) the appearance of a new trans national capitalist class , a class group grounded in new global circuits of accumulation rather than national circuits; (4) the rise of a transnational state , a loose network comprised of supra national political and economic institutions and of national state apparatuses that have been penetrated and transformed by transnational forces; and (5) the appearance of novel transna tional r elations of inequality and domination in global society . These propositions are laid out most succinctly in Robinson (2004a, 2008: Ch. 1) and are fundamentally at odds with the constitutive assumptions of world-systems theory . 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B io gra p hic a l n o te William I Robinson is Professor of Sociology , Global Studies and Latin American Studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara. His most recent book is Latin America and Global Capitalism: A Critical Globalization Perspective (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).

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